Most forms of color blindness, an inherited inability to distinguish between certain colors, result from the absence or deficiency of one of the types of cones. The most common type is red-green color blindness, in which red cones or green cones are missing. As a result, the person cannot distinguish between red and green. Prolonged vitamin A deficiency and the resulting below-normal amount of rhodopsin may cause night blindness or nyctalopia, an inability to see well at low light levels.
Women often have a keener sense of smell than men do, especially at the time of ovulation. Smoking seriously impairs the sense of smell in the short term and may cause long-term damage to olfactory receptors. With aging the sense of smell deteriorates. Hyposmia, a reduced ability to smell, affects half of those over age 65 and 75% of those over age 80. Hyposmia also can be caused by neurological changes, such as a head injury, Alzheimer disease, or Parkinson disease; certain drugs, such as antihistamines, analgesics, or steroids; and the damaging effects of smoking.
Damage to the cerebellum can result in a loss of ability to coordinate muscular movements, a condition called ataxia. Blindfolded people with ataxia cannot touch the tip of their nose with their finger because they cannot coordinate movement with their sense of where a body part is located. Another sign of ataxia is a changed speech pattern due to uncoordinated speech muscles. Cerebellar damage may also result in staggering or abnormal walking movements. People who consume too much alcohol show signs of ataxia because alcohol inhibits activity of the cerebellum. Such individuals have difficulty in passing sobriety tests. Ataxia can also occur as a result of degenerative diseases (multiple sclerosis and Parkinson disease), trauma, brain tumors, and genetic factors, and as a side effect of medication prescribed for bipolar disorder.
After death, the cellular membranes become leaky. Calcium ions leak out of the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm and allow myosin heads to bind to actin. ATP synthesis ceases shortly after breathing stops, however, so the cross-bridges cannot detach from actin. The resulting condition, in which muscles are in a state of rigidity (cannot contract or stretch), is called rigor mortis (rigidity of death). Rigor mortis begins 3-4 hours after death and lasts about 24 hours; then it disappears as proteolytics enzymes from lysosomes digest the cross-bridges.
A dislocated mandible can occur in several ways. Anterior displacements are the most common and occur when the condylar processes of the mandible pass anterior to the articular tubercles. Common causes are extreme mouth opening, as in yawning or taking a large bite, dental procedures, or general anesthesia. Posterior displacement can be caused by a direct blow to the chin. Superior displacements can be caused by a direct blow to the chin. Superior displacements are typically caused by a direct blow to a partially opened mouth. Lateral dislocations are usually associated with mandibular fractures.
Gerard J. Tortora is Professor of Biology and former Coordinator at Bergen Community College in Paramus, NJ, where he teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as microbiology. He received his bachelor's degree in biology from Fairleigh Dickinson University and his master's degree in science education from Montclair State College. He is a member of many professional organizations, such as the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), the American Society of Microbiology (ASM), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), National Education Association (NEA), and the Metropolitan Association of College and University Biologists (MACUB).
Above all, Jerry is devoted to his students and their aspirations. In recognition of this commitment, Jerry was the recipient of MACUB's 1992 President's Memorial Award. In 1996, he received a National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development (NISOD) excellence award from the University of Texas and was selected to represent Bergen Community College in a campaign to increase awareness of the contributions of community colleges to higher education. Jerry is also the author of several best-selling science textbooks and laboratory manuals, a calling that often requires an additional 40 hours per week beyond his teaching responsibilities.
I needed this book for my class this Fall but since it's a new edition, it's sooooo expensive!!! I figured since this looseleaf binder version was coming directly from Amazon, I should be ok and if not I would have no trouble returning it. I'm so glad I took the chance and bought this. This is the same exact book as the hardcover version...even with the glossy pages...except that it has been 3 hole punched and has a soft cover! This is great! Fit's perfectly into a nice 3 ring binder and it even comes with the mini atlas like the hardcover version!
My physiology professor gave us a choice between 3 different textbooks because, in her words, it's all the same. That may be so but there is a world of difference in writing styles and organization of material. I read Tortora's Microbiology text in the past and found his writing to be easy to understand and straightforward. So I went with this textbook and it's been invaluable to me. This book goes in depth into anatomy and physiology. I didn't really need the anatomy portion of it for my class but I was glad to have it there for review. There are a lot of colorful diagrams, illustrations, and tables that organize the material in an accessible way.
I've read textbooks in the past that jump from one topic to another and they don't always bring the material together to give you a better idea of how one process in one system, is important in another system. Tortora's logic is organized neatly. He does a great job at offering basics, building on them to explain more complicated processes, and reminding you of how they interact with other systems. I found that to be extremely helpful when dealing with the nervous system, which is several chapters long. In all, Tortora did a great job at putting all the pieces of the puzzle together for me.
The material is challenging but thankfully Tortora's writing style makes it entertaining to read and easier to understand. I would highly recommend this textbook and would also advise you to visit the publisher's website because they offer flash cards, diagrams, and practice tests that I found helpful when I needed to study for exams.
This book is exactly the same as the hardbound version: Principles of Anatomy&Physiology, 13th edition, Gerald J. Tortora & Bryan Derrickson. But this version is designed to be put into a 3-ring binder. It's a great savings over the hardbound version!
I purchased this binder ready text book thinking I would save money instead of purchasing it at my school. I didn't read the description before buying it, because it was the same edition, same author, and same cover. I've just opened it and to my surprise the Wiley Plus access code wasn't included. Now I have to pay $100 for a code... Future buyers, please check with your professor if you need Wiley Plus, because it is much cheaper to buy the text book and access code combo at the school, than to buy them separately. I think Amazon should add to the title that this does not include the access code or bold it in the description.
The book is nice, font is a good size. Figures & Tables are easy to understand and informative... not filled with meaningless junk. The pages are a bit thin... they tear easily and only 2 weeks into the class.
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I bought this A&P book so I can start studying for my fall class. This book is easy to follow with lots of pictures. I got the kindle addition so I wouldnt have to carry around that big folder. Whats nice about buying the kindle version is its half the price and you can still download it to your computer and print off the book as well. Great investment.
The book is the same as the hardback, however I would not recommend purchasing the binder copy. When I received my shipment, some pages were bent and torn already, and having to put them in a large binder only made matters worse. The pages don't turn easily, they tear easily, and it's super hard to keep organized. I'll admit that saving money was nice, but I wish I had bought the hard back copy.
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This book is a great buy for students, because it is the loose leaf version. In college, we know we have lots of big heavy books that will almost break our backs. With the loose leaf version, you can just carry the chapter pages that you need for class that day. That's great. This book has nice color pictures, lots of diagrams and good study questions.
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