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Funding Science in America: Congress, Universities, and the Politics of the Academic Pork Barrel Paperback – December 14, 2000

ISBN-13: 978-0521794619 ISBN-10: 0521794617 Edition: 1st

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Editorial Reviews

Review

"...covers the debate objectively and well, including the value-laden terms of equity versus quality and the alleged biases on each side (the traditional 'have-nots' and the elitist `haves'). The author complements his prose nicely with valuable tables and references, and he has turned a potentially boring issue into an informative, well-written intrigue about how Washington works that deserves to be read, studied, and quoted. Recommended for public, academic, and professional collections." Choice

"James D. Savage, a political scientist and a scholar of public policy at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, tells the fascinating story of academic earmarking in his book. Funding Science in America is accessible and highly readable because Savage tells much of the story by way of the key actors in the drama. And so I can say without qualification that Savage has put the story together brilliantly. He has described the rise of pork barrel science funding accurately and comprehensively, and he is fair in his discussion of the various players, their motives and their incentives." The Sciences

"Savage is now and associate professor at the University of Virginia, and his well-traveled resume includes work on earmarking and other issues with several congressional support agencies: the Congressional Research Service, the former Office of Technology Assessment, and the General Accounting Office. That worldly, inside-the beltway experience combined with an equally impressive resume as a scholar results in a book that is fair, thorough, and well-researched." Norman Metzger, Issues in Science and Technology

"...this book is not a polemic. It presents a clear and balanced explanation of why earmarking occurs and what motivates the university presidents, congressional appropriators, and private lobbyists who make it happen. This book deserves to reach a wide audience of scientist and science policy analysts, elected officials and their staff, lobbyists, and the general public...a lively story, even humorous in parts, about a hot and continuing power struggle involving some of America's most imporant politicians and university presidents." George L. Leventhal, BioScience

"This book will undoubtedly be the definitive work of this era on the subject of earmarking...this is a fine book for anyone interested in the field, and one which students of American politics or the politics of the scientific enterprise can read with interest and profit." John S. Jackson, Public Budgeting & Finance

"...this book makes a valuable contribution to the literature on distributive politics in Congress. No doubt, students and scholars of congressional politics will enjoy the many narrative descriptions detailing the fate of various earmarks and the coalitions constructed to support and oppose them, particularly Savage's memorable account of Sen. Robert C. Byrd's battle with lobbyists over earmarkds Por West Virginia University. In addition, anyone concerned with the controversies and substantive policy issues in funding scientific research in the U.S. will find this book indispensible." Congress & The Presidency

"James Savage, now a professor of political science at the University of Virginia, was himself involved in the fray for a time as a staff member in the Office of the President of the University of California. He has written what is surely the definitive book on the subject. In doing so, he has performed a valuable service to the cause of understanding Congress, universities, and the way science policy is made - and not made - in America. As President of the Association of American Universities from 1983 until 1993, I was deeply involved in this issue, and I can confirm that Savage has pretty much got it right." Journal of Politics

"[This book] presents a clear and balanced expanation of why earmarking occurs and what motivates the university presidents, congressional appropriators, and private lobbyists who make it happen." BioScience

"James D. Savage has written an important and interesting book on the political struggle to determine the mechanism used to allocate federal funding supporting research in American colleges and universities.... A readable and thorough treatment of an important science policy question, this book offers an excellent case study of the collective problem in policy making." Southeastern Political Review

"Tho book is well grounded in social science theory, but it is alson rich with detail and alive with the realities of Washington politics...a must read for anyone who wants to understand government-university relations in the contemporary political environment." uTech & Culture Jul. 01

Book Description

Since the 1950s, the federal government has relied on the peer review system for funding academic science. Peer review, however, is under attack for being a biased system that helps rich research universities get richer. As a remedy for these biases, university presidents and members of Congress have turned to the earmarking of science projects and facilities in the federal budget. Funding Science in America explores both the pros and the cons of the academic earmarking issue and explains why this issue has caused a rift within the nation's science community. Savage analyzes the earmarking decision of both university presidents and members of Congress and identifies those universities that have benefited most from earmarking.

More About the Author

Hello. I am Professor of Politics at the University of Virginia, where I have taught since 1990. I grew up in California, and I received my PhD in Political Science, an MA in Economics, and an MPP in Public Policy from the University of California at Berkeley.

My website is: http://politics.virginia.edu/people/jds2y/

My research interests lie in the of fields of public policy, budgeting, and economic policy. More specifically, my research crosses several fields and aims to be as interdisciplinary as possible, drawing from political science, economics, history, and psychology. My work falls into several related areas: the politics of ideas, how institutions change, science policy,and the politics of government finance.

I have written four books on American and comparative budgeting and fiscal policy: 1) Balanced Budgets and American Politics1; 2) Funding Science in America: Congress, Universities and the Politics of the Academic Porkbarrel; 3) Making the EMU: The Politics of Budgetary Surveillance and the Enforcement of Maastricht; and 4) Reconstructing Iraq's Budgetary Institutions: Coalition State Building after Saddam. The common thread connecting these books together is that budgeting and budgetary policies are deeply influenced by and reflect the contest over ideas and values.

The first book explores the origins of the idea of balancing budgets and its effect on American politics, fiscal policies, and institutional development from 1690 through the Reagan presidency. The book argues that the idea of balancing the budget is fundamentally rooted in American political thought that can be tied, for example, to the political differences that divided the Jeffersonians and the Hamiltonians.

The second book analyzes the politics of congressional earmarking in the federal budget for universities and colleges. This book explores how the idea of peer review of federal research funding is violated by universities that engage in earmarking.

The third book examines how the enforcement of the Maastricht Treaty's budgetary rules played a critical role in the creation of the European Union's Economic and Monetary Union and the later enforcement of the Stability and Growth Pact.

The last book argues that consistent with the literature on state building, failed states, and foreign assistance, budgeting is a core state function that is necessary for the operations of a functional government. Employing an historical institutionalist approach, the book first explores the Ottoman, British, and Ba'athist origins of Iraq's budgetary institutions. The book next examines American prewar planning, the Coalition Provisional Authority's rule making and budgeting following the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and the mixed success of the American-led Coalition's capacity building programs initiated throughout the occupation.


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