Excerpted from The Autism Encyclopedia, edited by John T. Neisworth, Ph.D., & Pamela S. Wolfe, Ph.D.
Copyright © 2005 by Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. All rights reserved.
See augmentative and alternative communication. See alsoalternative communication.
See applied behavior analysis.
See antecedent-behavior-consequence analysis.
A term used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), its amendments, and its regulations (Assistance to States, 2003) to refer to environmental changes related to the education of an individual with disabilities, especially with regard to assessment of learning. See alsoadaptation, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). John T. Neisworth & Pamela S. Wolfe
Adrenocorticotropic hormone; seehormone therapy.
activities of daily living (ADLs)
Self-care tasks such as grooming, bathing, eating, bowel and bladder management, toilet hygiene, functional mobility, and device care. These basic life functions are used as benchmarks for independence. More complex life functions are clustered into instrumental activities of daily living, including care of others, community mobility, financial management, home management, shopping, and emergency and safety procedures. See alsofunctional limitations, functional outcomes, self-help skills. Winnie Dunn
Also called activity-based intervention. See embedded skills, naturalistic interventions.
Degree of clarity of sensory stimuli; physical ability of the sensory organs to receive input. The term acuityis used with reference to hearing and vision. Visual acuity is the accuracy of the eyes to see both close and distant objects (normal visual acuity is 20/20). Auditory acuity is the ability to hear with measured decibels. Normal auditory acuity (in which there is no negative impact on communication) is 0–15 decibels. Acuity can be corrected with glasses (for vision) and hearing aids (for hearing). Winnie Dunn
See Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (PL 101-336).
A change made to typical or standard environments or materials to accommodate differences in children's functioning. Adaptations can range from simple rearrangements of classroom furniture, to alterations to instructional materials, to more elaborate or high-technology adjustments designed to minimize the effect of a disability and optimize performance. See alsoaccommodations. John T. Neisworth & Pamela S. Wolfe
Typical performance on daily tasks and activities related to personal and social sufficiency. As individuals age, the types of adaptive behaviors they exhibit typically increase in complexity. Examples in young children include self-care (e.g., dressing), communication (e.g., verbal expression and reception), and socialization (e.g., relating to peers). Examples of adult adaptive behaviors include self-care (e.g., holding a job, managing money), communication (e.g., advanced reading and writing), and socialization (e.g., acting responsibly toward others) (Sparrow, Balla, & Cicchetti, 1984b). See alsoactivities of daily living (ADLs), adaptive skills, daily living skills, self-help skills. Krista Dalbec-Mraz & Julie Wolf
Conceptual, practical, and social skills that permit a person to function in everyday life and to deal with, and change in response to, everyday environmental demands. Individuals with autism show a unique pattern of adaptive skills as compared with normative groups (Schatz & Hamdan-Allen, 1995). Such individuals typically have strong daily living skills but only intermediate comm