This project will use the Allied landings at Anzio during World War II as a historical case study to analyze the importance and complexities of building coherent strategic direction in coalition warfare, as well as relate the conclusions to recent operations in Libya and discuss implications for Coalition Force Commanders in the future. Joint doctrine states that strategic direction leads to unified action; strategic direction translated into commander’s intent at the operational and tactical level of war leads to unified action. When strategic direction is not conveyed in commander’s intent, lives are put at risk and operations are often derailed. The complex nature of coalition operations demands that the Coalition Force Commander clearly understand higher commander’s intent, and convey that intent to the tactical level of war. Moreover, this effort is difficult when coalition members have divergent strategic end states and desires. The battle at Anzio and NATO operations in Libya provide excellent examples of diverse and sometimes conflicting national desires within coalitions, and are instructive to senior leaders who must formulate strategic direction and subordinate commander’s intent in this challenging multinational environment.