About the Author
Ian Loader is Professor of Criminology and Director of the Centre for Criminology at the University of Oxford. He is author of Civilizing Security, with Neil Walker (Cambridge University Press, 2007), and is currently researching and writing about markets for security commodities.
Richard Sparks is Professor of Criminology at the University of Edinburgh and a Co-Director of the Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research (www.sccjr.ac.uk). His current interests include comparative and trans-national aspects of public policy on crime and punishment.