In this book, noted educators Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick define and describe 16 types of intelligent behavior that they call "habits of mind." These habits of mind can aid both students and adults in school and in everyday life as they encounter problems, dilemmas, and enigmas, the resolutions of which are not immediately apparent.
The habits are rooted in a modern view of intelligence that casts off traditional abilities-centered theories. Costa and Kallick maintain that a critical attribute of intelligence is not only having information but also knowing how to act on it. The habits of mind that contribute to this intelligence are:
- Managing impulsivity
- Listening with understanding and empathy
- Thinking flexibly
- Thinking about thinking (metacognition)
- Striving for accuracy
- Questioning and posing problems
- Applying past knowledge to new situations
- Thinking and communicating with clarity and precision
- Gathering data through all senses
- Creating, imagining, innovating
- Responding with wonderment and awe
- Taking responsible risks
- Finding humor
- Thinking interdependently
- Remaining open to continuous learning
"Discovering and Exploring Habits of Mind" is the first of a four-book series. Subsequent volumes will explore instructional strategies for teaching the habits at school and at home; assessment of the habits; and descriptions from schools, teachers, and administrators about how they have incorporated the habits of mind into their work.
Other contributors to Book 1 are Shari Tishman and Marian Leibowitz. David Perkins's Series Foreword introduces the four-book series, Habits of Mind: A Developmental Series.