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154 of 161 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Recipes for improving code
Like the Gang of Four's landmark book _Design Patterns_, Fowler and his cohorts have created another catalog-style book, this time on refactoring.
Refactoring refers to taking existing, working software, and changing it about to improve its design, so that future modifications and enhancements are easier to add. _Refactoring_ is primarily a catalog of 70 or so...
Published on May 5, 2000 by Sean Kelly

versus
36 of 42 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars The Kindle version is broken
The content itself is excellent -- the discussion of refactoring is absolutely great. I would give the content itself a good four or perhaps five stars.

Sadly, the Kindle version is broken. The book uses example code before a refactor and after a refactor to illustrate its points, and I believe in the print version the two versions are displayed side by side...
Published on March 8, 2011 by Adrian El Matador! Secord


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154 of 161 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Recipes for improving code, May 5, 2000
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
Like the Gang of Four's landmark book _Design Patterns_, Fowler and his cohorts have created another catalog-style book, this time on refactoring.
Refactoring refers to taking existing, working software, and changing it about to improve its design, so that future modifications and enhancements are easier to add. _Refactoring_ is primarily a catalog of 70 or so different kinds of improvements you can make to object-oriented software.
Each entry in the catalog describes an implementation problem, the solution, motivation for applying the solution, the mechanics of the refactoring, and examples. The book's examples are all in Java, but C++ programmers should be able to approach the refactorings with ease. Often, Fowler diagrams the refactorings in UML, so a little Unified Modeling Language experience will help, too.
While the catalog is nice, the kinds of refactorings are obvious is most cases. Even moderately experienced programmers won't need the step-by-step mechanics described. The real benefit, though, is that the mechanics of each refactoring help guarantee that you can pull off the refactoring without introducing new bugs or side effects. They encourage you to take smaller, verifiable steps, than the more gross refactorings that most developers would naturally take. You actually save time doing so.
How do you know your refactorings are safe? Unit testing is the answer that Fowler et al. provide. Java developers will find the introduction to the Junit Testing Framework the most valuable part of the book, more so than the catalog of refactorings itself.
There's more to the book than the catalog and Junit, of course. There's discussion of the history of refactoring, how to evaluate refactoring tools, and how to convince management that what appears to be an overhead activity is actually useful in the long run.
Unfortunately, these sections are all too brief. And there is no discussion of how refactoring fits in with various software development processes. For example, programmers using Extreme Programming (XP) would probably feel right at home with Fowler's recommendations of refactoring in duets and unit testing, but developers stuck with a Software Engineering Institute process like PSP categorize testing as failure time and something to be minimized if not avoided. Cleanroom developers are taught that unit testing inteferes with metrics for quality, and that verifications are what should be done. Should such developers redo verifications after each refactoring? There's no answer in this book.
An unusual chapter, called "Bad Smells in Code," gives overall motivation for the refactorings. These vague notions, such as "long methods" or "lazy classes" humorously provide a foundation for starting your own refactorings. I say "humorously" because (mostly) Beck's and Fowler's odd analogies (classes becoming too intimate and delving in each others' private parts) provoke a chuckle (as if a chapter about "bad smells" in code weren't enough).
Overall, I've enjoyed reading this book and referring to the catalog while putting my own unit tests and refactorings into practice. Fowler's writing style is smooth and fluid, and it's easy to digest the catalog in no time. The book's typesetting is crisp, the figures quite clean, and both the refactoring index and "smell" index are enormously useful.
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111 of 120 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, November 11, 2002
By 
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
A little while back I was introduced to a word I had never heard before, Refactoring. I was told to
get Martin Fowler's book and read it so I could gain a better understanding of what Refactoring
was. Well folks, I would classify this book as a 'Hidden Treasure'.
Although it is not a flashy or well known title, I believe its impact can be much deeper and long
lasting than many of the mainstream, more popular technology books. The underlying theories
that it teaches can be applied for years, even when languages change.
There are only a couple of things I would change about this book, which I will mention below.
Preface
The Preface it brief enough, and gives the definition for the word Refactoring. This is a good thing
because right form the start you get the true definition of Refactoring. In short, refactoring is the
process of changing code to improve the internal structure, but not changing the external
behavior.
Chapter 1: Refactoring, a First Example
In this chapter Mr. Fowler tries to start by showing a simple Refactoring example. The problem is
that the chapter then goes on for 50+ pages. Mr. Fowler explains his reasons for doing this, but I
think that a simple example should have been much simpler. Especially when it is in the first
chapter of the book. It's not that this isn't a good chapter. I feel it's just too soon in the book. I
would have put it at the end.
Chapter 2: Principles of Refactoring
This is an excellent chapter. The definition of Refactoring is discussed as well as the following
questions: Why should you refactor? When should you refactor? What do I tell my manager? This
last question may seem funny, but when you read this chapter you will understand why it is in
there. This chapter also discusses common problems that occur during Refactoring, and
Refactoring and performance.
Chapter 3: Bad Smells in Code
In this chapter things that cause code to 'smell' are discussed. When code 'smells' it could be an
indicator that refactoring is needed. 22 different 'smells' are discussed. My favorites were
Duplicated Code, Large Class, and Lazy Class. This is a chapter full of awesome hints.
Chapter 4: Building Tests
Building tests is an important part refactoring. Refactoring is done in small steps, and after every
step you should test. In this chapter the discussion covers the processes and methodology of
applying tests during refactoring.
Chapter 5: Toward a Catalog of Refactorings
This chapter is a quick setup for chapters 6 to 12. Mr. Fowler explains his method for cataloging
the individual refactorings. What is pretty amazing is that he has taken a lot of time naming and
detailing each refactoring.
Chapter 6: Composing Methods
One of my favorite chapters. Mr. Fowler opens by saying, "A large part of my refactoring is
composing methods to package code properly." This chapter is all about that. 9 total refactorings
are explained. My favorite ones are Inline Method and Extract Method.
Chapter 7: Moving Features Between Objects
Sometimes you need to move things from one object to another. This chapter discusses the art of
moving features between objects. 8 total refactorings are discussed and detailed. My favorite
from this chapter is Extract Class.
Chapter 8: Organizing Data
A very large chapter that discusses in meticulous detail 16 refactorings that will make it much
easier to work with data. One thing that becomes very obvious in this chapter is that certain
refactorings can go either way. What I mean is illustrated by these two: Change Value to
Reference and Change Reference to Value. So some refactorings are not just one way deals. It
just depends on the situation.
Chapter 9: Simplifying Conditional Expressions
This is a very useful chapter since conditional logic is a common occurrence in the programming
world. Because conditional logic has a tendency to get very complex, this chapter has 8
refactorings that will help you simplify things.
Chapter 10: Making Method Calls Simpler
The 15 refactorings in this chapter help teach us how to make method calls easier to deal with.
They range from the very simple Rename Method to the more complex Replace Constructor with
Factory Method.
Chapter 11: Dealing with Generalization
Here are 12 refactorings dealing with the situations that arise from generalization. Inheritance,
Delegation, and Interfaces are some of the topics discussed.
Chapter 12: Big Refactorings
Kent Beck co-wrote this chapter with Mr. Fowler. They discuss what they call the 4 Big
Refactorings: Tease Apart Inheritance, Convert Procedural Design to Objects, Separate Domain
from Presentation, and Extract Hierarchy. These refactorings are of a more all-encompassing
type than the smaller individual refactorings from the preceding chapters. The co-authors do a
great job at putting in a nutshell what would normally take very long explanations.
Chapter 13: Refactoring, Reuse, and Reality
William Opdyke writes this chapter. He discusses his experiences with refactoring as well as
other subjects like why developers are reluctant to refactor and reducing the overhead of
refactoring. This chapter is an excellent 'putting it all together' chapter, and really helps put into
perspective the ideas that the book teaches.
Chapter 14: Refactoring Tools
Don Roberts and John Brant co-author this chapter. They discuss, as the chapter title would
indicate, refactoring tools.
Chapter 15: Putting It All Together
Kent Beck gives a quick 4-page wrap up.
One other thing I would change about the book is that I would want there to be examples in other
languages besides Java. I have practically no Java skills. For me the book would have been an
easier and faster read if it would have had examples in VB.net. Fortunately I understand enough
to get the idea of what is being taught, and that is the most important point.
Well as I said above, this book is really what I would consider a 'hidden treasure'. The things
discussed will help many people write better, more understandable code for years to come. I
would give it a 9.5 out of 10. It is well worth the {price}
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27 of 27 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Making tired old code better, May 17, 2000
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
The basic thesis of this book is that, for various reasons, real programs are poorly designed. They get that way for a variety of reasons. Initially well designed, extending the program may lead to software decay. Huge methods may result from unanticipated complexity. Refactoring, according to Fowler, is a function preserving transformation of a program. The transformations are reversible, so the intention is to improve the program in some way.
Fowler suggests refactoring a program to simplify the addition of new functionality. The program should also be refactored to make it easier for human readers to understand at the same time.
He also insists that each step is small and preserves functionality, and on frequent unit testing with a comprehensive test suite.
Half of the book consists of a catalogue of refactorings. He gives each refactoring a memorable name, such as "Replace Type Code with Subclasses". He illustrates the design transformation with a pair of UML class diagrams, and has a standard set of sections: Motivation, Mechanics and Example.
The Motivation is a prose section that describes and justifies the refactoring, showing the relationship to other refactorings.
The Mechanics is a sequence of steps needed to carry out the refactoring, shown as a list of bullet points He expands on some points.
The Example is where the value of this book lies. Fowler takes a fragment of Java code, and takes us step by step through the refactoring. The code is small enough that he can show it all each step of the way without overwhelming us, but is large enough to be realistic.
The code is clear enough for non-Java programmers to follow. He explains his code well enough for the book to function as a Java tutorial where the meaning of the code is not obvious. One or two of the refactorings are specific to the Java object model, and do not apply to other languages. Other languages would benefit from similar treatment, but there are very few language-specific refactorings.
The book is very much of the Design Patterns movement, with frequent references to patterns. The aim of a factoring may be to achieve a particular pattern, or it may take advantage of a particular pattern. The book can be used as a tutorial on Design Patterns.
I have a small number of complaints. Fowler advocates the use of refactoring while studying code for a code review. One needs to be very sensitive to the feelings of the programmer here, especially if he or she is a novice. The reviewer should read the code with refactoring in mind, and possible refactorings recommended, but it is for the programmer to make the changes.
Reading this book has inspired me to refactor some of my own code. My mistakes underlined the need to take small steps, and to test frequently. I spent a day building a useful Delphi testing framework from the description Fowler gives of the JUnit testing framework. The one category of code that does not seem to lend itself to this approach is some highly coupled parsing code. While I can extract small blocks of code, they remain tightly coupled with each other, and it is hard to give them meaningful names. The answer here may be to use the top down approach of recursive descent, rather than the bottom up approach of refactoring. Perhaps recursive descent can guide refactoring. Refactoring is largely a local approach. One can almost say a pinhole approach. Sometimes a global view is needed.
In summary, I would say that this very good book would be of use to Java programmers who have some understanding and much bafflement. It is very good for us older dogs who have become a little jaded and need some new ideas and motivation.
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38 of 41 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Don't just read it - buy it, July 18, 2000
By 
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
One can read good books on a specific technology (COM, UML etc) or on specific programming languages or even on different approaches to software development (RUP, OPEN etc) but every now and then a true classic comes along. Like Design Patterns 4 years ago now refactoring comes along. Every serious OO developer should own both of these books. Get your hands on Refactoring if only to read chapter 3, which summarises all the 'bad smells' that may creep into code. 21 generic examples of what is bad programming and why. The remainder of the book describes numerous techniques (refactorings) for changing existing code in order to remove the 'smell'. Most refactorings are accompanied with some UML, which should be enough to get the idea, and they are then further described in Java. What makes this great a book is that it can be used as a reference very easily since its design was well thought out for this purpose with a comprehensive index and tables matching smells and respective refactorings. If any of this rings a bell to CODE COMPLETE readers it should cause the ideas are very similar but very much updated here. Fowler's writing style makes once again for easy, pleasant reading. Unreservedly recommended.
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16 of 16 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Should be part of every developer's toolkit, July 28, 1999
By A Customer
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
I spent seven years in the Smalltalk environment figuring (parts) of this stuff out for myself. You don't have to - buy Martin's book and shave at least a few years off the learning curve.
Refactoring is an indispensable part of software development. Like it or not, whatever you write today will be "wrong" sometime in the future. You need to have techniques for transitioning to the "right" stuff. Refactoring provides you with a wealth of small tools that can make the transition easier.
Not only that, having confidence that you can refactor your code later (supported by relentless testing) actually relieves some of the pressure you feel when you write the code the first time. Get it working, then get it right. Don't panic. Don't sweat. Enjoy your work like you did when you started (remember?). Let Refactoring guide the way.
A practical guide for any OO developer, no matter what language you are working in, though you need enough familiarity with Java to read the examples.
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19 of 20 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Don't wait as long as I did, May 13, 2003
By 
David C. Veeneman (Southern California) - See all my reviews
(REAL NAME)   
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
I've known about this book for over a year. Initially, I thought it was about re-engineering legacy systems. I don't do that, so I didn't give it much thought. Over the past year, I have stumbled across repeated references to this book. Everyone seems to cite it, and now I understand why.
It's very easy to fall into 'analysis paralysis' when doing object design. A commonly heard complaint is "I have created 27 different class diagrams, and 42 separate sequence diagrams, but I can't seem to get any code written..." XP's popularity is due, in part, becuase it get's you into action--you begin writing code immediately, instead of creating diagrams for weeks (or months) on end. XP's motto could be "just do it!"
But how does one reconcile this "code first, ask questions later" mentality with an acknowledged need to at least do some design work? In "Refactoring", Martin Fowler provides the answer. His prescription is to create some code to get something working, then look at the code to see how it might be improved-- refactor it.
In Fowler's view, you won't really understand the problem until you have coded it, so instead of spending the next three weeks trying to find the perfect pattern for your next task, forget the pattern, and get some code going. Once you've got something workable, then think about patterns you might back into from your existing code.
Of course, that's a gross oversimplification of the process, but it gives a flavor of the ready-fire-aim process that 'Refactoring' is built around. And it seems to work--even people who don't buy into other core practices of XP seem to have adopted refactoring as a central element in their process.
The catalog of refactorings that the books provides are a first class reference on how to clean up particular problems. But to me, the most valuable part of the book is its first fifty pages.
Fowler starts the book with a simple, but ugly, example, that he proceeds to refactor, step-by-step, into something rather elegant. If you like to learn principles first, you might want to read the second chapter before going through the example, but I found it a very valuable exercise. I recommend coding the example in your language of choice, then refactoring along with Fowler as you work through the example.
There is a temptation to relegate refactoring, like testing, to simply another development technique. But like testing, refactoring is at the core of a development philosophy: "I know I'm not going to get it right on my first pass, so I'll be satisfied with making it as right as I can. Having done that, I'll have a much better idea how to make it better, and I will. But time's a' wasting, so I need to get moving."
This philosophy of continuous improvement allows the developer to get into action fairly quickly, and it reduces the risk of failure-by-delay. Fowler's book is a top-notch resource that will help the developer create more flexible code more quickly. I can recommend 'Refactoring' without reservation.
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36 of 42 people found the following review helpful
1.0 out of 5 stars The Kindle version is broken, March 8, 2011
By 
Adrian El Matador! Secord (New York, NY United States) - See all my reviews
Verified Purchase(What's this?)
The content itself is excellent -- the discussion of refactoring is absolutely great. I would give the content itself a good four or perhaps five stars.

Sadly, the Kindle version is broken. The book uses example code before a refactor and after a refactor to illustrate its points, and I believe in the print version the two versions are displayed side by side. Unfortunately, in the Kindle version this side-by-side layout is destroyed, making the comparisons useless.

I have read over twenty Kindle editions of books on the iPhone, iPad and my desktop, and I've never felt disappointed. Sadly, the Kindle version of "Refactoring" feels like a waste of money.
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12 of 12 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Great book on a variety of levels., February 13, 2004
By 
Robert Gamble (Falmouth, MA United States) - See all my reviews
(REAL NAME)   
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
First, a bit of information about where I'm coming from. 10 years ago I came away with a Computer Science minor but never really utilized the programming skills I'd learned in any of my subsequent jobs (Marine Biology). However, I did dabble in teaching myself C++ and loved the concept of Object Oriented programming. Recently I landed a job working with IDL (Interative Data Language - NOT Corba IDL) which was originally designed to create quick 2D and 3D plots and images for scientists. While still primarily a scientist's language, it has been adding more and more features, including Object Oriented support.
So this means, I'm now a programmer. My new boss really wants almost everything done as an OO design, which I was more than happy about. However, much of my work will be to modify/extend old code which is in every form from procedural to pseudo-OO (uses a few objects here and there but is still mostly procedural). I originally convinced the boss to pick up this book by pointing out the section on converting Procedural Code to OO. Turns out this section is very short, but gives an overview of how to do it using the other refactorings in the book. So it's helpful there.
One place I haven't seen it mentioned in many reviews is the benefit this book can have for someone new to programming professionally (note, I do NOT mean to imply that this is a beginner programmer's book, you should have a good understanding of OO programming already). It has already had many benefits for me:
1. Smells in Code: I love this section. As everywhere in the book, it applies directly to poring through old code and picking out the 'smells' present that indicate poorly structured code. But it's also as valuable in pointing out what to watch for as you write a new program. The book does advocate a design/refactor approach, and this is the best example of it. As you design, you notice one of the 'smells' creep into your code, and you can refactor it then and there. This has been of immense value to me in my first programming projects.
2. Advocation of testing: I already have Kent Beck's "Test Driven Development" and utilized some concepts from it, but "Refactoring" also talks about testing, and it seems to flow much better for me in Fowler's book as far as understanding how to use tests. It 'clicked' when he mentioned that most of the time spent creating a program wasn't design/programming, but rather tracking down a bug. Combining quick and frequent tests on new refactorings (or just new bits of code added in) focuses the programmer very swiftly on just what went wrong. The longest I've ever spent puzzling out a bug so far on my first major project has been 30 minutes, and that's because I forgot a return statement. As soon as I got up, took a break and sat back down it was obvious. Most other bugs have been along the lines of "run the test, watch it crash, fix within 2-5 minutes".
3.Ideas on how to structure code I haven't written yet: Maybe "Design Patterns" is a better book for this, but everytime I've looked at it, it overwhelms me. "Refactoring" somehow seems to put into focus more clearly how to fix a problem that's stumping me. For example, the program I'm working on requires two ways of creating a new object. One creates it directly from a file, one creates it from a GUI where all data is entered, and then added by hitting the 'create' button. I got the 'initFromFile' constructor working nicely and then proceeded to start work on the 'initFromGUI', recreating most of the steps until I hit the point where the object had to create a linked list based on the number of swimbladders (each of which is an object in the linked list) within the main fish object. Long story short, I thought about creating the object separately and just passing it in as a parameter, but besides requiring more knowledge of the object the GUI was working with than I wanted the GUI to have, it also led to one Init call with a huge list of parameters). So I flipped through "Refactoring" and found "Duplicate Observed Data" which described the exact problem I was trying to solve and goes into enough detail on using the 'Observer' Pattern that I was able to get my code to work in a much cleaner fashion than I would have otherwise.
4. Teaches the 'obvious' to new programmers: Some of the complaints I've read involve "Well, any real OO programmer knows this already, it's a waste of space to include that." In my case this is not necessarily true. Some of the refactorings are indeed obvious to me. Others that are obvious to others are not obvious to me. Even more important, you will see some of these 'obvious' things in previously created 'legacy' code, and this book will allow you to spot it.
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14 of 15 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Fantastic resource for developing quality code, September 3, 2001
By 
Jake Well (Windsor, Ontario Canada) - See all my reviews
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
I would have to give 2 thumbs up to Martin Fowler's book on Refactoring. He has addressed so many common refactorings in such a simple and elegant way that many will benefit from his work (as well as the others that helped write this book).
Martin's writing style is very relaxed and sincere. He's entertaining and doesn't complicate things as you can easily find what you need. You can tell he simply wants to make programming teams' lives easier and he has accomplished tenfold. He's not going to tell you that your an innately bad programmer or that he is a better one - he truely captivates that quality code is important and refactoring is that one big step that each organization and programmer must take to improve the quality of code.
Some of the patterns that he identifies are very common - but for completeness' sake, he includes them. Others are very insightful such as Introducing Null objects, which I've used 5 times in a single application now since I've read this book.
This is also an excellent book to accompany Design Patterns, as many of these refactorings will help you achieve design patterns in your code - it's like working them in your code in a different, systematic way.
All in all, this is a fantastic contribution to improving code and developing quality programmers in the software development industry. I would recommend this to any software professional and especially university students (where quality code is not touched on at all). It's the will of the programmer to improve their code and this is one of those books to read if you want to do that. If you want to just be an average programmer, a following in your organization and not take responsibility - then don't read this book. If you want to truely be effective in your job or entrapreneural projects, add this book to your bookshelf and read it, use it and live it.
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9 of 9 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Refactoring: Why and How, January 20, 2003
By 
This review is from: Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code (Hardcover)
Before I read this book, when someone mentioned refactoring, I would imagine it would be either "code cleanup", e.g., refactoring out the common behavior to the base class or a subroutine or "total redesign", e.g., breaking up current architecture, all these two can be avoided and unnecessary if we analyze the problem right, abstract the model right, architect the application right, design and code right.
I am a bigot of OO technology, design patterns, iterative software develop process from analysis, architure, design, construction to testing, and I know to get all the above things "right" would be very hard if not impossible at all. But that is what our designers and developers' job, facing the challenge right? So how is refactoring going to affect us as designers and develoers?
The first chaper(example) is particular interesting and attractive to me, as it just pointed out some signs of "evilness" in the design, e.g., a lot of tag/case for runtime type checking, responsibility was assigned to the wrong class, inaccurate/insufficient abstraction. Actually, it is this chapter which made me decide to get the book and see how the author would correct these problems. Mr. Fowler did excellent job on this topic.
Most Software developers may not have the luxuery to always work on the new project from start, we may inherit legacy codes which was not designed to solve today's problem, even an initial good design could go decayed, be it lack of documentation, insufficient of communication, different levels within the develop team, etc. Now with this book, we can take a breath and start refactoring the existing design/code to make it solve today's requirement, to even make it extensible for tommorrow's change. Initial design is no longer a huge burden, as it can be refactored, extended to fit the unseenable things when it was made.
The only thing in this book that annoys me is the verbosity of the refactoring steps in each chapter. It exposed to much details. I think the text decription and UML notation would be enough for any experienced developers to see the design problems and how to correct them. All those steps would only serve the needs for refactoring tools developers. But even with all the details, it is a "light" reading :-)
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Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code
Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code by Kent Beck (Hardcover - July 8, 1999)
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