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Kluge: The Haphazard Evolution of the Human Mind Paperback – April 7, 2009


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Product Details

  • Paperback: 208 pages
  • Publisher: Mariner Books; Reprint edition (April 7, 2009)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 054723824X
  • ISBN-13: 978-0547238241
  • Product Dimensions: 7.9 x 5.2 x 0.6 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 7.2 ounces (View shipping rates and policies)
  • Average Customer Review: 3.9 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (95 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #552,784 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

Editorial Reviews

From Publishers Weekly

Evolution seems a rushed process in which traits and attributes of humanity have been pieced together to make a functioning but far from perfect or rational being. Marcus explores the ways in which the human mind, while magnificent in its overall ability, still stumbles on several points. Focusing on areas such as memory, decision making and language, Marcus keenly identifies the makeshift devices humans have created in order to contend with what he describes as "evolutionary inertia." Stephen Hoye traverses the complicated aspects of the book with ease, his melodious voice providing just the right emphasis for listeners to understand Marcus's major points. Yet his delivery misses some of the more humorous elements of the book. And Hoye's lingering voice, which seems to trail off after the end of a sentence, may be good for poetry, but can wear on the nonfiction listener. A Houghton Mifflin hardcover (Reviews, Feb. 11).
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. --This text refers to the Audio CD edition.

From Booklist

A university psychology professor who periodically writes for mass media, Marcus here punctures the high regard humanity has for its species-distinctive qualities. Whether it’s memory, rationality, language, or free will, our noble human traits are hopelessly entangled with our baser drives, which have survived the dynamics of evolution. Blending discussion of experiments from cognitive psychology with speculation about why people are far less logical than they believe, Marcus latches onto the term kluge, which comes from the engineering world and is jargon for a fix that ain’t perfect but good enough. It’s a productive figure of speech for Marcus’ argument that deliberative thinking probably had an evolutionary advantage (save seeds to plant next season), but seems in permanent conflict with reflexive impulses having more ancient evolutionary advantage (eat seeds now). Carrying the point across a gamut of behaviors, from money to mental illnesses to talking, Marcus develops his idea of the klugelike mind, in which emotion perpetually besieges the intellect, with appealing clarity. --Gilbert Taylor --This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.

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Customer Reviews

This was a fun book to read.
Steve G
Marcus' argument that computer memory is better than human memory is not convincing, and the reason he gives for this is just wrong.
Herbert Gintis
The author of this book makes the case very well for his idea about the brain and how it works.
Alan Beggerow

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

77 of 82 people found the following review helpful By Erik Olson VINE VOICE on February 21, 2008
Format: Hardcover Vine Customer Review of Free Product ( What's this? )
We'd all like to believe that we're rational and clear-headed, and that our mind, will, and emotions are reliable (except, perhaps, when it comes to romance and chocolate). However, "Kluge" indicates that our Rube Goldberg brain often doesn't work quite as optimally as we believe it does. Thankfully, Gary Marcus' mind functioned well enough to bring us this fine book.

Reading about the brain is probably the ultimate act of navel-gazing, since it's the seat of who we are, and its function determines a large part of our destiny. I was glad to see a well-done and accessible analysis of our most important organ. I found the author's breakdown of the mind enlightening, like with the relationship between memory and context. Why can't I find my clipboard? Because I put it in an unfamiliar place - duh. He also compares our faulty context-dependent memory to the more accurate and systematic way a computer accesses information. Bottom line, we come up short in the total recall department.

Mr. Marcus is firmly in the evolutionary camp, so creationists may take issue with "Kluge." Mr. Marcus believes that a patchwork brain like ours couldn't be the product of a rational, superior creator. Instead, evolution fashioned our brain based on what worked for humanity's genetic propagation, not to imitate what is perfect or holy. "Good enough for survival" was evolution's mantra, as opposed to forming an "image of God," as most creationists advocate. But the author isn't demeaning towards believers, so persons of faith can at least take comfort in that.

As the whole the book was eye-opening, with chapters on concrete themes ("Memory") and more abstract topics ("True Wisdom" - yes, there's a little cognitive self-help advice).
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48 of 52 people found the following review helpful By Ashley Megan VINE VOICE on January 26, 2008
Format: Hardcover Vine Customer Review of Free Product ( What's this? )
In "Kluge," psychologist Gary Marcus looks to the many and varied foibles, inconsistencies, and inaccuracies of the human mind and concludes that our brains are not, in fact, models of brilliance and efficiency, but are rather cobbled-together systems, designed for one purpose and pressed into action for another - the classic definition of a kluge.

The most famous kluge is probably the case of the carbon scrubbers on the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission. Crunched for time, engineers managed to create a system out of duct tape and socks (seriously) that worked adequately enough to clean the air on the space module- even though none of the materials they used were designed for, or optimal for, the job at hand. The result was ugly and inefficient - but it kept the astronauts alive. Likewise, Marcus argues, evolution has endowed humans with a hodgepodge of genetic material - the DNA equivalent of duct tape - with which to build all the sophisticated systems that supposedly set us apart from other creatures, like language, memory, and reason. The result is, for example in the case of language, "a vocal apparatus more byzantine than a bagpipe made up entirely of pipe cleaners and cardboard dowels."

It's delightful metaphors like this that make "Kluge" such an entertaining read. Marcus is a talented writer as well as an insightful psychologist, and what emerges from his theory is both fascinating and well-argued. In each chapter, he looks at one aspect of the human mind whose fallacies he traces to the kluge effect. Our tendency to make irrational choices, for instance, isn't necessarily the case of a single, poorly designed system. Rather, it's caused by two separate systems in conflict - our older, more primitive hindbrain, and our evolutionarily newer, deliberate forebrain.
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19 of 19 people found the following review helpful By Peter A. Greene VINE VOICE on March 9, 2008
Format: Hardcover Vine Customer Review of Free Product ( What's this? )
Marcus has written an enormously entertaining and thought-provoking work. It is thoroughly grounded in research and a century's worth of thoughts and research about the human mind, and yet it is completely accessible and conversational in tone.

In just the first chapter he manages to refer to Shakespeare, Wallace & Gromit, MacGyver, the research of Daly and Wilson, Richard Dawkins, Bayesian theory and Aristotle. How can you not love a book that manages to get Homer, Tom Lehrer and They Might Be Giants into one sentence?

Marcus's approach is relaxed but methodical. He argues that the human mind is a kluge-- a jury-rigged whacked-together piece of work that owes more to building on what was already evolutionary present then a well-designed stab at reaching a clear-cut end (the book is a back-door argument against intelligent design, implying that if we were intelligently designed, we would not have ended up with the mess we have).

From memory, a variable mess of gaps and fabrication, we move on to belief and other mental processes that depend upon this hazy kluged-up foundation (choice, language and pleasure). Having shot holes in the idea of the brain as a marvelous machine of reason, Marcus warns of the dangers when the kluge falls apart, but thankfully does not end there, instead offering a solid list of ways to keep ourselves on a clear mental track.

Some of this work will seem familiar to those who have read "Stumbling Toward Happiness," but this is in many ways a perkier and more positive book. First, Marcus throws so many illustrations and examples at the reader that the ideas are clear and easy to understand (also leaving the reader well-armed for those dinner-party discussions about the book). At the same time, he maintains a positive tone.
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