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Field and Wave Electromagnetics (2nd Edition) Paperback – January 11, 1989

ISBN-13: 978-0201128192 ISBN-10: 0201128195 Edition: 2nd

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Product Details

  • Paperback: 703 pages
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley; 2nd edition (January 11, 1989)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0201128195
  • ISBN-13: 978-0201128192
  • Product Dimensions: 1.3 x 7.5 x 9.3 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 2.8 pounds (View shipping rates and policies)
  • Average Customer Review: 4.4 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (32 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #98,404 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

Editorial Reviews

From the Back Cover

Respected for its accuracy, its smooth and logical flow of ideas, and its clear presentation, Field and Wave Electromagnetics has become an established textbook in the field of electromagnetics. This book builds the electromagnetic model using an axiomatic approach in steps: first for static electric fields, then for static magnetic fields, and finally for time-varying fields leading to Maxwell's equations. This approach results in an organized and systematic development of the subject matter. Applications of derived relations to fundamental phenomena and electromagnetic technologies are explained.

Back Cover

Field and Wave Electromagnetics, Second Edition features many examples of practical applications to give students an excellent physical -- as well as mathematical -- understanding of important concepts. These include applications drawn from important new areas of technology such as optical fibers, radome design, satellite communication, and microstrip lines. There is also added coverage of several new topics, including Hall effect, radar equation and scattering cross section, transients in transmission lines, waveguides and circular cavity resonators, wave propagation in the ionosphere, and helical antennas. New exercises, new problems, and many worked-out examples make this complex material more accessible to students.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

The many books on introductory electromagnetics can be roughly divided into two main groups. The first group takes the traditional development: starting with the experimental laws, generalizing them in steps, and finally synthesizing them in the form of Maxwell's equations. This is an inductive approach. The second group takes the axiomatic development: starting with Maxwell's equations, identifying each with the appropriate experimental law, and specializing the general equations to static and time-varying situations for analysis. This is a deductive approach. A few books begin with a treatment of the special theory of relativity and develop all of electromagnetic theory from Coulomb's law of force; but this approach requires the discussion and understanding of the special theory of relativity first and is perhaps best suited for a course at an advanced level.

Proponents of the traditional development argue that it is the way electromagnetic theory was unraveled historically (from special experimental laws to Maxwell's equations), and that it is easier for the students to follow than the other methods. I feel, however, that the way a body of knowledge was unraveled is not necessarily the best way to teach the subject to students. The topics tend to be fragmented and cannot take full advantage of the conciseness of vector calculus. Students are puzzled at, and often form a mental block to, the subsequent introduction of gradient, divergence, and curl operations. As a process for formulating an electromagnetic model, this approach lacks cohesiveness and elegance.

The axiomatic development usually begins with the set of four Maxwell's equations, either in differential or in integral from, as fundamental postulates. These are equations of considerable complexity and are difficult to master. They are likely to cause consternation and resistance in students who are hit with all of them at the beginning of a book. Alert students will wonder about the meaning of the field vectors and about the necessity and sufficiency of these general equations. At the final stage students tend to be confused about the concepts of the electromagnetic model, and they are not yet comfortable with the associated mathematical manipulations. In any case, the general Maxwell's equations are soon simplified to apply to static fields, which allow the consideration of electrostatic fields and magnetostatic fields separately. Why then should the entire set of four Maxwell's equations be introduced at the outset?

It may be argued that Coulomb's law, though based on experimental evidence, is in fact also a postulate. Consider the two stipulations of Coulomb's law: that the charged bodies are very small compared with their distance of separation, and that the force between the charged bodies is inversely proportional to the square of their distance. The question arises regarding the first stipulation: How small must the charged bodies be in order to be considered "very small" compared with their distance? In practice the charged bodies cannot be of vanishing sizes (ideal point charges), and there is difficulty in determining the "true" distance between two bodies of finite dimensions. For given body sizes the relative accuracy in distance measurements is better when the separation is larger. However, practical considerations (weakness of force, existence of extraneous charged bodies, etc.) restrict the usable distance of separation in the laboratory, and experimental inaccuracies cannot be entirely avoided. This leads to a more important question concerning the inverse-square relation of the second stipulation. Even if the charged bodies were of vanishing sizes, experimental measurements could not be of an infinite accuracy no matte how skillful and careful an experimenter was. How then was it possible for Coulomb to know that the force was exactly inversely proportional to the square (not the 2.000001th or the 1.999999th power) of the distance of separation? This question cannot be answered from an experimental viewpoint because it is not likely that during Coulomb's time experiments could have been accurate to the seventh place. We must therefore conclude that Coulomb's law is itself a postulate and that it is a law of nature discovered and assumed on the basis of his experiments of a limited accuracy (see Section 3.2).

This book builds the electromagnetic model using an axiomatic approach in steps: first for static electric fields (Chapter 3), then for static magnetic fields (Chapter 6), and finally for time-varying fields leading to Maxwell's equations (Chapter 7). The mathematical basis for each step is Helmholtz's theorem, which states that a vector field is determined to within an additive constant if both its divergence and its curl are specified everywhere. Thus, for the development of the electrostatic model in free space, it is only necessary to define a single vector (namely, the electric field intensity E) by specifying its divergence and its curl as postulates. All other relations in electrostatics for free space, including Coulomb's law and Gauss's law, can be derived from the two rather simple postulates. Relations in materials media can be developed through the concept of equivalent charge distributions of polarized dielectrics.

Similarly, for the magnetostatic model in free space it is necessary to define only a single magnetic flux density vector B by specifying its divergence and its curl as postulates; all other formulas can be derived from these two postulates. Relations in material media can be developed through the concept of equivalent current densities. Of course, the validity of the postulates lies in their ability to yield results that conform with experimental evidence.

For time-varying fields, the electric and magnetic field intensities are coupled. The curl E postulate for the electrostatic model must be modified to conform with Faraday's law. In addition, the curl B postulate for the mangetostatic model must also be modified in order to be consistent with the equation of continuity. We have, then, the four Maxwell's equations that constitute the electromagnetic model. I believe that this gradual development of the electromagnetic model based on Helmholtz's theorem is novel, systematic, pedagogically sound, and more easily accepted by students.

In the presentation of the material, I strive for lucidity and unity, and for smooth and logical flow of ideas. Many worked-out examples are included to emphasize fundamental concepts and to illustrate methods for solving typical problems. Applications of derived relations to useful technologies (such as ink-jet printers, lightning arresters, electret microphones, cable design, multiconductor systems, electrostatic shielding, Doppler radar, random design, Polaroid filters, satellite communication systems, optical fibers, and microstrip lines) are discussed. Review questions appear at the end of each chapter to test the students' retention and understanding of the essential material in the chapter. The problems in each chapter are designed to reinforce sturdents' comprehension of the interrelationships between the different quantities in the formulas, and to extend their ability of applying the formulas to solve practical problems. In teaching, I have found the review questions a particularly useful device to stimulate students' interest and to keep them alert in class.

Besides the fundamentals of electromagnetic fields, this book also covers the theory and applications of transmission lines, waveguides, and cavity resonators, and antennas and radiating systems. The fundamental concepts and the governing theory of electromagnetism do not change with the introduction of new electromagnetic devices. Ample reasons and incentives for learning the fundamental principles of electromagnetic are given in Section 1.1. I hope that the contents of this book, strengthened by the novel approach, will provide students with a secure and sufficient background for understanding and analyzing basic electromagnetic phenomena as well as prepare them for more advanced subjects in electromagnetic theory.

There is enough material in this book for a two-semester sequence of courses. Chapters 1 through 7 contain the material on fields, and Chapters 8 through 11 on waves and applications. In schools where there is only a one-semester course on electromagnetics, Chapters 1 through 7, plus the first four sections of Chapter 8 would provide a good foundation on fields and an introduction of waves in unbounded media. The remaining material would serve as a useful reference boon on applications or as a textbook for a follow-up elective course. Schools on a quarter system could adjust the material to be covered in accordance with the total number of hours assigned to the subject of electromagnetics. Of course, individual instructors have the prerogative to emphasize and expand certain topics, and to deemphasize or delete certain others.

I have given considerable thought to the advisability of including computer programs for the solution of some problems, but have finally decided against it. diverting students' attention and effort tot numerical methods and computer software would distract them from concentrating on learning the fundamentals of electromagnetism. Where appropriate, the dependence of important results on the value of a parameter is stressed by curves; field distributions and antenna patterns are illustrated by graphs; and typical mode patters in waveguides are plotted. The computer programs for obtaining these curves, graphs, and mode patterns are not always simple. Students in science and engineering are required to acquire a facility of using computers; but the inclusion of some cookbook-style computer programs in a book on the fundamental principles of electromagnetic fields and waves would appear to contribute little to the understanding of the subject matter.

This book was first published in 1983. Favorable reactions and friendly encouragement from professors and students have provided me with the impetus to come out with a new edition. In this second edition I have added many new topics. These include Hall effect, d-c motors, transformers, eddy current, energy-transport velocity for wide-band signals in waveguides, radar equation and scattering cross section, transients in transmission lines, Bessel functions, circular waveguides and circular cavity resonators, waveguide discontinuities, wave propagation in ionosphere and newer earth's surface, helical antennas, log-periodic dipole arrays, and antenna effective length and effective area. The total number of problems has been expanded by about 35 percent.

The Addison-Wesley Publishing Company has decided to make this second edition a two-color book. I think the readers will agree that the book is handsomely produced. I would like to take this opportunity to express my appreciation to all the people on the editorial, production, and marketing staff who provided help in bringing out this new edition. In particular, I wish to thank Thomas Robbins, Barbara Rifkind, Karen Myer, Joseph K. Vetere, and Katherine Harutunian.

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Customer Reviews

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If you want to master undergraduate electromagnetics, you should have the 6 books!.
Srikumar Sandeep
Most of the books get a newer version just because the author added several exercise problems to the book.
The best approach is to get a few good books on the subject rather than rely on one book.
Amazon Customer

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

65 of 66 people found the following review helpful By Amazon Customer on December 12, 2001
Format: Paperback
Electromagnetism is a hard subject for many people, including myself. The best approach is to get a few good books on the subject rather than rely on one book. After doing a survey, I finally bought the following books suitable for my level: (i) Introductory Electromagnetics by Popovic and Popovic; (ii) Field and Wave Electromagnetics by Cheng; (iii) Electromagnetics with Applications by Kraus; (iv) Schaums Outline of Electromagnetics by Edminister. I give five stars to all these books. (There is another book which I will not review or identify, because it turned out to be unsatisfactory.)
I am reviewing these four books in one go because they are interrelated. Each of these book is strong in its own unique area.
Introductory Electromagnetics by Popovic and Popovic is the best of these book for gaining an intuitive understanding of the difficult subject of electromagnetism. Its clarity and elegance reminds me of Feynman's Lectures in Physics. Every chapter is a work of inspiration. The carefully chosen examples are designed to impart understanding of electromagnetic principles rather than calculation skills. The book is excellent for those who are new to the subject. It is also excellent for those who have already learned some electromagnetics, but who feel that their understanding is still shaky.
Field and Wave Electromagnetics by Cheng is the best of these books in terms of the mathematical development of electromagnetics. Although this approach may seem difficult at first glance, ironically the mathematical rigour makes the subject much easier to grasp. That is because mathematical precision goes a long way towards illuminating subtle principles of electromagnetism.
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14 of 14 people found the following review helpful By H.- K. Chai on May 29, 2000
Format: Paperback
I had this book as my text book in Purdue University. Frankly speaking, most people will have no clue what it is talking after reading it for the first time because this book describes electromagnetism more from a mathematical point of view. From the start it just throws hypothesis, derivations and formulae to the reader and there are few examples, therefore readers without adequate and solid background in maths(especially in vector calculus) will be quickly confused by this book and lose the big picture. This book serves nicely as a reference but if you are not that familiar in this field, I would recommend other books. One of them is 'electromagnetics' by Kraus which is not as mathematical rigorous as this book, but more readable.
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7 of 7 people found the following review helpful By I. Chiang on April 28, 2007
Format: Paperback
This is the textbook for my sophomore electromagnetics in the electrical engineering. I have to admit I really hated this class then. One is that there are equations here and there and it usually clouds the issue. Another reason is that the author uses the deduction method to describe this topic. It is quite different from the traditional way which goes following the historical developments.

For some reasons, I need to refresh electromagnetics in later years. I re-studied this book and then found it written pretty well this time. It is well-organized and systematic. One weak spot is the explanation for physics. I think it should be made better so that it is easier for readers to absorb the knowledge instead of confused by those mathematical equations.

This book is rather classic, which means it stays at the balance of electromagnetic statics and dynamics. Many recent electromagnetic textbooks are more focused on electromagnetic waves at the expense of the electromagnetic statics. I don't think this is a wise decision since electromagnetic statics is still very important in the real world applications, for example RF IC design.

This book is published almost 20 years ago. But don't regard it as out of date. Based on my acamedic and industrial experience, it is still the best engineering electromagnetic textbook for undergraduates.
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7 of 7 people found the following review helpful By Jack Flinsbaugh on April 10, 2006
Format: Paperback
While I took Electromagnetic Fields I & II courses using the first and last half of this text, I also purchased other solutions manuals and texts to survive. This was, to me, by far the most clearly written and well-presented text.

16 years after having taken the course, I'm doing a cover-to-cover review of this book and given my industry experience I appreciate the excellence of this book even more. The downside to using it is that I've found a real difficulty in locating the Solutions Manual, leaving me to use others where there's always changes in variables, ordering, and approaches which build in inefficiencies/overhead.
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6 of 6 people found the following review helpful By Ted Shane on February 6, 2000
Format: Paperback
This book takes an axiomatic approach. It states mathematical postulates of EM theory and goes on to develop results. Overall, the presentation is very nice, with plenty of examples to illustrate what's going on. It covers a wealth of material, from basic electro/magneto-statics to waves, antennas, transmission lines, etc.. and can be used as a reference. The only drawback--it lacks those lively, exciting example problems you find in a general physics book. This is not a big deal, but would be nice to have. They sometimes help illustrate concepts more clearly.
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10 of 12 people found the following review helpful By Ryanov on December 18, 2002
Format: Paperback
Although this is my favorite exposition of fields and waves, Cheng sort of violates what he set out to do. This text is supposed to proceed more logically than others, yet it provides no basis for the basic postulates he introduces. He describes the postulates with one sentence, provides no motivation for them, and does not even describe any experimental basis for them. This is in stark contrast to other books. Also, he incorrectly treats the Lorentz condition from a logical point of view. The Lorentz condition is what helps link electromagnetic fields with electromagnetic waves travelling through space in the time-varying case. Cheng simply states the Lorentz condition because it simplifies another equation for potentials and says that we are at liberty to specify the equation because it contains the divergence of a variable whose curl is already specified earlier; and specifying both the divergence and curl of a vector field uniquely defines the field. This is abrupt, arbitrary reasoning with almost no motivation behind it. He should have at least stated where the Lorentz condition really comes from -- from the theory of relativity and its relation to electromagnetic fields. This would be a more lucid and correct way of linking electromagnetic fields to electromagnetic waves. Besides these shortcomings, this book is unique and excellent overall. For the serious student of electromagnetics, applied scientists, and engineers I recommend getting this book along with Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering by Wolf and Electromagnetic Fields and Waves by Lorrain and Corson; Lorrain and Corson's text correctly treats the Lorentz condition and derives it using the theory of relativity. These three texts, when first supplanted by a course in electromagnetism at a reasonable level, will leave one ready for any new encounters in this field, research or applied.
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