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1434 (P.S.) [Kindle Edition]

Gavin Menzies
3.5 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (126 customer reviews)

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Book Description

The New York Times bestselling author of 1421 offers another stunning reappraisal of history, presenting compelling new evidence that traces the roots of the European Renaissance to Chinese exploration in the fifteenth century

The brilliance of the Renaissance laid the foundation of the modern world. Textbooks tell us that it came about as a result of a rediscovery of the ideas and ideals of classical Greece and Rome. But now bestselling historian Gavin Menzies makes the startling argument that in the year 1434, China—then the world's most technologically advanced civilization—provided the spark that set the European Renaissance ablaze. From that date onward, Europeans embraced Chinese intellectual ideas, discoveries, and inventions, all of which form the basis of western civilization today.

Florence and Venice of the early fifteenth century were hubs of world trade, attracting traders from across the globe. Based on years of research, this marvelous history argues that a Chinese fleet—official ambassadors of the emperor—arrived in Tuscany in 1434, where they were received by Pope Eugenius IV in Florence. The delegation presented the influential pope with a wealth of Chinese learning from a diverse range of fields: art, geography (including world maps that were passed on to Christopher Columbus and Ferdinand Magellan), astronomy, mathematics, printing, architecture, steel manufacturing, military weaponry, and more. This vast treasure trove of knowledge spread across Europe, igniting the legendary inventiveness of the Renaissance, including the work of such geniuses as da Vinci, Copernicus, Galileo, and more.

In 1434, Gavin Menzies combines this long-overdue historical reexamination with the excitement of an investigative adventure. He brings the reader aboard the remarkable Chinese fleet as it sails from China to Cairo and Florence, and then back across the world. Erudite and brilliantly reasoned, 1434 will change the way we see ourselves, our history, and our world.

Editorial Reviews

From Publishers Weekly

In Menzies's 1421, the amateur historian advanced a highly controversial hypothesis, that the Chinese discovered America; in this follow-up, he credits the Renaissance not to classical Greek and Roman ideals (a "Eurocentric view of history") but again to the Chinese. His thesis in both works is based on the seven (historically undisputed) voyages undertaken by a large Chinese sailing fleet between 1405 and 1433; while it is known that they traveled as far as east Africa, Menzies believes that they landed in Italy and sent a delegation to the Council of Venice, held in Florence in 1439. There, they provided the knowledge and technique-introducing the painter Alberti, for instance, to the methods of perspective drawing-that sparked the Renaissance. Menzies sets the stage by recapitulating arguments from his first book, including the ingenious method for calculating longitude that Chinese navigators may have used. Though Menzies writes engagingly, his assumption that the Chinese fleet landed a delegation in Florence is highly speculative, and hardly substantiated by any facts (Alberti could just have easily learned perspective from classical sources; the Greeks knew about the relationship between perception of length and distance in the 1st Century BCE).
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

From Booklist

In his earlier book, 1421: The Year China Discovered America (2002), Menzies, a former British Royal Navy submarine commander, asserted that a mighty Chinese fleet commanded by the eunuch Zheng visited North America. The book generated considerable interest and a cult following among laymen, but professional historians in both China and the West largely dismissed his claims. Now Menzies, still the provocateur, insists that a Chinese fleet visited Italy and imparted the wisdom of the highly advanced Chinese civilization, thus sparking the explosion of scientific inquiry and creativity during the Renaissance. As scholarly history, this work is weak. Menzies takes fragmentary evidence and blows it up into “without a doubt” conclusions. Still, as a combination of nautical tall tale and historical speculation, this is a fun book. Menzies knows how to spin a yarn and does so in the manner of a good detective story. This isn’t serious history, but many will find it an enjoyable read. --Jay Freeman

Product Details

  • File Size: 2354 KB
  • Print Length: 416 pages
  • Publisher: HarperCollins e-books; Reprint edition (October 6, 2009)
  • Sold by: HarperCollins Publishers
  • Language: English
  • ASIN: B001A16X5E
  • Text-to-Speech: Enabled
  • X-Ray:
  • Lending: Not Enabled
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #68,177 Paid in Kindle Store (See Top 100 Paid in Kindle Store)
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Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews
503 of 547 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars The trilogy continues... June 5, 2008
By Ves
Another fantastic volume in Gavin Menzies's trilogy, "The Fifteenth Century: When China Discovered the Universe". Volume 2, "1434: The Year a Magnificent Chinese Fleet Sailed to Italy and Ignited the Renaissance" follows Menzies's successful and enlightening Volume 1, "1421: The Year China Discovered America". Menzies fans are looking forward to next year's equally profitable final Volume 3 of the trilogy, "1438: The Year China Launched the First Manned Rocket to Mars". Who says history can't be fun...

A comment upon the above review asked for more specifics on my attitude toward Menzies, so...

I'll make a few more comments:

The issues with Menzies are twofold. First, there are many contemporary Chinese descriptions of these voyages which Menzies ignores, all of which describe the voyages (including the 1421 sixth voyage) as being confined to the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. Second, Menzies just invents out of his imagination events and descriptions and evidence that have no relevance to reality. Hence, his many scholarly detractors.

Zheng He himself in 1431, prior to his seventh and last voyage, left us two engraved inscriptions (at Liujiagang and Changle) that describe the first six voyages, and which describe the 1421 voyage as only delivering ambassadors back to their home countries (such as Hormuz) and returning to China with their tribute in local products. Nine years after the end of the 6th voyage, he knew of nothing extraordinary that took place on any of the 1421 voyages.
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165 of 185 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars 1434 Exposed July 5, 2008
Gavin Menzies' foolish and ridiculous book 1434 claims that a Chinese fleet sailed to Italy and gave the Europeans knowledge which started the Renaissance.
This statement is false.

Allow us to examine several major items of knowledge originated in China and found later in the West. In no case was the knowledge transmitted in 1434.
This information is from Temple's The Genius of China, cited by mangy Menzies as a source but apparently unread by him.
The stirrup was invented in the third century CE and was introduced into the Byzantine Empire in 580. Not in 1434.

Porcelain was invented in China in the third century CE and was independently re-invented in England by Josiah Wedgewood in the eighteenth century. Not in 1434.

Printing was invented in China in the eighth century and was introduced into Europe before the middle of the fourteenth century, not in 1434. Gutenberg did begin to use movable type in 1458, but it did not appear in Italy first, but in Germany; there is no indication of its transmission from a visiting Chinese embassy, as printing had been practiced for more than one hundred years already in Europe.

The idea of the circulation of the blood was brought to the Near East by al-Nafis and the works of this Arab were translated by Servetus, Renaldus Columbus and others, not working from information transmitted in 1434.

The compass was found in Europe by 1180, mentioned first, I believe, by Neckham. Not in 1434.

The rudder was invented in China in the first century CE and found in Europe by 1180, not transmitted in 1434.

The crossbow was invented in China, and was known to the Greeks by 397 BCE, not 1434 CE.

Gunpowder was known in China by the 800s CE, and in the West by the late 1100s, not 1434.

Therefore to claim that vast amounts of knowledge was transmitted all at once in one imaginary voyage is clearly false. Menzies should learn history.
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94 of 109 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars Life is too short July 8, 2008
I wish I had read a few of the reviews prior to purchasing this book. Regardless of whether you believe the author's theory or not, it's just not presented in an interesting or readable fashion. As a lover of history, particularly Renaissance Italy, I was intrigued by the notion that China had provided the spark. After slogging through dense, repetitive and just plain boring verbage, I found that my time could have been better spent elsewhere.
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31 of 35 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars Misleading at best January 30, 2010
There's no doubt that the Chinese made some amazing voyages in the 1400s. However, this book starts from there and takes a speculative leap. He asserts that Chinese ships visited Italy in 1434, bringing maps of the Americas and numerous other inventions, helping to start the Renaissance. I just don't see that Menzies' evidence supports his conclusions.

In many places the book seems simply sloppy. For example, in Chapter I Menzies says that the Forbidden City of Beijing built by Zhu Di still stands today. Only a few paragraphs later he says that the Forbidden City built by Zhu Di burned to the ground in 1421. I'm sure there's an explanation for this, but this sort of error doesn't incline me to trust Menzies' scholarship.

The book's constant instructions to check the author's website for more information are very annoying. If Menzies has evidence, why not present it?

Menzies believes that the Chinese explorers knew how to calculate longitude at sea from the stars. He also says they knew in 1384 that the sun was the center of the solar system and moves in an ellipse. This strikes me as very doubtful indeed, the more so as Menzies gives very little evidence for it. Of course it's theoretically possible that they might have calculated longitude at sea, but that's a long way from saying that this was a common practice. The calculations involved are formidable.

Menzies believes that the Chinese fleet passed from the Red Sea to the Nile through a canal. My understanding of this is that a shallow canal pre-dating the Suez canal may have existed at various times, starting in antiquity. The older canal may have been usable only at flood times; at any rate, it seems to have frequently silted up and been abandoned for centuries at a time.
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Most Recent Customer Reviews
3.0 out of 5 stars Well written, but of dubious historical value. The ...
Well written, but of dubious historical value. The premise is based on fiction, not fact and loses it believability in the process.
Published 4 days ago by Ray Storey
1.0 out of 5 stars One Star
if you make searches on the net you will find out why the book is pure fiction.
Published 11 days ago by peter hannenov
1.0 out of 5 stars Gavin Menzies is either having a great L. Ron Hubbard style laugh
Trash history... This is only "real" history if you believe in alternate theory, conspiracy theory, or alien/UFO history. Gavin Menzies is either having a great L. Read more
Published 14 days ago by craig meeks
4.0 out of 5 stars Another good one from Menzies
His writing style suffers from repetition. However, there is much new material and great perspective in this tome. Great if you are into history or not.
Published 22 days ago by JOEL SPENCE
4.0 out of 5 stars Theories on the Possibilities
I read 1421 and bought 1434 awhile ago. I couldn't get past the first few chapters. It took a recent vacation with a new tablet to get me back into it. Read more
Published 1 month ago by Jas
5.0 out of 5 stars excellent
what a book. It is so amazing what they accomplished so early in history. Well worth the time to read.
Published 2 months ago by Robert Moran
4.0 out of 5 stars New insights into world discovery.
Book is very detailed and tends to be a little tedious. The evidence presented is excellent and this viewpoint is certainly valid and should be widely disseminated. Read more
Published 3 months ago by Ricardo A. Silva
4.0 out of 5 stars Not the whole apple
This was a Christmas present to my husband. He says"I just finished reading 1431 and jumped right into 1434 and was expecting the same new and exciting things. Read more
Published 3 months ago by Mary A Preston
5.0 out of 5 stars Wow - this will shed a new light on things you thought you knew...
This is the third book I've read about early sailing history and the many wonderful things the Chinese discovered and invented. Read more
Published 4 months ago by Travlin' Easy
1.0 out of 5 stars dry. poorly written...and questionable facts
The book was hard to get through, not only dry, but not well written. After reading a few reviews on line, it seems that no historian agrees with the authors conclusions. Read more
Published 5 months ago by J. Voigt
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More About the Author

GAVIN MENZIES was born in 1937 and lived in China for two years before World War II. He joined the Royal Navy in 1953 and served in submarines from 1959 to 1970. In the course of researching 1421, he visited 120 countries, over 900 museums and libraries, and every major sea port of the late Middle Ages. He is married with two daughters and lives in North London.

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