Mutual Aid; a factor of evolution and over one million other books are available for Amazon Kindle. Learn more
Buy New
$9.43
Qty:1
  • List Price: $10.48
  • Save: $1.05 (10%)
FREE Shipping on orders over $35.
In Stock.
Ships from and sold by Amazon.com.
Gift-wrap available.
Add to Cart
Have one to sell? Sell on Amazon
Flip to back Flip to front
Listen Playing... Paused   You're listening to a sample of the Audible audio edition.
Learn more
See this image

Mutual Aid a Factor of Evolution (Classic Reprint) Paperback – July 15, 2012


See all 47 formats and editions Hide other formats and editions
Amazon Price New from Used from
Kindle
"Please retry"
Paperback, July 15, 2012
$9.43
$9.43 $4.99
Unknown Binding
"Please retry"
$25.00


Frequently Bought Together

Mutual Aid a Factor of Evolution (Classic Reprint) + Anarchism: A Collection of Revolutionary Writings + God and the State
Price for all three: $27.36

Buy the selected items together

Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought

NO_CONTENT_IN_FEATURE
NO_CONTENT_IN_FEATURE

Product Details

  • Paperback: 372 pages
  • Publisher: Forgotten Books (July 15, 2012)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1440051801
  • ISBN-13: 978-1440051807
  • Product Dimensions: 8.8 x 6 x 1 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 1.3 pounds (View shipping rates and policies)
  • Average Customer Review: 4.6 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (19 customer reviews)
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #1,635,723 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

More About the Authors

Discover books, learn about writers, read author blogs, and more.

Customer Reviews

4.6 out of 5 stars
5 star
15
4 star
2
3 star
1
2 star
0
1 star
1
See all 19 customer reviews
Overall, this was a well-researched book and excellent read.
C. Sharma
Although Darwin never developed the idea, he indicated that something very much like mutual aid was a factor in evolutionary success and development.
Dana Garrett
It is a scientific text, but it has major political implications and is very accessible.
Kathryn G. Moberg

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

23 of 24 people found the following review helpful By F. Galea on June 3, 2005
Format: Paperback
Anarchist classic, rooted in observation of natural phenomena and history. Challenges the conception that capitalism is a natural progression of Darwinism at work in the wild. The author cites numerous examples of compassion and innate goodness at work outside the bounds of a structured power-based society. The study covers cooperation among animals, instances of non-hierachical interactions from primitive tribes to mediaeval cities, and on to his contemporary labor unions. It has been some years since I read it and I plan to revisit this title soon.
Comment Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Sending feedback...
Thank you for your feedback. If this review is inappropriate, please let us know.
Sorry, we failed to record your vote. Please try again
36 of 41 people found the following review helpful By Nick Cucinella on March 3, 1999
Format: Paperback
This book shows how Darwin's findings were all too influenced by Malthus and were a direct reflection of the Capitalistic political area he was from. Kropotkin witnessed in Siberia that animals rather than competing to stay alive, had to work together to stay alive.
Kropotkin stresses that cooperation is the main factor in evolution, not competing forces that Darwin and his contemporaries thought.
Kropotkin gives a number of examples of inter and intra-species working together to survive and thus evolve.
Kropotkin explores a number of societies. Steven J. Gould has given credence to Kropotkin, yet he is largely ignored in evolution texts.
This book changed the way I think about evolution and helped me to realize how a study as influencial as Darwin's could be biased.
2 Comments Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Sending feedback...
Thank you for your feedback. If this review is inappropriate, please let us know.
Sorry, we failed to record your vote. Please try again
26 of 30 people found the following review helpful By Eric C. Sanders on September 5, 1997
Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
After groping for years - haphazardly, I admit - through almost every progressive, liberal, libertarian, and anarchist zone of political discourse, I stumbled across a reference to Mutual Aid and its author, (Prince) Petr Kropotkin. Like Darwin, Kropotkin spent considerable time in a part of the world not frequented by civilized folk; instead of a tropic isle, though, Kropotkin spent his time in Siberia. There he saw and was impressed by something Darwin had discounted (assuming he ever noticed it) - co-operation, rather than competition. In some cases it was the family, taking the place fo the individual in the scheme of species survival; in others, it took the form of symbiotic relationships between individual members of different species.
Like Darwin, Kropotkin was intellectually stimulated by his observations in natural philosophy - but in exactly the opposite direction.
I recommend "Mutual Aid" to anyone exhausted by the competitve paradigm and looking for a valid alternative.

I'm writing this after ordering two more copies of MA - one to replace the one I lost, another to lend.

Eric C. Sanders
Comment Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Sending feedback...
Thank you for your feedback. If this review is inappropriate, please let us know.
Sorry, we failed to record your vote. Please try again
19 of 21 people found the following review helpful By Kathryn G. Moberg on August 16, 2002
Format: Paperback
This book, which appears to be about the only surviving scientific text from Kropotkin's work, is very interesting and insightful. The first two chapters which deal with animals I found most interesting, because they address the roots of the falsehood of social-darwinism. Kropotkin then proceeds to move through the different stages of human society and describes the mutual aid a compassion fetures therein. It is a fantastic book and I highly recommend it. It is a scientific text, but it has major political implications and is very accessible.
Comment Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Sending feedback...
Thank you for your feedback. If this review is inappropriate, please let us know.
Sorry, we failed to record your vote. Please try again
11 of 11 people found the following review helpful By Dana Garrett on June 2, 2012
Format: Kindle Edition Verified Purchase
Based on his extended and close observations of nonhuman animals and humans in eastern Siberia and northern Manchuria as well as his wide reading of various scientific authors, Peter Kropotkin concludes in Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution that the so-called incessant fearful "competition for food and life within each species," which is an "article of faith" with Darwinists, is in fact an exaggeration and does not play as significant a role in the evolution of new species as does the phenomenon of "mutual aid" and "mutual support."

Now it is important to note what Kropotkin does not say in order to best understand what he does say. He is not talking about the competition that exists among various species. That exists and is a factor in evolution. He is talking about competition within the same species. According to Kropotkin, competition within a species is the rare exception and not the norm in the animal kingdom and, with the exception of a few species, when it does occur within a species, it is usually under the most exigent of circumstances (e.g. scarcity of food). The norm for most species under most of their circumstances is a quasi-cooperative relationship of sociability and mutual aid. The less completion and the more mutual aid a species exemplifies, the better off that species is evolutionarily:

"The animal species, in which individual struggle has been reduced to its narrowest limits, and the practice of mutual aid has attained the greatest development, are invariably the most numerous, the most prosperous, and the most open to further progress.
Read more ›
Comment Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Sending feedback...
Thank you for your feedback. If this review is inappropriate, please let us know.
Sorry, we failed to record your vote. Please try again
11 of 11 people found the following review helpful By Steven A. Peterson TOP 500 REVIEWERVINE VOICE on February 22, 2007
Format: Paperback
Peter Kropotkin is one of the most noteworthy anarchist thinkers over the last two centuries. As with other political thinkers, so, too, with Kropotkin--his analy¬sis of human nature is critical for understanding his overall philosophical position. For his view of human nature, "Mutual Aid" is a key for understanding his views. His work is a harbinger of more recent studies of sociobiology, many of which explore the roots of altruism--human and otherwise.

Much of his thinking on the nature of society was formed when he was observing the behavior of animals in Siberia. While assigned to a Siberian regiment of the Russian military, Kropotkin did innovative original work on geography and geology as well as the study of animal behavior. His observation of animals led him to respond to Huxley's assertion that natural selection was based on keen com¬petition among animals with the following statement: ". . .wherever I saw animal life in abundance, as, for instance, on the lakes where scores of species and millions of individuals came together to rear their progeny; in the colonies of rodents; in the migration of birds which took place at that time on a truly American scale along the Usuri; and especially in a migration of fallow-deer which I witnessed on the Amur, and during which scores of thousands of these animals came together from an immense territory, flying before the coming snow, in order to cross the Amur where it is narrowest--in all these scenes of animal life which passed before my eyes, I saw Mutual Aid and Mutual Support carried on to an extent which made me suspect in it a feature of the greatest importance for the maintenance of life, the preservation of each species, and its further evolution.
Read more ›
Comment Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Sending feedback...
Thank you for your feedback. If this review is inappropriate, please let us know.
Sorry, we failed to record your vote. Please try again

Customer Images

Most Recent Customer Reviews

Search

What Other Items Do Customers Buy After Viewing This Item?