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Abdülhamid II1842-1918: An entry from Macmillan Reference USA's Encyclopedia of Western Colonialism since 1450 [HTML] [Digital]

Gökhan Çetinsaya

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Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

Ottoman sultan (r. 1876–1909). The reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II began on August 31, 1876, during a period of profound crisis for the Ottoman Empire. In 1878 the sultan inaugurated a new course in domestic and foreign policies that had a lasting impact on the history of modern Turkey and the Middle East. Abdülhamid's prime foreign policy objective was to defend the empire's independence and territorial integrity....

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