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The Engine of Reason, The Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain [Paperback]

Paul M. Churchland
3.9 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (17 customer reviews)


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Book Description

August 1, 1996 0262531429 978-0262531429

A new picture of the mind is emerging, and explanations now exist for what has so long seemed mysterious. This real understanding of how the biological brain works -- of how we work -- has generated a mood of excitement that is shared in a half-dozen intersecting disciplines. Philosopher Paul Churchland, who is widely known as a gifted teacher and expository writer, explains these scientific developments in a simple, authoritative, and pictorial fashion. He not only opens the door into the ongoing research of the neurobiological and connectionist communities but goes further, probing the social and moral dimensions of recent experimental results that assign consciousness to all but the very simplest forms of animals.In a fast-paced, entertaining narrative, replete with examples and numerous explanatory illustrations, Churchland brings together an exceptionally broad range of intellectual issues. He summarizes new results from neuroscience and recent work with artificial neural networks that together suggest a unified set of answers to questions about how the brain actually works; how it sustains a thinking, feeling, dreaming self; and how it sustains a self-conscious person.Churchland first explains the science -- the powerful role of vector coding in sensory representation and pattern recognition, artificial neural networks that imitate parts of the brain, recurrent networks, neural representation of the social world, and diagnostic technologies and therapies for the brain in trouble. He then explores the far-reaching consequences of the current neurocomputational understanding of mind for our philosophical convictions, and for our social, moral, legal, medical, and personal lives.Churchland's wry wit and skillful teaching style are evident throughout. He introduces the remarkable representational power of a single human brain, for instance, via a captivating brain/World-Trade-Tower TV screen analogy. "Who can be watching this pixilated show?" Churchland queries; the answer is a provocative "no one." And he has included a folded stereoscopic viewer, attached to the inside back cover of the book, that readers can use to participate directly in several revealing experiments concerning stereo vision.A Bradford Book



Editorial Reviews

Review

"... The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soul [is] a veryimportant book full of tantalizing and astute observations andinsights about consciousness, thinking and thought. Its sweepencompasses morality, politics, the arts, education, penology,psychiatry and the very nature of freedom itself. This is a bookto be reckoned with." Los Angeles Times



"Paul Churchland's The Engine of Reason, the Seat of the Soulis an outstanding philosophical achievement, integrating artificialintelligence, brain neurology, cognitive psychology, ethnology,epistemology, scientific method, and even ethics and aesthetics,into an interlocking whole." W.V. Quine, Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University

About the Author

Paul M. Churchland is Professor of Philosophy and a member of the Cognitive Science Faculty at the University of California at San Diego.

Product Details

  • Series: Bradford Books
  • Paperback: 344 pages
  • Publisher: The MIT Press (August 1, 1996)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0262531429
  • ISBN-13: 978-0262531429
  • Product Dimensions: 0.7 x 7 x 9.7 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 1 pounds
  • Average Customer Review: 3.9 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (17 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #1,300,140 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

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Customer Reviews

3.9 out of 5 stars
(17)
3.9 out of 5 stars
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews
23 of 26 people found the following review helpful
2.0 out of 5 stars Regretfully Disappointed June 7, 2000
By A Customer
Format:Paperback
Churchland is a great philosopher who has made many significant contributions to the study of the mind. Unfortunately, most of those contributions lie in his papers, other books, and works co-authored with his wife, Patricia Churchland. "The Engine of Reason..." is aimed for the 'popular science' crowd, and it is a wonderful introduction to vector coding and some introductory neuroscience. But it is surprisingly weak in philosophical arguments. It really reads like a light, scientific textbook, and the bulk of it consists of oversimplified explanations which rely too heavily on scientific findings that aren't thoroughly established yet. He is extremely unfair towards philosophers who aren't eliminative materialists (like Searle, Nagel, etc.), and he spends literally no time refuting their arguments. Instead he bullies the reader into believing that the above writers must hold some antiquated Cartesian view which relies too heavily on intuition. He knows he has science on his side and is rather insulting towards philosophers, making them look like idiotic armchair scientists. While unfortunately philosophers are notorious for that fault, they also ask some pretty good questions and make you think. Churchland does neither in this book. This book is a real good starter for vector coding and neuroscience. But for 'popular science' that's scientific but extremely philosophical, I haven't found anything yet that beats Daniel Dennett's Consciousness Explained. For a good refutation of Searle, Nagel and the rest, read their own works and don't just listen to the brief overview Churchland gives.
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13 of 16 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Great philosophy, effortless to read August 12, 1999
Format:Paperback
I've not come across a more sensible and lucidly written philosophy book. The author loves and deeply believes in science. He shows to my satisfaction that the hard sciences can answer many humanities questions or make them clearly pointless. The chapters on vector processing are still not quite as scientific as the author would like them to be, but the book overall has significantly improved my understanding and appreciation of human and mammalian minds. Since Amazon doesn't do it, here is the table of contents: (1) The little computer that could: the biological brain, (2) Sensory representation: the incredible power of vector coding, (3) Vector processing: how it works and why it is essential, (4) Artificial neural networks: imitating parts of the brain, (5) Recurrent networks: the conquest of time, (6) The neural representation of the social world, (7) The brain in trouble: cognitive dysfunction and mental illness, (8) The puzzle of consciousness, (9) Could an electronic machine be conscious?, (10) Consequences for language, science, politics and art, (11) Neurotechnology and human life. Looking at the Index at the back, the entry that occurs on the most pages in the book is "prototype" which in this book means pretty much the same as what some other authors call a paradigm.
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4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Excellent expression of ultimately false views July 7, 2009
By dcleve
Format:Paperback
Paul and Patricia Churchland are the leading advocates of the ¡§it really isn¡¦t anything¡¨ branch of materialist views of consciousness. They assert that one need only investigate how the sensing, processing, and reactions are generated by our brains, and this provides a full description of consciousness. They do not use the label, but they are behaviorists.

While I consider this approach very wrongheaded, Paul Churchland¡¦s detailed presentation of this idea is an insightful work of a keen intellect, and I learned a great deal from him about brain function.

What he discusses are the characteristics of neural networks. Neural networks are distributed analog processing nets, where multiple layers of inputs, secondary, tertiary, and quadrenary nodes are linked, and the interaction strengths of these linkages are adjusted in order to perform a task. Such networks have been shown to be quicker and more accurate than algorithmic programs in doing things like facial recognition, linguistic grammar checking, and most of the other discrimination functions we do. They are also tolerant to incomplete input data, and fault tolerant to loss of some nodes and connections. Since this is how the brain is actually wired, he considers the strengths of these networks to be of tremendous relevance to brain studies ¡V much more relevant than the behavior of linear computers with CPUs.

Basic neural nets have no time-functional behavior, but he points out that if the processed states form middle and upper tiers are fed back into the net as part of the input data, then such nets become capable of periodic state behavior, such as the pattern of activation of muscles in a walking or running leg.
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6 of 7 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Exciting and Eminently Readable August 31, 2002
Format:Paperback
I can't evaluate the neurobiology in the book since I'm no scientist, but Churchland's entirely accessible discussions of vector coding, feed-forward and recurrent networks, and the general landscape of contemporary neuroscience were exhilarating to read. They made me want to rush out and buy textbooks on the brain--a pretty impressive achievement, as far as I'm concerned.
Churchland's philosophical perspective, as anyone familiar with his work will expect, is thoroughly naturalistic. He has very little patience with anti-reductive arguments, and the three he discusses (Nagel's, Jackson's, and Searle's) receive straw-man treatments, though like everything else in the book, each treatment is good-natured and fairly humble. Readers already lacking tolerance for Searle will enjoy Churchland's caricature of The Rediscovery of Mind as a Betty Crocker cookbook.
Though his explicit discussion of anti-reductionism is sparse, the rest of Churchland's book serves as a demonstration of how much exciting work can be done if we simply ignore armchair naysaying. So I was more bothered by his lack of engagement with philosophers already on the elimintivist bandwagon. His discussion of Dennett, in particular, was cursory and frustrating. It seems to me that he conflates Dennett's distinct accounts of consciousness and content, needlessly (and in the relevant sense inaccurately) portraying Dennett as being a friend of robust human uniqueness.
But quibbles aside, the book is a fantastic read. Its optimistic view of the possibilities of computational neuroscience is infectious. Anyone without ideological blinders on will come away excited about the future of brain research.
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Most Recent Customer Reviews
5.0 out of 5 stars AN EXPLORATION OF THE CONSEQUENCES FOR US OF THE NEW NEUROSCIENCE
Paul Churchland (born 1942) is Professor Emeritus at UC San Diego; he has written many other books such as A Neurocomputational Perspective: The Nature of Mind and the Structure of... Read more
Published 13 months ago by Steven H. Propp
5.0 out of 5 stars Excellent
Excellent book, Paul Churchland's explanation is extremely clear and he makes the subject come alive. Read more
Published on December 5, 2011 by Rajini
4.0 out of 5 stars Specialist/Generalist
I think this book is filled with the content for a specialist cognitive oriented crowd, but written for a generalist audience. Read more
Published on November 15, 2010 by Stephen Pellerine
3.0 out of 5 stars Good for beginners, dull for veterans
This book presents a fun and casual introduction to artificial neural networks. (Although, for an introductory book on the subject with more beef, I recommend K. Read more
Published on February 21, 2008 by Trenton F. Schirmer
3.0 out of 5 stars The connectionist dream
This book is the hallmark of the connectionist dream -the belief that all aspects of mind, brain and consciousness can be explained by calling up neural network models-. Read more
Published on March 13, 2002 by Carlos Camara
4.0 out of 5 stars Good Intro to Neural Nets and Its Consequences
The book comes in two parts. The part one, which takes up more than a half of the whole book, explains what recurrent neural networks are and how those can be used to explain our... Read more
Published on August 25, 2000 by Jihwan Myung
1.0 out of 5 stars Surprisingly lacking in real content
From the description of it, this book falls right within my field of interest. However, it completely failed to even hold my attention. It is superficial in many respects. Read more
Published on October 25, 1999
2.0 out of 5 stars say what?
This book tells us how heated and extravagant delusions can get when the deluded happens to be a combination of philosopher and cognitive scientist. Read more
Published on October 17, 1999
5.0 out of 5 stars a compelling case for eliminative materialism
this is truly a fantastic book. churchland presents his ideas clearly while introducing us to fascinating new results from research with artificial neural networks, which make a... Read more
Published on September 15, 1999
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