Start reading Expected Returns on the free Kindle Reading App or on your Kindle in under a minute. Don't have a Kindle? Get your Kindle here.

Deliver to your Kindle or other device

Enter a promotion code
or gift card

Try it free

Sample the beginning of this book for free

Deliver to your Kindle or other device

Sorry, this item is not available in
Image not available for
Image not available

To view this video download Flash Player


Expected Returns: An Investor's Guide to Harvesting Market Rewards [Kindle Edition]

Antti Ilmanen , Clifford Asness
4.8 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (20 customer reviews)

Digital List Price: $85.00 What's this?
Print List Price: $85.00
Kindle Price: $48.49
You Save: $36.51 (43%)

Free Kindle Reading App Anybody can read Kindle books—even without a Kindle device—with the FREE Kindle app for smartphones, tablets and computers.

To get the free app, enter your email address or mobile phone number.


Amazon Price New from Used from
Kindle Edition $48.49  
Hardcover $52.32  
Hero Quick Promo
12 Days of Kindle Book Deals
Load your library with Amazon's editors' picks, $2.99 or less each today only. Learn more

Book Description

This comprehensive reference delivers a toolkit for harvesting market rewards from a wide range of investments. Written by a world-renowned industry expert, the reference discusses how to forecast returns under different parameters. Expected returns of major asset classes, investment strategies, and the effects of underlying risk factors such as growth, inflation, liquidity, and different risk perspectives, are also explained. Judging expected returns requires balancing historical returns with both theoretical considerations and current market conditions. Expected Returns provides extensive empirical evidence, surveys of risk-based and behavioral theories, and practical insights.

Editorial Reviews


'...insightful and wonderfully lucid book'. (Economist, April 2011).

From the Inside Flap

For any investor, understanding the expected rewards that markets offer is central to long-term investment success. The traditional paradigm for assessing expected returns has focussed on historical performance and asset class management. However, Antti Ilmanen contends that this approach to investment decision-making is too narrow in its asset class focus and in the inputs used for assessing expected returns. He challenges investors to broaden their perspectives in two ways:
  • Excess returns should be harvested from diverse sources. Strategy styles and risk factors, as well as asset classes, are sources of return, thus warranting three-dimensional analysis of investments.
  • Any investment's return prospects should be judged in a way that incorporates all knowledge, including historical experience, financial and behavioral theories, and current market conditions, without being overly dependent on any one of these.

Beginning with comprehensive introduction and overview, Expected Returns goes on to analyze the historical record, give a roadmap of terminology, explore rational and behavioral theories, and look at alternative interpretations for return predictability. A series of case studies provide detailed analysis of assets (equity, bond and credit risk premia, as well as alternative asset classes), dynamic strategy styles (value, carry, momentum, volatility) and underlying risk factors (growth, inflation, liquidity and tail risks), before moving back to broader themes, including time-varying expected returns, and seasonal, cyclical and secular return patterns.

Concluding with a series of investment lessons, Expected Returns is the complete guide for the long-term investor, providing wide-ranging empirical evidence, and a platform for forecasting the expected returns of an investment portfolio for asset allocation and portfolio balancing purposes

 "Job one for any investor is to estimate asset class returns. For the first time, Antti Ilmanen has assembled into one volume all of the tools necessary for this task: for the working money manager, a unique treasure trove of analytical techniques and empirical evidence; for the academic, a comprehensive guide to the relevant academic literature; and for the consultant, a blinding light with which to illuminate performance. Expected Returns is destined to occupy the front shelves of investment professionals around the world."
William J. Bernstein, author of The Intelligent Asset Allocator, The Birth of Plenty, and A Splendid Exchange, and co-principal of Efficient Frontier Advisors

"Antti's synthesis of experience and theory has given us a book which fills a major gap in the literature on investing. Amazing, but true, this is the first book dedicated to the critical and challenging task of estimating how much we should expect to earn on our investments. This illuminating book, teaming with valuable insights that have never before been gathered under one roof, cannot fail to make the reader a more successful and discerning investor."
Victor Haghani, Associate Lecturer, London School of Economics, and former founding partner of LTCM

"Ilmanen has written a thorough and detailed analysis of one of the central issues in investing."
Ken French, Heidt Professor of Finance, Dartmouth College

"Investors' decisions should be evidence based. Antti Ilmanen assembles a global body of evidence, and interprets it with insight. Read this book and you will improve your understanding of the future."
Elroy Dimson, Emeritus Professor of Finance, London Business School

"If I could choose only one book on active management, I would choose Expected Returns. This book is extremely thorough and well researched, yet direct and to the point."
Roger G. Ibbotson, Professor in the Practice of Finance, Yale School of Management, and Chairman and CIO of Zebra Capital Management  

Product Details

  • File Size: 7396 KB
  • Print Length: 593 pages
  • Page Numbers Source ISBN: 1119990726
  • Publisher: Wiley; 1 edition (April 20, 2011)
  • Sold by: Amazon Digital Services, Inc.
  • Language: English
  • ASIN: B004YK0JLW
  • Text-to-Speech: Enabled
  • X-Ray:
  • Word Wise: Not Enabled
  • Lending: Enabled
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #289,032 Paid in Kindle Store (See Top 100 Paid in Kindle Store)
  •  Would you like to give feedback on images?

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews
35 of 38 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Another Book Review from the Aleph Blog August 12, 2011
How do we estimate what returns are reasonable to expect? Most investment counselors fall back on easy rules of thumb, but is there a way of doing better?

In this book, the author takes academic research on investment returns, and tries to make it practical. What are the main findings of the book?

Momentum works.
Value works.
Illiquid assets can work very well if you have a balance sheet that can hold them.
Carry strategies work most of the time, but when they fail, they fail big. Same for strategies that sell volatility.

The book does a very good job in establishing that the excess returns of stocks over bonds are a lot lower than most believe. It also supports the idea that moderate risk taking is the superior strategy. Those that take high risks lose too often. Those who take no risk don't make anything significant. Moderate risk-taking is the sweet spot.

One of the strengths of the book is that it considers almost all assets, and analyzes how many factors affect those asset classes. The book is comprehensive; it covers everything, even if it is only an inch deep in spots.

I liked this book a lot, but it's not for everyone. You won't find a lot of difficult math here, but you will find a lot of numbers.


I don't agree with the idea of levering up low risk assets. Yes, if you are the only one doing it, fine, be a non-regulated pseudo-bank. The trouble comes when many do it. Eventually a liquidity crisis hits, and those levering up low risk assets get hosed.

The same is true of university endowments.
Read more ›
Comment | 
Was this review helpful to you?
16 of 16 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The most valuable book for a professional investor August 23, 2011
This book is causing me to change my approach to investing much more than any other book has. It is essential reading for any professional investor.

The foreword starts by describing Ilmanen as insane, and that sounds like a good description of how much effort was needed to write it.

Amateur investors will have trouble understanding it - if you're not familiar with Sharpe ratios, you should expect to spend a lot of time looking elsewhere for descriptions of many concepts that the book uses. I had a few problems understanding the book - he uses the term information ratio on page 188, but doesn't explain it until page 491 (and it's not indexed). I was also somewhat suspicious about how he handled data mining (overfitting) concerns in momentum strategies until I found a decent answer in a non-obvious place (page 404).

The most important benefit of this book is that he has put a lot of thought into identifying which questions investors should be trying to answer. Questions such as whether past performance is a good indicator of future returns, and what would cause a pattern of superior returns to persist or vanish.

Some other interesting topics:

why it's important to distinguish between different types of undiversifiable risk, and how to diversify your strategies so that the timing of losses aren't highly correlated across those strategies.

why earnings per share growth has been and probably will continue to be below GDP growth, contrary to what most forecasts suggest.

how to estimate the premium associated with illiquidity.

why it's useful to look at changes in correlations between equities.
Read more ›
Comment | 
Was this review helpful to you?
27 of 31 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Unexpected Insights from a highly respected Expert ! April 16, 2011
Format:Hardcover|Verified Purchase
The author Antti Ilmanen has completed a truly monumental task - compiling his knowledge about return expectations from years as a highly respected investment strategist on Wall Street with his expert knowledge of academic finance research. After starting at the Finnish Central Bank as a fixed income fund mamanger and asset allocation professional, he fulfilled his desire to pursue finance research full time with a PhD in Finance at the University Chicago's GSB. Having published his PhD thesis in the Journal of Finance, he joined Salomon Brothers as a global fixed income strategist at first in New York and subsequently in both London & Frankfurt. He is currently at a well-known major hedge fund in London. Despite his passion for the Chicago brand of finance, he has never lost sight of his conviction that asset returns vary through time, not the least because expected returns are changing when passing through the stages of business cycles - which makes them partially predictable. Therefore, rather than engaging in a windmill fight about efficient markets, he has strived to understand what economic forces are driving these changes, and with what kind of strategies that knowledge can be utilized to manage money. His brand new book is the result of that long and very succesful pursuit. The foreword by AQR's Cliff Asness will give you also some humorous aspects of Antti's passion to improve his and our knowledge as I could never convey it. And I agree with Cliff that it is your loss, if you don't take the time to read this book, especially if you are interested in a broad spectrum of asset classes to invest in: the author goes beyond global bonds and equities to include commodities, private equity, hedge funds and real estate. The book is now available in the US, and I am recommending it highly!
Comment | 
Was this review helpful to you?
Most Recent Customer Reviews
5.0 out of 5 stars Not for beginners, and very long term focused.
It's an extremely valuable book. It takes a look at very long term investing strategies and shows you what some of the main factors are that influence your returns. Read more
Published 5 days ago by S. Turner
5.0 out of 5 stars A must read
Antti has delivered a one stop shop of any one wanting to understand the expected returns to an amazingly wide range of assets and strategies. Read more
Published 9 months ago by J. C. Montier
4.0 out of 5 stars technical but brilliant
Very technical but good information. A hard but valuable intellectual book. Look closely at table of contents before purchasing. Thanks to the authors for all their research
Published 10 months ago by edr
5.0 out of 5 stars A backbone book for anyone interested in the financial markets.
Ilmanen hits a home run with his book. I have owned it for a year now, and I still find myself going back to it every now and then. Read more
Published 13 months ago by Antti Nikkanen
5.0 out of 5 stars Handbook for the portfolio strategist
Impressive book with the empirical horsepower of Ibbotson/Brinson, or Dimson/Marsh/Staunton, coupled with the experienced observation of a practitioner. Read more
Published 14 months ago by Cgg2nd
5.0 out of 5 stars my new bible on asset management
absolutely a buy! i think that this book offers a really wide and exceptional view and review of every major and minor topic linked to asset classes. Read more
Published 16 months ago by francesco
5.0 out of 5 stars Readers will be greatly rewarded
This is a magnificent book. It's also absolutely massive, 500+ pages totally stuffed with information. Read more
Published 23 months ago by investingbythebooks
5.0 out of 5 stars Excellent material for those who spend at least 15 hours per week...
Wiley Finance titles are really hit and miss since they seem to publish all manuscripts that are sent to them. Here is my take on the current book

Author. Read more
Published on October 28, 2012 by Jackal
5.0 out of 5 stars How did one person write this book?
This book is a phenomenal tour-de-force of academic research into the financial markets over the last several decades. Read more
Published on October 16, 2012 by Gregory Fodor
5.0 out of 5 stars Please don't read this book!
I wish Ilmanen hadn't written this. It's too useful to the general population. Fortunately, the general population won't recognize what a gem this work is.
Published on August 24, 2012 by Prosumer21
Search Customer Reviews
Search these reviews only

More About the Author

Discover books, learn about writers, read author blogs, and more.


There are no discussions about this product yet.
Be the first to discuss this product with the community.
Start a new discussion
First post:
Prompts for sign-in

Look for Similar Items by Category