No it doesn't -- the mounting bracket comes with the desktop upgrade kit, which is $120 and doesn't have a coupon associated with it.
That said, the more expensive kit does also have SATA cables and cloning software along with the bracket, but I'd say a clean installation of your operating system on the drive is better than cloning, and I know I have quite a few spare cables lying around, so I'd get the bare drive version and pick up an adapter on its own.
Yes, the Samsung SSD 830 will throttle down to Sata2 if your laptop chipset has Sata2 configuration. Otherwise, It'll run as Sata3 if your laptop has Sata3 chipset in it. Other words, Samsung SSD 830 is backward compatible with Sata2.
It should be, although I seem to remember it as formatted NTFS to start with. If your build supports standard SATA interface, you should not have any problems. It has been a very reliable drive for my Windows system. The only caveat is that an SSD does require periodic "garbage collection" by the operating system. You might want to check if your intended OS will support this. This would apply to any SSD that you may be considering.
A 2.5" drive (like this one) can be put in almost any device that has a HDD, or SSD currently in it. That means practically all laptops and all desktops. Obviously you can't put this in a tablet or some of the tiny netbooks such as a Chrome book.
To answer your question specifically... Yes. You can.