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15 of 18 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars A contrast to "The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went To War in 1914"
This book is a military history of the Austrian Hungarian armies from the beginning of World War I to March, 1915. The author works at a military history center. His main point is that the armies of Austria-Hungary were rotten, suffering from lack of leadership and shortages of ammunition and artillery. He also writes briefly about the Austrian Hungarian Empire itself,...
Published 4 months ago by TomFallsChurch

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124 of 146 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Unbalanced Original Research
I enjoyed Wawro’s earlier books and the articles he did in the NAVAL COLLEGE REVIEW, but this is really a step backwards for the author. Physically the book is quite attractive. Nice maps and illustrations appropriately placed in the text. Many of the photographs portray A-H atrocities. The bibliography is extensive and makes good use of archives and contemporary...
Published 5 months ago by jack greene


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124 of 146 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Unbalanced Original Research, April 22, 2014
By 
jack greene (Paso Robles, Ca United States) - See all my reviews
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This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
I enjoyed Wawro’s earlier books and the articles he did in the NAVAL COLLEGE REVIEW, but this is really a step backwards for the author. Physically the book is quite attractive. Nice maps and illustrations appropriately placed in the text. Many of the photographs portray A-H atrocities. The bibliography is extensive and makes good use of archives and contemporary newspapers.
The book starts in 1866 and accelerates quickly into the immediate pre-war period. The bulk of it is devoted to the 1912-to winter 1914/1915 period. The remainder of the war is in the short epilogue. There is much interesting material and a great amount that would NOT be known by an English language reader. For example, prior to the First Balkan War most Ottoman Fezzes were made in the Empire. There is a great deal of information that he supplies and is of value for other researchers and students of the period. His discussion of the Colonel Redl scandal is very informative. The role of the Austro-Hungarian navy is ignored.
The basic problem is that he has approached the Fall of the Habsburg Empire as a historian-as-lawyer. He clearly has an axe to grind, and suffers from the “Historian trying to Prove his Point” syndrome. Frankly, way too many histories are written like that.
Wawro’s grandparents were Ukrainians living in the Austro-Hungarian Empire when they immigrated to the USA. And Wawro’s picks up the thread that the empire was beset with ethnic issues tearing it apart. And clearly there is much truth to that position. But Wawro is selective in what he writes and does not write.
For example the Russian and German Empires had large Polish populations, and of course the Russians had many additional nationalities. A Russian Infantry division was usually made up of 2/3rds Russian and 1/3rd “subject races” (Poles, Armenians, etc.). But the Poles do not play a role in his book beyond how Germany and A-H planned to carve Russian Poland up. He laments the Hungarians and their way of depriving the vote to vast numbers – but does not note the Prussian state doing the same with its three tier voting system giving the Prussian Junker class much too much political clout. A woman voting in Europe at this time does not even need to be mentioned (Wyoming in 1869). The A-H Empire was not UNIQUE in its issues.
This example to me says it all. In discussing the problems with the 1913 Army maneuvers on page 93 he notes the newspaper BUDAPEST and how it viewed the Austrian half of A-H as an alien nation. Good research, but I would bet there would be at LEAST 1/2 dozen if not many more contemporary Budapest newspapers, some much more loyal to the Empire as a whole and probably the majority being pro-Hungarian. But the reader will not learn that here. It is not balanced history. It is a historian TRAINED to argue this or that point like a lawyer and not seeking the FULL (and virtually never obtained) truth.
His use of the language is a bit overly dramatic. Sort of trying to write like Churchill and falling short. It is lively and Wawro is trying to appeal to a larger audience.
There is valuable information in these pages. It is worth a read and you will learn some interesting stuff. But know that this is NOT a definitive history of the outbreak of World War One and the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. For balance I would read Holger H. Herwig’s “THE FIRST WORLD WAR: Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914-1918”.
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16 of 18 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars A deep historical research written without showing good maps, May 8, 2014
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This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
The book is a very deep one , it begins from the end of the Austro-Prussian war (1866) and it follows the Austria-Hungary's history until theWWI's first winter (1914-15).
The author doesn't tell you just about a long list of wars (Austro-Prussian War , 1866; Russia and Rumania against the Ottoman Empire, 1878; First Balcanic War , 1911-12; Second Balcanic War ,1912-13; prelude to WWI and first winter of war , 1914-15), but he brings you inside the political and social life of the Habsburg Empire, to make you understand the reason to fight WWI ( from their point of view ) and the reasons why the Habsburg Empire's troops performed so badly during the war, so badly to become completely dependent from the help of the German troops.
The book is full of first hand accounts that make you feel and understand how the life was inside the Habsburg Empire.
Now let's talk about the dark side of this book at least for me: the maps are awful, because to illustrate the main austrian offensives during WWI you will see a map with no frontline or direction of movement shown . In our times this is absolutely impossible to see in a history book.
What a pity! This book could have been a five-stars work but the awful maps present here cost two stars to him.
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15 of 18 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars A contrast to "The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went To War in 1914", April 27, 2014
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This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
This book is a military history of the Austrian Hungarian armies from the beginning of World War I to March, 1915. The author works at a military history center. His main point is that the armies of Austria-Hungary were rotten, suffering from lack of leadership and shortages of ammunition and artillery. He also writes briefly about the Austrian Hungarian Empire itself, which he believes is a wreck hobbled by concessions by the Austrians to the Hungarians.

For contrasting views, read "The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914" by Christopher Clark. Christopher Clark read a draft of "A Mad Catastrophe," so the world of World War I scholars isn't huge. Unlike Professor Wawro, Mr. Clark comes close to blaming the government of Serbia for assassinating the crown duke of the Austrian Hungarian Empire. Mr. Clark believes that the Austrian Hungarian Empire had modernized its military before this war, in contrast to what you will read in this book. Mr. Clark admires the dual monarchy's decentralized structure, which Professor Wawro blames in part for the defeat. On the hundredth anniversary of the war, this book and "The Sleepwalkers" are just two of many new books about the Hapsburgs

"A Mad Catastrophe" is well written. The author has done a lot of research using primary documents. Whether he is correct that Austria-Hungary was an empire on the verge of collapse, you can decide.
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8 of 9 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars An Excellent And Gloomy Work of Political And Military History About A Tottering Empire Committing Suicide, June 28, 2014
By 
Nathan Albright (Portland, OR USA) - See all my reviews
This book fills a niche that many people, even those who are students of World War I, may not even know exists. Although there are many books that have been written about the assassination of Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, and a great many about the Western front of the war and Germany’s failure to use tactical brilliance to overcome its limitations in logistics, this book provides a thoughtful political and military history that demonstrates why it was that Austria-Hungary was so pathetic in its performance in World War I. This is a story that has rarely been told, and it is a story that is told very well here by a historian who delves into the processes as well as the personalities involved in the shambolic Austro-Hungarian effort in World War I.

A large part of the introductory sections of the book deal with the reasons for the pathetic military state of Austria-Hungary in 1914. It is a bit mysterious, after all, how a nation that was able to challenge Napoleon and Prussia on equal terms was unable to deal with Serbia and an equally shambolic Russian military in 1914. A great deal of the blame for that falls on the Hungarians, whose hostility to the development and financing of the common army cut off funds for training and technology, and whose efforts at Magyarization in their half of the empire inflamed nationalist passions that ultimately brought down the Dual Monarchy in the disaster of World War I. That said, this book provides many people to blame for the failure of Austrian arms in the conflict, including Franz Josef (who was clearly not sufficiently alert or in command at such a time of crisis), as well as the political and military leadership of the empire (who were largely paper tigers who lived in privilege while their soldiers suffered and died, and whose close order tactics and an addiction to the frontal assault led to murderous losses), as well as to Germany’s leaders who mistakenly thought that a war would help save Austria-Hungary from its its doom.

The vast majority of this book looks at the military campaigns of 1914 and early 1915, with a short and depressing epilogue that looks at the same patterns discussed continuing on in the latter parts of the war. Supply failures as well as a lack of cohesion within armies because of class or ethnic divides appears as a consistent theme. In particular Serbian military leadership is highly praised for its conduct in WWI, even though its military intelligence is condemned for having provoked the war in the first place against the wishes of its political leadership. The author comments that an ignorance of logistical matters appears to have been widespread in the First World War, and that German (and Austro-Hungarian) efforts to use tactical brilliance to overcome their own smaller population and resource base appears to have been a very vain strategy. Austria’s efforts at making a separate peace in 1916 are explored as a lost opportunity of sorts to keep the empire basically intact, and its obstinance at failing to give Italy enough land to keep it neutral is also cited as a major failure, given that the capabilities of the Austro-Hungarian military were wholly unequal to the task of dealing with war against either Russia or Serbia, much less both of them in addition to Italy. Indeed, the book makes a strong case for the weakness of Russia (and Italy) as as well as the infusion of German strength to the detriment of its efforts elsewhere that led to successes in the 4th invasion of Serbia as well as to the eventual victory over an exhausted Russia in the Eastern front, where even massive Russian population numbers could not save an army that could not even give most of its soldiers a rifle to shoot with.

Let us make no mistake, this book is gloomy reading. The suffering of ordinary Austrio-Hungarian, Serbian, and Russian soldiers, as well as the populace of the areas fought over by these armies, is discussed in vivid details. Atrocities are duly mentioned on all sides, and the failure of nations to provide their soldiers with basic equipment like guns and uniforms and shoes, as well as food, is mentioned with a great deal of compassion. The author, whose family background springs in part from the regions of the Dual monarchy, has reasons to be sympathetic. It was only his family’s timely flight to the United States that saved the author’s ancestors from almost certain death in the horrors of such places as Lemberg and other battles with names hard to pronounce in Galicia and Poland. This book, in part, appears to be a debt of honor to those people who were not fortunate enough to escape, and who died by the millions in trenches and assaults and prisoner of war camps.

There is some contemporary relevance to this book, which I ironically and unintentionally read as the one hundredth anniversary of the death of Franz Ferdinand approached, that deserves some mention as well. One of the main insights of this book is that multinational states with weak internal cohesion should not fight massive wars that require the total mobilization of people in industrial and military efforts. However poorly Austria-Hungary fought World War I, however poorly it was led by its politicians and generals and Habsburg dynasts, however poor its mobilization efforts, however weak its infrastructure, its biggest mistake was being involved in the war in the first place, a mistake which it paid for by losing its very existence and being divided among a fractious group of peoples who have never really stopped fighting in the last century. Other contemporary nations that are similarly fragmented, like Libya and Iraq, ought to take heed to their own divided houses, lest they share the fate of the late and demented Austro-Hungarian empire.
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16 of 20 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Death of an Empire, April 27, 2014
By 
Steven A. Peterson (Hershey, PA (Born in Kewanee, IL)) - See all my reviews
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This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
The title says a great deal about the book--"A Mad Catastrophe." The book tells a tale of a once major power in the process of disintegrating internally. A dual Monarchy had been created--one featuring Austria, the other Hungary. This alone undermined unity of purpose. In addition, the Empire was a mélange of many different nationalities: Austrians, Magyars, Slavs, Croats, Czechs, Rumanians, Poles, and others. There was not necessarily loyalty to the Empire among all of these parties. The Habsburg dynasty was another issue. Emperor Franz Joseph I was near the end of his life, tired and worn out, in his eighties. The heir apparent was Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who had considerable power and who did not always see eye to eye with the Emperor.

The book begins with a discussion of the crushing defeat of Austria against Prussia in 1866. The creation of the Dual Monarchy between Austria and Hungary is considered at some lengt5h--including how this made decision making and cohesiveness within the extent of the Empire extraordinarily difficult. The Great Power quarrels of the late 19th and early 20th century are chronicled, to indicate the tensions "in the air" in Europe.

Major powers began drawing up plans of action in case war occurred, including upgrading of the military. Artillery technology was changing--but the Empire depended on its older, now obsolete artillery because the country could not afford an investment in the new technology. Not enough ammunition was being produced--whether for artillery, machine guns, or troops' rifles. Soldiers needed training, but rather little took place. Again, it was expensive to mobilize troops for such events and the Empire tended to ignore training. None of this bode well if war came about.

After Europe dodged some close calls, the assassination of the Archduke in 1914 triggered World War I. Austria's response was bungled. Then, to the astonishment of its German allies, the Empire decided on a two front war--against both Serbia and Russia--when its armies were outnumbered by Russians many times over and no troops could be spared. The three efforts to conquer the Serbs were all bloody failures, destroying much of Austria-Hungary's military forces in the south. War against Russia featured two countries unprepared for war having at it. However, the Empire's forces had a number of major disadvantages. They were outgunned and outmanned; Austria-Hungary's ancient cannon were far inferior in range and performance to Russian artillery. The Empire's forces did not have a lot of ammunition, so bayonet charges often became the standard attack procedure. The Empire was also hamstrung by its commander against Russia--General Franz Conrad Hotzendorf. He had a reputation for ability, but surely did not live up to it against the Russian forces. He dithered, had troops march back and forth, to little end.

The Germans became alarmed and had to divert forces from the West over time to maintain any stability against Russia. The Empire's forces were decimated by death, injury, and illness (actually, much more than decimated, since, from the term's Latin derivation, that would imply 10% overall casualty figures).

Needless to say, the war went badly for the Empire, and the epilogue speaks a small amount of the aftermath. This section could profitably have been expanded considerably to provide a sense of what the consequences of the botched war effort were. The book is best about giving a sense of the quiet rot within the Empire, making a successful venture into war doubtful from the start. More could have been done exploring the outcome after the conflict ended.
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10 of 12 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Austria’s Role in Bringing about the Great War, May 12, 2014
This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
A summary of Scott Palter's review on StrategyPage:

'Prof. Wawro (University of North Texas), the author of several books on Bismarck’s wars, has a simple thesis; The war was the fault of Austria. Specifically, the Emperor, higher nobility, and the higher military commanders left their nation miserably unprepared for a great power war and then forced just such a war over the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, ignoring the weakness of both their military and diplomatic preparations. Then they mishandled operations during the first months of the war so as to wreck both their army and society. While some blame is given to the Hungarian political structure and to Imperial Germany, both are seen as secondary players in an Austrian-induced tragedy. Wawro is certainly expert on both the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the period’s military history. His writing style is somewhat polemical, but fills an important missing link in Western historiography of World War I by covering in depth the twin Austrian theaters, Bosnia-Serbia and Galicia-Poland. The book will be useful to anyone seriously interested in both the outbreak of the war and the Eastern Front.'

For the full review, see StrategyPage.Com
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4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars An Excellent work on a little known theatre, May 20, 2014
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This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
Having already absorbed and loved Mr. Wawro's books on the Austro-Prussian and Franco-Prussian wars i was extremely excited and anxious to receive and read his latest book. I was not disappointed. A Mad Catastrophe is a compelling foray into the little known opening battles of Galicia, (Austria vs Russia) and the Austro-Serbian fronts. Too little has been covered on these massive campaigns and Mr Wawro has helped fill a gap in WWI literature. This is a superb tome, brilliantly if acidly written about and empire on the brink simply biting off more than it could chew, suffering catastrophic early defeats and ending WWI in essential vassalage to Germany. The early battles in Serbia, at Komarow, Lemberg, and Rawa Russka are thrillingly retold. All of Austria's initial follies are excellently retold. It truly was a marvel that the empire survived to the end of the war. Thanks of course for that, largely went to German assistance and eventual takeover of the Austrian war effort. One really does sympathize with the badly led ill equipped Austrian soldier, polyglot and long suffering under a tottering yet ancient and once magnificent empire. One feels also for the equally poorly equipped Serbs and Russians. They were heroes all, fighting, dying, and surviving in conditions we could never hope to understand today in our age of materialism. What sacrifice all these soldiers endured, at the cost of collapse of both the Austrian and Russian Empires. What a tragic, little known tale, brilliantly written by Mr. Wawro. Wonderful
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12 of 15 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Stumbling into an ill-considered and ill-fought war war - How the Hapsburg Empire fell., May 2, 2014
By 
Ray Cook (fort worth tx) - See all my reviews
This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
Before I read this book I knew practically nothing about the Austria-Hungarian empire's participation in World War 1, except for the fact of the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist which appeared to be the trigger that started it. This book explains very clearly the forces, mistakes and misjudgments of the European powers which were the underlying reasons for the war. But is is definitely about the Hapsburg Empire's sudden and dramatic demise as a result of attempting to fight 20th century warfare with 18th century tactics and support. it shows very clearly that the Hapsburg government had learned nothing in its previous wars. Using 18th century tactics, and without complete economic mobilization to fight a prolonged 20th century war resulted in needless slaughter and destruction. The descriptions of the suffering and hardships of the soldiers and civilians and the indifference, incompetence and callousness of their leaders are graphic and provoking. This helps to explain the tensions and problems in the Balkan nations that still exist today, one hundred years later. There are no heroes in this book - no victorious battles by either side. The leadership of the Austria-Hungary forces must have been some of the most incompetent, unprepared and thoughtless men in history. It makes you wonder how the empire held on as long as did with people like this in charge. I would recommend this book to anyone, professional or amateur historian (like myself) who just wants to know how and why things happened the way they did. It should be required reading for any politican, statesman or general who is eager to start another war.
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3 of 3 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Say it ain't so, Franz Josef!, July 4, 2014
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This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
For a dedicated Austrophile, reading this fine book is a bit like a White Sox fan reading about the 1919 World Series. Much of this we already know in our historical heart of hearts: the corruption that beset the Empire; the out-of-touch generals in their own world of luxury and excess, completely ignorant of strategy and the sad condition of their troops; the overwhelming ridiculous of Austrian behavior toward Serbia after the June 28 assassination. It's all too true and very well articulated by Wawro, leider. Brigitte Hamann expressed a similar image of Austria in her fine book, Hitler in Vienna, where she depicted a Vienna in 1909-12 completely adrift in a world of its own device, alien and estranged from the emerging twentieth century.

So, Comiskey made the Sox pay to wash their own uniforms, and he was a miserable paymaster. It still hurts to read about Joe Jackson and the others, banned for life. A Chicago kid ran up to Jackson at the trial, with tears in his eyes: "Say it ain't so, Joe!" All Jackson could reply was, "I'm afraid it is, son." That's how I feel here. I want to run up to the Kaiser, der gute alte Kaiser, Sagen Sie Ihre Majestaet, alles ist gelogen!" Alas, it's all too true. If you read one new work on World War I, this is the one you should read...and then weep...
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21 of 29 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Good but...prejudiced, April 28, 2014
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This review is from: A Mad Catastrophe: The Outbreak of World War I and the Collapse of the Habsburg Empire (Hardcover)
A noble effort, wasn't for the fact that much of the book is based on false premises, basiccally the inevitability of Austro-Hungarian empire dissolution and the incompetence of the military high command. Well, first off, one must remember that if the Emperor Franz Joseph had acknowledged and implemented Conrad von Hötzendorf's preventive war plans against Italy and Serbia before 1914 the outcome of WWI would have been completely different. The truth is that Austria-Hungary didn't take advantage of Russia's weakness when the moment was ripe, that is, in the years immediately after the Russian revolution of 1905, because, by 1914, the Tsarist regime had completely recovered from that huge blow. Then, one must also remember that no European country was prepared for a long conflict such as WWI, which drained completely the resources and manpower of every belligerent. It is simply not true that Austra-Hungary was the weakest link of the chain, or, just as the autor wants it, the loser of Europe or the sick man along with the Ottoman Empire. The Germans, besides losing the war out of exhaustion, were also ill prepared for the butchery, the Schlieffen plan was a failure (because it didn't reach its target of knocking the French out of the war before facing the Russians) and a lot of German generals were as mediocre tacticians as the Austrians (e.g. Hindenburg and Ludendorff) On the other hand, the Russian steamroller soon proved a fiasco, being incapable of keeping Galicia and unable to cross the Carpathian passes and invade Hungary, to lose hundred thousands of soldiers, the whole of Poland, the Baltic provinces and Ukraine, and on to the final act of the collapse and fall of the Tsarist regime.
For an empire being so weak, Austria-Hungary kept intact all of its territory until the very end. The truth is that the dissolution of the empire, like the downfall of the Kaiser regime in Germany, was due more to exhaustion and the subsequent collapse than to military defeats. It is also curious that, containing so many nationalities and being so atomized (just as Lord Palmerston expressed), it had the ability to hold all of them together since the 1914 general mobilization (which was stunningly smooth) and prevented a brutal civil war, just like the one Russia suffered between 1918 and 1920. The author also forgets ( I do not understand why) the eleven battles of the Isonzo, all of them fruitless efforts by the Italians to conquer the so-called "Italia Irredenta" from the Austrians. For a military command being so incompetent, it produced one of the best tacticians of the whole WWI, Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna, and for so weak and creditless military forces, it produced one of the most epic victories of the whole war, the 12th battle of Isonzo (battle of Caporetto), in which the Austrians crushed the Italian army and were on the verge of knocking Italy out of the war with one single blow.
In short, if Austria-Hungary wasn't prepared for the war (which is a correct assessment) nobody else was either. If generals like Potiorek, Dankl, Brudermann, Auffenberg or Pflanzer-Baltin were mediocre or even incompetent, others like Hötzendorf, Krobatin, Boroevic, Böhm-Ermolli or Kövess were not. The main problem of Austria-Hungary was that, being such a huge empire in the very heart of Europe, with so many lands and long frontiers to defend against so many countries, it lacked the resources and military forces to defend them all, specially to defend them all at once. That is why it appeared to crumble easily. Had it eradicated the Balkan threat by kicking Serbia out and the Italian danger by driving a lightning blow against Italian forces in the Adriatic, History would have been written otherwise. The dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire was as inevitable as any other historical event. History is not written in the stars.
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