P.D. Smith is an independent researcher and writer (www.peterdsmith.com). His guide to the past, present & future of cities will be published by Bloomsbury in 2012. His previous book was "Doomsday Men: The Real Dr Strangelove and the Dream of the Superweapon" (2007, Allen Lane/Penguin), described by the Daily Telegraph as "chilling" and "irresistible". He regularly reviews books for the Guardian, and has also written for the Independent, the Financial Times and the Times Literary Supplement. His previous books include a biography of Einstein and "Metaphor & Materiality: German Literature & the World-View of Science, 1780-1955". He is an Honorary Research Associate in the Science and Technology Studies Department at University College London where he used to teach. He lives in Hampshire.