Bas Jan Ader
was born in Winschoten, the Netherlands in 1942. He taught at various institutions after graduating from the Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles in 1965, including the University of California, Irvine. The 1975 work, part two in a performance piece titled "In Search of the Miraculous," is his most influential performance piece that continues to provoke debate; Ader attempted a singlehanded west-east crossing of the Atlantic Ocean. The boat was found wrecked but the artist's body has never been recovered.Carl Andre
was born in Quincy, Massachusetts in 1953. In 1957 he moved to New York, where he began to create wooden sculptures. In the 1960s, he became a key figure in the Minimalist movement and started to write concrete poetry. Retrospectives of the artist's work have been held at the Guggenheim Museum, New York and Laguna Gloria Art Museum, Austin.
Belgian painter, sculptor, printmaker, draftsman, filmmaker and poet, Marcel Broodthaers
was born in Brussels in 1924. With no artistic training, he turned to visual art in 1964 as an ironic gesture, and spent the 11 remaining years before his death in 1976 establishing himself, in more than 70 one-man exhibitions, as an artist of influential attitude and approach.Daniel Buren
was born in 1938 in Paris.
Born in 1941 in Fort Wayne, Indiana, Bruce Nauman
has been recognized since the early 1970s as one of the most innovative and provocative of America's contemporary artists. Nauman finds inspiration in the activities, speech, and materials of everyday life. Confronted with 'What to do' in his studio soon after graduating from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1964 with a BFA, and then the University of California, Davis in 1966 with an MFA, Nauman had the simple but profound realization that "if I was an artist and I was in the studio, then whatever I was doing in the studio must be art. At this point art became more of an activity and less of a product." Working in the diverse mediums of sculpture, video, film, printmaking, performance, and installation, Nauman concentrates less on the development of a characteristic style and more on the way in which a process or activity can transform or become a work of art. A survey of his diverse output demonstrates the alternately political, prosaic, spiritual, and crass methods by which Nauman examines life in all its gory details, mapping the human arc between life and death. The text from an early neon work proclaims: "The true artist helps the world by revealing mystic truths." Whether or not we--or even Nauman--agree with this statement, the underlying subtext of the piece emphasizes the way in which the audience, artist and culture at large are involved in the resonance a work of art will ultimately have. Nauman lives in New Mexico.Robert Smithson
was born in 1938 in Passaic, New Jersey. Best known for his provocative earthwork Spiral Jetty, made in 1970, Smithson's work continues to be exhibited in museums both nationally and internationally. He is featured prominently in major museum collections such as The Museum of Modern Art, New York, the Guggenheim Museum, New York, and The National Museum of Contemporary Art, Oslo. Smithson died in 1973.Lawrence Weiner
was born in 1942 in the Bronx, New York. Upon graduating from high school, he worked in a variety of jobs--on an oil tanker, on docks, and unloading railroad cars--and then traveled throughout North America before returning to New York, where he exhibited at the Seth Siegelaub Gallery in 1964 and 1965. Since the 1970s, wall installations consisting solely of words in a nondescript lettering have been a primary medium for Weiner. Solo exhibitions of his work have been mounted at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden in Washington, D.C., ICA London, Dia Center for the Arts in New York, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, and the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, among others. Weiner lives in New York and Amsterdam.Gilbert & George
live and work together in London's Spitalfields neighborhood. Their solo exhibitions have appeared at Tate Modern, the Musee d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris and the Guggenheim Museum, New York.
Art historian Camiel van Winkel
was born in The Hague, the Netherlands in 1964. He publishes critical essays regularly in international magazines and journals, and he is the author of The Modern Void: on Art and the Public Condition
, published in 2000.Rudi Fuchs
is a writer, art historian and curator, and was formerly Director of the Stedelijk Museum in Amsterdam.