ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. PREFACE. PRELIMINARY: BECOMING FAMILIAR WITH THE PROFESSION AND EXPECTATIONS FOR LANGUAGE TEACHERS. Key national membership organizations important to the profession. National language-specific organizations. Organizations that provide valuable professional resources and support. Regional language conferences. Your state language association. Key professional journals. The continuum of foreign language teacher standards: NCATE, INTASC, NBPTS, TESOL, ISTE. Language policy and language education policy. Investigate and Reflect: Learning About Your National Language-Specific Organization and Your State Language Association; Learning About Your Regional Language Conference; Familiarizing Yourself With Foreign Language Resources; Comparing Teacher Standards Across the Career Continuum; Language Policy and Language Education Policy. 1. UNDERSTANDING THE ROLD OF CONTEXTUALIZED INPUT, OUTPUT AND INTERACTION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING. Universal Grammar. Competence vs. performance. Communicative competence. Krashen's Input Hypothesis. Acquisition vs. learning. Input processing. Variability in performance. Interlanguage Theory. Long's Interaction Hypothesis. Negotiation of meaning. Swain's Output Hypothesis. Sociocultural theory. Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development. Scaffolding. Mediation. Language play. Interacitonal competence. Affect and motivation. Observe and Reflect: Observing a Child Interacting in His/Her Native Language (L1); Alternative Observation of a Child Interacting in His/Her Native Language (L1); Observing a Beginning Language (L2) Class Discuss and Reflect: Creating Real Conversational Models; Using Songs to Engage Learners. 2. CONTEXTUALIZING LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION TO ADDRESS GOALS OF THE STANDARDS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING. The chronological development of language teaching. Context. Proficiency. Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century (philosophy, development, goal areas, content standard, progress indicator, learning scenario). PreKu12 English Language Proficiency Standards. Bottom-up/top-down approaches to teaching. Textbook evaluation. Teach and Reflect: Developing a Learning Scenario; Contextualizing the Teaching of a Past Tense Grammar Point; Using the Standards at the Post-Secondary Level. Discuss and Reflect: Teachers Talking Textbooks; Developing a Top-Down ESL Lesson. 3. ORGANIZING CONTENT AND PLANNING FOR INTEGRATGED LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION. Current paradigm for instructional planning. Brain-based research findings and instructional planning. Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Thinking. L2 input and teacher talk. Classroom discourse: IRE vs. IRF. Oller's Episode Hypothesis. Unauthentic, authentic, semiscripted oral texts. Content-based instruction (CBI). Backward-design planning. State frameworks. Thematic unit planning. Lesson objectives. Anticipatory set. Advance organizers. Teach and Reflect: Planning for Instruction: Writing Daily Lesson Objectives, Creating a Daily Lesson Plan, and Designing a Unit of Instruction; Developing a Content-Based Level 5 Foreign Language Class; Comparing State Framework and Curriculum Documents Discuss and Reflect: Facing Challenges in Planning as a Beginning Language Teacher; Analyzing the Use of Content and Context in a Japanese Lesson. 4. CONNECTING LANGUAGE LEARNING TO THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM. Role of age & social/psychological factors in language acquisition. Benefits of early language learning. Characteristics of elementary school learners. Mythic stage of development. Program models: FLES, FLEX, immersion, sheltered instruction, dual language. Thematic planning webs. Content-based/content-related (content-enriched) FLES. Content-obligatory/content-compatible language. Graphic organizers. Semantic maps. Venn diagrams. Total Physical Response. Storytelling. Language Experience Approach. Story maps. Cooperative learning. Global units. Performance assessment strategies. Connections Goal Area. Teach and Reflect: Designing a Content-Based Elementary School Lesson; Developing a Storytelling Lesson Discuss and Reflect: Teaching Fourth-Grade Content in French; Implementing an Elementary School Language Program. 5. INTEGRATING CULTURES AND COMPARISONS IN MIDDLE SCHOOL LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION. The definition of middle school. The three Ps: practices, products, perspectives. The middle level learner. No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act. Kluckhohn Method. Middle level programs. Cultural simulators. Squential vs. exploratory language programs. Byram's Intercultural Communication. Sample thematic units. Cassroom management. Cltural simulators. Cultures and Comparisons Standards. Assessment of middle school performance. Teach and Reflect: Developing Culture-Specific Examples of the Three Ps; Unit and Lesson Design Around a Story, Myth, or Folktale; Viewing and Analyzing Lessons on the Three Ps Discuss and Reflect: Exploratory vs. Sequential Middle School Programs; It's McLicious! Staying in the Target Language. 6. USING AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH TO DEVELOP INTERPRETIVE COMMUNICATION. The three modes of communication the interpretive mode for teaching listening, reading, and viewing. Schema Theory. The processes involved in listening and reading. L1 vs. L2 interpretive processes. Reader-/listener-based and text-based factors in comprehension and interpretation. Integration of authentic texts. Exploration of literary texts. Workshop-style classroom for exploring texts. Acquisition of new vocabulary through text exploration. Use of L1 vs. L2 in checking comprehension. The Interactive Model for developing listening, reading, viewing. Teach and Reflect: Using the Interactive Model to Explore an Authentic Printed Text; Using the Interactive Model to Explore an Authentic Audio/Video Segment; Teaching Literature at the Post-Secondary Level Discuss and Reflect: Developing Interpretive Listening: Scripts or No Scripts?; Reading Aloud. 7. USING A STORY-BASED APPROACH TO TEACH GRAMMER BY BONNIE ADAIR-HAUCK, PH.D (UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH) AND RICHARD DONATO, (UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH). Explicit/implicit grammar explanations. Story-based language learning. Dialogic and guided participation for grammar explanations. The Pace Model: Presentation, Attention, Co-Construct, Extension. Teach and Reflect: Examining Grammar Presentations in Textbooks; Designing a Story-Based Language Lesson Discuss and Reflect: Using a Story-Based Approach to Teach Reflexive Verbs; Using Songs to Foreshadow Grammar. 8. DEVELOPING ORAL AND WRITTEN INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION. The ACTFL oral proficiency scale and speaking from a proficiency perspective. Implications of proficiency for instruction. Nature of interpersonal communication. Willingness to communicate (WTC). Instructional conversations (ICs). Strategies for helping students interact orally. Turns-at-talk, routines and gambits, gestures. Student discourse in pair/group activities. Collaborative dialogue. Conversational repair. Strategy training. Cooperative learning: task-based instruction. Developing advanced-level discourse through the study of literature and culture. Developing interpersonal writing. Dialogue journals. Key pal and pen pal letter exchanges & synchronous electronic interaction. Providing feedback in oral interpersonal contexts. Types of teacher feedback (trouble, repair, noticing, uptake) Teach and Reflect: Creating Information-Gap Activities for Various Levels of Instruction; Integrating Speaking Tasks with Oral or Printed Texts; Integrating Advanced-Level Discourse at the Post-Secondary Level Discuss and Reflect: Survivor Game: Keeping Students in the Target Language; Friday Is Culture Day. 9. DEVELOPING ORAL AND WRITTEN PRESENTATIONAL COMMUNICATION. Presentational communication in speaking and writing. The nature and purposes of oral and written presentational communication. A problem-solving model of the L1 writing process. Teaching presentational writing and speaking as a process. The importance of audience. Formats for presentational communication at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Reading-to-write. Writing as product: ACTFL. Proficiency GuidelinesuWriting. Technologically enhanced presentations. Responding to writing. Peer revision. Scoring methods for evaluating writing. Evaluating oral and multimedia writing presentations. Pronunciation: feedback and instruction. Teach and Reflect: Designing a Presentational Process-Oriented Writing Activity for Secondary Levels or Beyond; Finding the Oral and Written Presentational Elements in Prepared Project Units. Discuss and Reflect: A Play for My Buddies; Integrating Peer Revision into the Presentational Writing Process. 10. ADDRESSING DIVERSE NEEDS OF LEARNERS IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM. Diverse ways students learn language. Multiple intelligences. Learning styles. Teacher personality nad teaching style. Language learning strategies. Addressing diverse learners' needs. Accommodating disabilities with inclusion. Physical needs. Special learning needs. At-risk learners. Gifted learners. Heritage learners. Differentiated instruction. Community goal area. Community-based and service learning. Teach and Reflect: Designing a Lesson Appropriate for Diverse Learning Styles; Working Within Communities Discuss and Reflect: Preparing to Teach Special Education Spanish I and II Classes; Differentiating Instruction: Three Classrooms. 11. ASSESSING STANDARDS-BASED LANGUAGE PERFORMANCE IN CONTEXT. The paradigm shift in assessment practices. The washback effect of tests. Purposes of tests. Summative vs. formative assessments. The continuum of test item types. Assessment formats: prochievement, performance-based, and PALS. An interactive model for assessing interpretive communication. Authentic assessments. Developing and using scoring rubrics. Standards-based Integrated Performance Assessments (IPAs). Empowering students through assessment. Portfolios and self-assessments. Interactive homework. Classroom assessment techniques (CATs). Implications of the OPI for oral assessment. Dynamic assessment. Teach and Reflect: Analyzing and Adapting a Traditional Test; Adding An Authentic Dimension to a Performance-Based Assessment Task; Designing an Integrated Performance Assessment (K-16) Discus...
About the Author
Judith L. Shrum earned her Ph.D. from The Ohio State University, and an M.A. in Latin American Studies from Indiana University in Bloomington, IN. She holds a joint appointment as Associate Professor of Second Language Education in the Departments of Foreign Languages & Literatures and Teaching & Learning at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Eileen W. Glisan holds Ph.D. and M.A. degrees in Spanish Applied Linguistics/Teaching Methodology from the University of Pittsburgh. She is Professor of Spanish and Foreign Language Education at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, where she is Coordinator of the Spanish Education Program. She is Co-director of the ACTFL/NCATE Program Standards for the Preparation of Foreign Language Teachers project.