About the Author
Bruce A. Black
completed his B.S. at Columbia University, his S.M. at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and his Ph.D. at the University of California at Berkeley, all in electrical engineering. Since 1983 he has been on the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute, Indiana, where he has been advisor to Tau Beta Pi and is advisor to the Amateur Radio club (W9NAA). His interests are in communications, wireless systems, and signal processing. He has developed a variety of courses and laboratories in the signal processing and communications areas, including a junior-level laboratory in communication systems and a senior elective in wireless systems. In 2004 he was named Wireless Educator of the Year by the Global Wireless Education Consortium. He is a member of Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Sigma Xi.Philip S. DiPiazza
received a B.E.E from Manhattan College in 1964, an M.E. in electrical engineering from New York University in 1965, and a Ph.D. (electrical engineering) from the Polytechnic Institute of New York in 1976. His career spans more than 40 years of professional experience in industry, academe, and private practice. During the first ten years of his career, he was a systems engineer engaged in the development of advanced airborne radar systems at the Norden Division of United Technologies. He joined Bell Laboratories (AT&T) in 1977, where, as a systems engineer and technical manager, he was engaged in the development of cellular mobile telephone (AMPS) and later wireless PBX systems. Dr. DiPiazza was responsible for the system integration and test of the first North American deployment of AMPS. SInce retiring from AT&T Labs in 1998, he has served as an industry management consultant, Executive Director at Rutgers WINLAB, and Vice President and General Manager of the Melbourne Division of SAFCO Technologies, Inc. As a Visiting Professor at the Florida Institute of Technology, he was founding director for its Wireless Center of Excellence and developed graduate programs in wireless. He is currently an Adjunct Professor at the Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and a Senior Consultant with Award Solutions, Inc. Dr. DiPiazza is an advisor and member of the Global Wireless Educational Consortium and a member of the IEEE.Bruce A. Ferguson
received the B.S., M.S., and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana in 1987, 1988, and 1992 respectively. He is currently a Communication System Engineer with Northrop Grumman Space Technology. He has worked with space and ground communication systems and photonics at TRW Space and Electronics (now NGST), and taught at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology and The University of Portland in Oregon. Dr. Ferguson is a member Eta Kappa Nu and IEEE.David R. Voltmer
received degrees from Iowa State University (B.S.), University of Southern California (M.S.), and The Ohio State University (Ph.D.), all in electrical engineering. During nearly four decades of teaching, Dr. Voltmer has maintained a technical focus in electromagnetics, microwaves, and antennas. His more recent efforts are directed toward the design process and project courses. He has served in many offices of the ERM division of ASEE and in FIE. Dr. Voltmer is an ASEE Fellow and a Life Senior member of IEEE.Frederick C. Berry
received the B.S., M.S., and D.E. degrees from Louisiana Tech University in 1981, 1983, and 1988 respectively. He taught in the Electrical Engineering Department at Louisiana Tech University from 1982 to 1995. Currently Dr. Berry is Professor and Head of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology. In 2007 he became Executive Director of the Global Wireless Education Consortium. He is a member of Tau Beta Pi, Eta Kappa Nu, and Sigma Xi.
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This text is intended to provide a senior undergraduate student in electrical or computer engineering with a systems-engineering perspective on the design and analysis of a wireless communication system. The focus of the text is on cellular telephone systems, as these systems are familiar to students; rich enough to encompass a variety of propagation issues, modulation techniques, and access schemes; and narrow enough to be treated meaningfully in a text that supports a single course. The presentation is limited to what cellular systems engineers call the "air interface" and what network engineers call the "physical layer."
The presentation is unique in a number of ways. First, it is aimed at undergraduate students, whereas most other textbooks written about wireless systems are intended for students either at the graduate level or at the community college level. In particular, the presentation combines a clear narrative with examples showing how theoretical principles are applied in system design. The text is based on ten years' experience in teaching wireless systems to electrical and computer engineering seniors. The lessons learned from their questions and responses have guided its development. The text not only presents the basic theory but also develops a coherent, integrated view of cellular systems that will motivate the undergraduate student to stay engaged and learn more.
Second, the text is written from a systems-engineering perspective. In this context a "system" comprises many parts, whose properties can be traded off against one another to provide the best possible service at an acceptable cost. A system with the complexity of a cellular network can be designed and implemented only by a team of component specialists whose skills complement one another. Top-level design is the responsibility of systems engineers who can translate market requirements into technical specifications, who can identify and resolve performance trade-off issues, and who can set subsystem requirements that "flow down" to the subsystem designers. The text introduces students to the concept that specialists from a wide range of engineering disciplines come together to develop a complex system. Theory and contemporary practice are developed in the context of a problem-solving discipline in which a divide-andconquer approach is used to allocate top-level functional system requirements to lower-level subsystems. Standard analysis results are developed and presented to students in a way that shows how a systems engineer can use these results as a starting point in designing an optimized system. Thus an overlying systems-engineering theme ties together a wide variety of technical principles and analytical techniques.
This text comprises eight chapters. An introductory chapter sets out the systems-engineering story. Chapters 2 and 3 introduce the air interface by considering how to provide enough power over a wide enough area to support reliable communication. Chapter 2 introduces the free-space range equation and thermal noise. On completing this chapter, students should be aware of the dependence of received power on range and of the role of noise in determining how much power is enough for quality reception. Chapter 3 introduces the terrestrial channel and its impairments, including the effects of shadowing and multipath reception. Next, Chapter 4 introduces the principle of frequency reuse and the resulting cellular system structure. The goal of this chapter is to show how a communication system can be extended to provide service over a virtually unlimited area to a virtually unlimited number of subscribers.
Once a power link is established, information must be encoded to propagate effectively over that link. Chapter 5 introduces modulation. The emphasis is on digital techniques common to cellular systems. Of particular interest are frequency efficiency, power efficiency and bit error rate, bandwidth, and adjacent-channel interference. Chapter 5 also introduces spread-spectrum modulation, emphasizing the ability of spread-spectrum systems to provide robust communication in the presence of narrowband interference and frequency-selective fading. On completion of Chapter 5, students will have an appreciation of the factors involved in designing a point-to-point data link between a single transmitter and a single receiver. Chapter 6 introduces methods for multiple access, including FDMA, TDMA, and an introduction to CDMA. The ability of spread-spectrum systems to support multiple users over a single channel is emphasized.
Wireless systems carry information from a wide variety of sources, from speech to music to video to short text messages to Internet pages. When digitized, information from various sources produces data streams with differing properties. Further, subscribers apply different criteria to assessing the quality of different kinds of received information. Chapter 7 distinguishes streaming from bursty information streams. As second- and subsequent-generation cellular systems are highly dependent on effective use of speech compression, examples are given showing traditional digitization of speech and a brief introduction to linear predictive coding. Chapter 7 concludes with presentations of convolutional coding for error control and the Viterbi decoding algorithm. The systems-engineering story is pulled together in Chapter 8.
This text has been written to support a one-term senior elective course. It is assumed that students taking the course will have completed conventional courses in signals and systems and an introduction to communication systems. The signals and systems background should include a thorough introduction to the Fourier transform. It is also assumed that readers of the text will have completed an introductory course in probability, including coverage of probability density functions, expectations, and exposure to several conventional probability distributions. The material included in this text should be more than sufficient to support a one-semester course. At Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology the book is used to support a one-quarter course that includes four instructional meetings per week for ten weeks. The course covers all of Chapter 2, selections from Chapter 3, all of Chapter 4, and most of Chapter 5. The CDMA material from Chapter 6 is included as time permits.