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110 of 116 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Blind Justice? - an eye-opening discussion
Michael Sandel's discussion of Justice begins and ends with what he believes are the three main views on what Justice is or rather what it should promote: the maximum good to the largest possible number of people, individual freedom or encourage the collective virtues and the development of harmonious and enlightened communities (who wouldn't?)?.

Sandel's...
Published on October 7, 2009 by A. Dent

versus
56 of 65 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Basci basic intro to moral theory
Some other reviews say it better, but the book, in my opinion, is an introduction and conversation-starter to the topics of Justice and Morality rather than a definitive work.

The big plus of the work is that his writing style is *very* easy to read and the issues he brings up are both current and relevant. It is easy to apply the issues in a practical way as...
Published on January 14, 2010 by Stephen Kirby


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110 of 116 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Blind Justice? - an eye-opening discussion, October 7, 2009
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Michael Sandel's discussion of Justice begins and ends with what he believes are the three main views on what Justice is or rather what it should promote: the maximum good to the largest possible number of people, individual freedom or encourage the collective virtues and the development of harmonious and enlightened communities (who wouldn't?)?.

Sandel's discussion, based on a popular course he teaches at Harvard, mixes a pretty good dose of 'history of political philosophy' with an interesting selection of hypothetical and real life 'cases', meant to stimulate thinking and understanding of the difficulties one faces when one's mission is to distribute 'justice'.

Is affirmative action justified as a criterion for college admission? Are the handicapped entitled to jobs their handicaps prevent them from performing well? Are abortions 'murder' or an expression of free choice? Should the State get out of the 'marriage' business altogether? Is it okay to kill and eat a sick boy about to die anyway if that would save the lives of three men? These are some of the dilemmas Sandel presents his students. And, for context - or is this the true purpose of the course? - he presents a summary of what he considers to be some of the more prominent thinking on the matters of morality and justice: the Utilitarians, Kant, Aristotle, John Rawls.

The journey ends with an attempt to answer the initial question: what is Justice for? And, now, that we better understand the main arguments and their proponents and we saw how they applied in 'real life', Sandel is ready to reveal his preference. He rejects Justice as a means to maximize the collective welfare because there's no way to accurately measure happiness and because not everything that gives us pleasure is worth pursuing or even 'good'. He dismisses the libertarian view of Justice as defender of our freedoms and individual rights because we are a society, not isolated individuals and because there are moral standards that are imposed by society on us. He supports a Justice that promotes a community where Virtue is celebrated, where civilized debate is possible, where good people and good deeds are recognized, and honor rewarded. Who wouldn't?

I found the history part of the course to be the most interesting. The author's deep understanding of the philosophers and thinkers he covers gives him the ability to present them to the students in a manner that's succinct and interesting without missing the essence. His presentation of Kant and Aristotle are among the best 'introductions' I've heard or read anywhere. While I respect the author's choice of what to cover and what not to, I feel that there were too many missing views if this was meant to be a brief history of moral thinking and political philosophy. There was nothing on the revolutionary, especially Marxist notions of class struggle and the class nature of morality. Nothing or very little on Religion and its views on morality and its role in enforcing it and dispensing Justice. Nothing on anything or anyone outside of what we usually call 'the Western world'. Were/are there any moral thinkers or political philosophers in China? India? I can think of a few. Nothing on nationalism, feminism or ethnocentrism and the way they view Justice.

The cases presented were by and large interesting even though, most of them being recent 'real-life' issues decided and settled by the courts or legislatures, the outcome was not a surprise and some of the arguments should be familiar. Almost with no exception, Sandel appears to be supporting the establishment's view, agreeing with the way all settled cases were settled and disagreeing with those who opposed the settlement and staying neutral and presenting 'both sides' on some issues not yet settled - abortion, same-sex marriage, stem cell research.

The course ends with the author's expressing a preference for a view of Justice as promoter and perhaps enforcer of the good, virtuous and communal life where the rich are happily sharing their bounty with the less fortunate who, far from resenting them, stay engaged in a civil, open and never-violent debate and dialogue on the good life and how to make it even better. If it sounds as an over-simplification it's probably because it is. We receive very few hints on how we can move from our current litigious, ethnocentric, highly income-polarized, over-materialistic, voluntarily segregated society to the ideal Polis that Plato, Aristotle and, with some adjustments, Sandel dream of.

I found this lecture worth listening to. Since this is only an abbreviation of the original book, it's possible that some of the aspects I found lacking in the audio version may not be so in the book but I am only reviewing the audio. I secretly wished that the professor jumped a little farther out of the academic and establishment-based thinking box and made the discussion a lot more challenging but it's possible that he decided to stay non-controversial, this being only an introductory course. My reservations notwithstanding, I would recommend this 5-CD audio book to anyone who has a few hours available for a little bit of intellectual workout. It's guaranteed not to hurt and it may help here and there.
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257 of 281 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The Best Book Ever for Practical Morality, September 22, 2009
By 
Herbert Gintis (Northampton, MA USA) - See all my reviews
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This book will not satisfy the elite of hair-splitting moral philosophers, but to my mind it is the best book I have ever seen explaining moral philosophy to neophytes. The examples come mostly from contemporary American social life and many are well-known in the literature. But many were new to me, and included some of the most morally conflictual issues I have ever encountered. I just cannot imagine a better way to present the content of modern moral philosophy to the world.

Michael Sandel is a quite famous political philosopher with a reputation for extreme adherence to a particular brand of community-oriented virtue theory that is critical of the two major traditions in moral philosophy---utilitarianism (Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Peter Singer) and deontology (Immanuel Kant, John Rawls). However, the reader will likely not discover this fact until the very end of the book, so even-handed and appreciative is Sandel of the alternative approaches. Indeed, the book is filled with the tension of a World Cup match, where the top players in the world are paraded before us in all their splendor, and where it is difficult to call any one a looser. This attitude contrasts sharply with the standard behavior of professional philosophers, who have hissy-fits when confronted with arguments with which they disagree (Sandel is capable of this as well, of course, but not in this elegant volume).

The most important thing the student learns from this book is that morality is for real, and leading a moral life is the highest goal to which we can aspire. I learned moral philosophy in an era dominated by the sort of analytical philosophy according to which moral statements are meaningless utterances, and moral behavior is irrational and constricting. At its best, I was taught that moral principles were an individual's private property, and were about as important as one's musical or artistic taste. For Sandel, morality is not an accoutrement of the genteel life, but is the source of all meaning in life, and he conveys this message to the reader without an ounce of preachiness or self-righteousness.

In his previous writings, Sandel has been a major critic of John Rawls's theory of justice, which has been the centerpiece of liberal democratic political philosophy for almost forty years. Rawls' embraces a Kantian ethic that extends the Categorical Imperative (do unto others...) in a way relevant to social policy and political philosophy. According to Rawls, we must erect social institutions using principles that we would individually be willing to accept if we were behind a "veil of ignorance" that prevented us from knowing what position we would hold in the resulting social order. He suggests two major principles. The first is the lexical priority of liberty, meaning that no social order has the right to constrain freedom in the name of some type of social engineering. The second is the principle that society should be organized so that the well-being of least well off is maximized. This leads to a radical egalitarianism in which the question of the justice of the distribution of wealth and income is the major moral issue in society. In particular, it leads to a hyper-individualism in which the moral principles of individuals is of no importance in their claim to a "just share" of the material wealth of society, and individuals are worthy of respect whatever they happen to choose as a way of life, provided they leave room for others to pursue their individual goals. Sandel rightly rejects this political philosophy on the grounds that by favoring "rights" over "the good," we necessarily degrade political democracy and republican virtues.

Sandel's alternative is to embrace a form of virtue ethics according to which the moral is what would be enacted by the virtuous individual, and we can tell what is virtuous by inspecting the character of human nature and the embeddedness of individuals in a close fabric of social life. The virtuous individual will "flourish" through acting in according with his or her highest nature, and immorality is a form of self-destruction brought on through ignorance or laziness.

The main thing missing from this book is an appreciation for the science of human morality. Humans make morality in the same sense that they make food, babies, art, music, and war. Sandel does not appear to realize that theories of morality should explain moral behavior, much as linguistics attempts to explain human verbal communication. Philosophers appear to have the idea that the philosophical "experts" have no more reason to study people's actual moral beliefs than physicists have to study folk-physics. This is a serious error, which leads philosophers to seek the "one true theory" from which all moral truths can be deduced. There is no "one true theory." All of the major branches of moral philosophy are represented in the everyday moralizing of people. Obligation, consideration of consequences, a sense of virtue, and even visceral feelings of cleanliness and propriety are all involved in how people make moral choices.

Because Sandel does not treat moral behavior as worthy of scientific study, he misses one major point about human morality: the strong underlying unity of moral sensibility across all societies and covering most social issues. The motivating force of Sandel's book is moral conflict, either in the form of an individual having to make choices that necessarily involve opting for the lesser evil (for instance, should soldiers kill an innocent shepherd to save the lives of nineteen patriotic soldiers, or should a living fetus be sacrificed to satisfy the preferences of the importuned mother), when in fact most major moral choices concern good versus evil, and what is considered good and evil is pretty much the same the world over. Everywhere, people cherish honesty, loyalty, hard-work, bravery, considerateness, trustworthiness, and charity. Similarly, everywhere people prefer insiders to outsiders, and take pleasure in hurting those who violate personal integrity or social rules. It is these moral values that have made humanity the imposing presence it has upon the planet, and if we are to survive into the future, it is these basic moral values, which are universal from small tribes of hunter-gathers to the vast populations of advanced technological society, that will provide the energy for the tasks that lie ahead of us.
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41 of 44 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars if you read one book about ethics this year, this better be the one, November 29, 2010
There has been much discussion lately about what science can tell us about ethics, much of it frankly misguided or downright bizarre. Science is indeed informing us on how we evolved a sense of right and wrong, and it is beginning to elucidate how the brain works when we make moral judgments (or fail to do so). As interesting as this is, it says nothing about ethical questions per se, no more than understanding the evolution and neurological bases of mathematical thinking tells us whether Fermat's theorem is correct or not. You will not find much science in Michael Sandel's book, but it will give you endless food for thought to deepen your understanding of ethics. The book covers all the major philosophical approaches to ethical theory, from deontology to consequentialism, from libertarianism to virtue ethics. While the author (like myself) favors a neo-Aristotelian virtue ethics, he provides an accessible yet sophisticated discussion of all approaches. Moreover, this isn't just theoretical philosophy. The book has a very applied bent (and no, applied philosophy is not an oxymoron), as each discussion is introduced by an actual example of a moral conundrum taken from everyday life or from well known cases in the news. We learn, for instance, that to make sense of disputes about the essence of cheerleading, or playing golf with the aid of a cart, one needs to examine Aristotle's concept of virtue and what sort of polity we wish our society to be (even the Supreme Court got into it!). In the book you will find insightful discussions of affirmative action and abortion, for instance, which may actually change your mind about those issues, or at the very least give you a more sophisticated understanding of the other side and why their position cannot be cavalierly dismissed. Philosophy at its best is about critical reflection on complex issues, and this book is a superb example of how it is done. If you will read only one book on this subject for a while, Sandel's ought to be the one.
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56 of 65 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Basci basic intro to moral theory, January 14, 2010
By 
Stephen Kirby (Missoula, MT USA) - See all my reviews
(REAL NAME)   
Some other reviews say it better, but the book, in my opinion, is an introduction and conversation-starter to the topics of Justice and Morality rather than a definitive work.

The big plus of the work is that his writing style is *very* easy to read and the issues he brings up are both current and relevant. It is easy to apply the issues in a practical way as he talks about them. some examples are military service, surrogate mothers, bailouts, and issues of religion in politics. Good stuff. Easy to get a reader engaged and discuss the underlying moral principles of the various points of view and how different principles result in different conclusions as to what to do in the various situations.

The down sides are his tendency to provide value judgments on everything he considers. "great thinker", "brilliant pilosophy"; each chapter comes across as a conclusion rather than a discussion. This may be intentional on the part of the author since it can be nice to be led to answer. However, in my opinion, that kind of hubris for any author, but particularly about a subject as difficult as this, just sends me through the roof.

If you are looking for a solid, engaging, introduction into the issues of morality, moral philosophy, and "justice" this may server as a fine work. It would also server as an excellent book as a seed for a book group, or any other group, that wants to discuss these issues. I do ask that the reader not take what is said as the final answer, but simply the authors introduction to the issues.

If you are looking for a more thorough analysis of the subject from a recent, and practical perspective, that is still readable, I would encourage you to look at works by Richard Posner.
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60 of 70 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Uses Reason to Confront America's Aristocracy, September 25, 2009
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Michael Sandel is a political philosopher, Harvard professor and perhaps National Treasure. His concern is achieving a just society and introducing notions about virtue and moral reflection into political debates. His philosophy lectures merited a 12-part TV series on PBS, but something quite serious seems to be in the works.

Forget about the tedium of philosophy classes - memorizing arguments of great philosophers and reproducing them in exams. This is different. If Sandel continues to gain access to the country through the national media, he might do for us what Socrates did for the ancient Greeks. He might succeed in making moral reflection a public endeavor, not a solitary activity. To him, a philosopher can be an interlocutor for the people. He and his students (disciples?) might shame our politicians into doing the right thing more often.

Justice, read by the author, starts out in a friendly manner with its first case being the price gouging for necessities in the aftermath of Hurricane Charlie. At the time, newspapers were filled with editorials on how price gauging is not wrong since there's no "just price" and supply and demand should be allowed free reign. Yet buyers in emergencies are under duress and thus not truly free. That's why we feel a sense of outrage. We learn that we share principles tracing back to famous dead philosophers.

By the middle of this audiobook, Sandel cuts close to the bone and you can see now why politicians would like to confine him to the lecture hall. He shows us that justice is inescapably judgmental and that today's political arguments are about anything but virtue. He wants philosophy to be used on economics, not just on matters of abortion and gay marriage. Sandel demonstrates that the growing inequality in the U.S. undermines the solidarity that a democracy requires.

Sandel points to the hollowing out of the public realm on which a democratic society depends. As public services decline and decline, as we let our common spaces for all but wealthy Americans deteriorate, we undermine our shared democratic citizenship.

Common spaces accessible by our democracy include public transportation, parks, schools, hospitals and health clinics, libraries, the news media and more. Much of the rest of public life has become overly market-based. We privatize prisons and contemplate a system of monetary rewards for teachers whose students achieve higher scores on state assessments. We've allowed a terrific gap in military service with a smaller percentage of our public officials having children in the military and serving in the wars than ever before. We load heavy burdens onto families of our troops without mercy. We gave tax cuts to the rich in time of war and were advised to go shopping. In all this, Sandel explains the schools of philosophical thought that provided the principles we adopted.

Sandel contrasts ancient theories of justice, concerned with virtue, with modern theories concerned with freedom. Yet we share beliefs about virtue. We just don't apply them to economics and politics as he advises. Our society has deep currents of moral convictions. Many of us were appalled that those on Wall Street didn't take responsibility or show some contrition for their actions that caused so much pain to Main Street. [...] These are issues that Sandel discusses. While popular with students, he's a scourge to those vested in the status quo.
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23 of 25 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Very good outline of ethical theories -- not critical enough of own view, January 12, 2011
By 
Matt Mitterko (Gainesville, FL) - See all my reviews
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This review is from: Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? (Paperback)
This book aims to provide an introductory outline of the major accounts of moral philosophy in the Western tradition, and it's very successful. Throughout the book, Sandel's writing engages the reader by using up-to-date examples of applied cases that demonstrate the strengths of each respective moral view, as well as why each particular view isn't fully successful. The major philosophical accounts he addressed (Utilitarianism, Libertarianism, Deontology, Virtue Ethics) are discussed in an order that gives the reader a sense of progress, as each view which is found to be inadequate has weaknesses that can be addressed by the presentation of the subsequent moral theory in the next chapter.

However, I was disappointed with the last two chapters, since the book first appeared to be an outline of an introductory ethics course (which is in fact what Sandel bases his book on). But as it went on, Sandel finally introduces part of his own view in the last 50 pages, and only explicitly states it in the last 10. His own view (i.e. communitarianism) is built upon some of the work he presents in the chapter on Aristotle, but it does not meet with the same critical analysis that the other traditional views are subject to. While I realize this book is written to address the major positions of moral philosophy in a non-academic format, I didn't find that he engaged his own position critically enough, given how careful the rest of the book was.
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8 of 8 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Well Balanced Lessons on Justice and Morality, October 6, 2009
By 
Myra "Ignolopi" (Salt Lake City, Utah, USA) - See all my reviews
(VINE VOICE)   
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Some time ago I read parts of Sandel's Justice: A Reader for a class, and I enjoyed the collection. Therefor I was happy to see that he'd written a book. I got it on CD so I could listen to it in the car to and from work, get my little grey cells working.

He covers several moral philosophies, including utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, and laissez-faire, to name a few.
I was happy with the variety of views. It was fascinating to learn the different ways morality was defined in each of the systems covered. To illustrate points and teach the systems better Sandel introduces moral puzzles, some of which you might be familiar with, like the hungry men on the lifeboat. I liked how he gives you the moral puzzle, shows you the moral questions involved, then changes the story slightly and asks you the same question again. It really helps you understand your morals personally, as well as understanding what the morals of others might be.

The first 3 discs (of 5) actually cover morality, rather than justice, which makes sense, since morals strongly influence justice and people's perception of justice. Something can be morally wrong but just or morally right but unjust. Like most elements of philosophy, it can get confusing, bringing you to the point where you just want to know what the answers are!!! But of course there aren't any easy answers. There is no universal answer. Utilitarians and Libertarians and Kant and Rawls might look at the same situation and not all see it as just. Such as the case of throwing Christians to the lions; which, under Utilitarian philosophy, is ok because it gives greater utility to the people enjoying the spectacle (who outnumber the Christians being slaughtered). A Libertarian would say 'forget the masses, the individual is more important'.

All in all, I highly recommend this book, and I'll probably listen to it twice so I can absorb all the knowledge. As well as giving you interesting puzzles to work out and think about, it's a good lesson on the philosophies that are all still popular today.
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6 of 6 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars philosophy 101, September 30, 2009
By 
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Michael Sandel teaches the "Justice" class at Harvard University, which is one of the most well attended classes at Harvard. This book (and the audio CD which I am reviewing) are essentially abridged versions of that class. This is essentially an introductory primer on philosophical discourse. Sandel discusses some of the basic theories of justice and ethics, covering utilitarianism, libertarianism, Aristotle's teleological reasoning, Immanuel Kant, and John Rawls. Sandel does a very good job of distilling these philosophies in a way that is easily understandable to a mass audience. While the Philosophy majors out there may find this approach to be simplistic, this is clearly not the intended audience for this book.

Sandel also goes over several contemporary debates (abortion, gay marriage, disability accommodations, affirmative action, etc.), and shows how these debates are, at their core, fundamental philosophical disagreements between dueling philosophical and moral frameworks. This is perhaps the most valuable part of the book, because it forces the audience to abandon the political rhetoric that surrounds these issues in contemporary culture, and instead think critically about these issues in light of deeper concerns.

Sandel is even-handed in his approach, and points out strengths and weaknesses in all of the ideas he presents without taking sides. It isn't until the end that he presents his personal philosophy.

My two major complaints are this - firstly that the audio CD which I listened to is abridged, and it seems that some very interesting debates are left out. (He mentions some of them in his conclusion). My second issue is that in some of the issues he discusses he does not delve into as much depth as I might have liked. Again though, this is clearly aimed at an audience that has little knowledge or exposure to the ideas it contains and should be considered an introductory text, not an advanced one. If you would like a fuller and more in-depth experience, the author has also turned his class into a series of videos complete with additional readings that can be accessed for free on the web at [...]
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11 of 13 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Uses Reason to Confront America's Aristocracy, September 25, 2009
Michael Sandel is a political philosopher, Harvard professor and perhaps National Treasure. His concern is achieving a just society and introducing notions about virtue and moral reflection into political debates. His philosophy lectures merited a 12-part TV series on PBS, but something quite serious seems to be in the works. I listened to the audiobook and have linked it below.

Forget about the tedium of philosophy classes - memorizing arguments of great philosophers and reproducing them in exams. This is different. If Sandel continues to gain access to the country through the national media, he might do for us what Socrates did for the ancient Greeks. He might succeed in making moral reflection a public endeavor, not a solitary activity. To him, a philosopher can be an interlocutor for the people. He and his students (disciples?) might shame our politicians into doing the right thing more often.

Justice starts out in a friendly manner with its first case being the price gouging for necessities in the aftermath of Hurricane Charlie. At the time, newspapers were filled with editorials on how price gouging is not wrong since there's no "just price" and supply and demand should be allowed free reign. Yet buyers in emergencies are under duress and thus not truly free. That's why we feel a sense of outrage. We learn that we share principles tracing back to famous dead philosophers.

By mid-book, Sandel cuts close to the bone and you can see now why politicians would want him confined to the lecture hall. He shows us that justice is inescapably judgmental and that today's political arguments are about anything but virtue. He wants philosophy to be used on economics, not just on matters of abortion and gay marriage. Sandel demonstrates that the growing inequality in the U.S. undermines the solidarity that a democracy requires.

Sandel points to the hollowing out of the public realm on which a democratic society depends. As public services decline and decline, as we let our common spaces for all but wealthy Americans deteriorate, we undermine our shared democratic citizenship.

Common spaces accessible by our democracy include public transportation, parks, schools, hospitals and health clinics, libraries, the news media and more. Much of public life has become overly market-based. We privatize prisons and contemplate a system of monetary rewards for teachers whose students achieve higher scores on state assessments. We've allowed a terrific gap in military service with a smaller percentage of our public officials having children in the military and serving in the wars than ever before. We load heavy burdens onto families of our troops without mercy. We gave tax cuts to the rich in time of war and were advised to go shopping. In all this, Sandel explains the schools of philosophical thought that provided the principles we adopted.

Sandel contrasts ancient theories of justice, concerned with virtue, with modern theories concerned with freedom. Yet we share beliefs about virtue. We just don't apply them to economics and politics as he advises. Our society has deep currents of moral convictions. Many of us were appalled that those on Wall Street didn't take responsibility or show some contrition for their actions that caused so much pain to Main Street. These are issues that Sandel discusses. While popular with students, he's a scourge to those vested in the status quo.

Link to audiobook which I listened to: Justice. I am partial to the audiobook because I would like to listen to it several more times over the next few years.
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6 of 6 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars 4.5 stars-Yes. Virtue Ethics is superior to utilitarianism and Kant's categorical Imperative, June 14, 2011
By 
Michael Emmett Brady "mandmbrady" (Bellflower, California ,United States) - See all my reviews
The author does an excellent job in demonstrating how dominant the act utilitarianism of Hobbes ,Locke,Bentham and the neoclassical economics of "modern" mainstream economists ( the goal of any and every society should be aimed at maximizing the pleasure(utility) of the greatest number) has become in modern societies.This dominance esentially leads to injustice.Hence ,the title of the book.Of course,justice is one of the four " pagan " virtues(the other three are courage,prudence and temperance).The author correctly shows how John Stuart Mill's rebellion against his father's Benthamite,act utilitarianism led to Mills' rule utilitarianism, which involves a complete rejection of the foundation of the Benthamite view that all pleasures and pains can be analyzed and calculated exactly .John Stuart Mills "Utilitarianism" ,in fact,completely rejects the foundation of utilitarianism by his emphasis,not on the quantity of pleasure ,but on the quality of pleasure .His belief that Jesus was the ultimate ,ideal "utilitarian" leads to what is missing in Mills approach-his failure to recognize the superiority of Virtue ethics ,since Jesus rejected the tenet that humans ought to pursue pleasure as their main goal in life.In fact,the correct goal is the pursuit of Justice for everyone.This leads invariably to an analysis of the economy , the distribution of wealth and how money ,credit and debt instruments are used ,as well as their main purpose in an economic system.

It is here that the author could have added two valuable chapters.The first chapter would have concentrated on Adam Smith and his complete rejection of the utilitarianism of Hobbes and Locke,as well as his complete rejection of Bentham's utilitarianism ,in favor of the Virtue ethics analyzed in his The Theory of Moral Sentiments(1759;sixth edition ,1790),upon which he based the Wealth of Nations(1776).

The author could also have considered examining John Maynard Keynes's complete rejection of the Benthamite Utilitarian goal of maximizing subjective expected utility(SEU theory), which is what modern economists substitute for Bentham's maximizing utility principle,in a second chapter.Keynes's theoretical structure proved mathematically that ,at best,utilitarianism is a very special case that rarely,if ever,has any applicable content in a world of ignorance and uncertainty.
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Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do?
Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? by Michael J. Sandel (Paperback - August 17, 2010)
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