on December 24, 2006
I love juicy steaks, delicious cheese, and big bowls of ice cream. I love to eat out at nice restaurants. And I really like eating without thinking about the operations and consequences of our dietary industrial complex. But I don't get to enjoy these things any more because I read the China Study. Like Neo in the movie the Matrix, you have a choice, take the blue pill and believe what you want to believe, take the red pill and you will be exposed to the reality of the world we live in. The China Study is the red pill.
This is a fascinating book on the capitalism, politics, and human behavior that drives the food industry. It is also frighteningly insightful into the health consequences of an affluent societies' diet. I am not a scientist so I don't know if this is good science. But I did work ten years ago as a government attorney on the USDA dietary guidelines and was surprised by the political influence and acceptance of what the author would call scientific reductionism. I also worked for a man who lived and worked until he was 100 years old, and he had a dietary regime very similar to that recommended by the China Study: not vegan nor vegetarian, but largely based on plants and whole foods rather than animal based foods. So I found this book very persuasive - in fact, too persuasive. It scared me straight so I eat healthy now and that's good for the long term...but I don't enjoy it like I used to.
on January 25, 2005
T. Colin Campbell has made a career of challenging the conventional wisdom around nutrition, and this book is the culmination of his work. His integrity, brilliance, and unflinching courage shine through every page.
The main point of this book is that most nutritional studies that we hear about in the media are poorly constructed because of what the author terms "scientific reductionism." That is, they attempt to pin down the effects of a single nutrient in isolation from all other aspects of diet and lifestyle.
While this is the "gold standard" for clinical trials in the pharmaceutical world, it just doesn't work when it comes to nutrition. Given that the Western diet is extremely high fat and high protein compared to most of the rest of the world, studies that examine slight variations in this diet (i.e., adding a few grams of fiber or substituting skim milk for full fat milk) are like comparing the mortality rates of people who smoke five packs of cigarettes a day vs. people who smoke only 97 cigarettes a day.
Campbell's research, which he describes in a very accessible and engaging fashion, has two tremendous advantages over the typical nutritional study. First, there is the China Study itself - a massive series of snapshots of the relationship between diet and disease in over 100 villages all over China. The rates of disease differ greatly from region to region, and Campbell and his research partners (including some of the most distinguished scholars and epidemiologists in the world) carefully correlated these differences with the varying diets of the communities.
It's not lazy "survey research" either - the researchers don't rely on their subjects' memory to determine what they ate and drank. The researchers also observed shopping patterns and took blood samples to cross-validate all the data.
The second amazing part of Campbell's research method is his refusal to accept any finding without taking it back to his lab and finding out how exactly it works. In other words, we discover in The China Study not only in what way, but precisely how, the foods we eat can either promote or compromise our health.
The book is part intellectual biography / hero's journey (although Campbell is always wonderfully humble - there's no trace of self-congratulation, just a deep gratitude for what he has experienced), part nutrition guide (the most honest and unflinching one you'll ever read), and part expose. The final section leaves no sacred cow standing, and names names! From the food industry, to the government, to academia, Campbell calmly reports on a coverup of nutritional truth so widespread and insidious that all citizens should be enraged.
I have a PhD in health education and a Masters in Public Health - and I can honestly say that no book has shaken my worldview like this one. Anyone interested in health - their own, or that of their family, friends, or community - must read this book and share it. Campbell has started a revolution. Skip this work at your own peril.
on August 23, 2011
I first became acquainted with this book by watching a segment this spring (2011) on the Dr. Oz show. I rented the book from the library and read it thoroughly (renewed it a maximum number for times and then decided I needed to own it). My husband and I decided to change our diet and try a vegan life style. We are in our 60's and want to maintain healthy weights (we've lost 35 and 20+ lbs)over the past four months and plan to enter our older years with few health problems. It was amazing to read about all the health situations which can be prevented by eating correctly--even how cancer cells can be turned on and off.
This book provided an excellent understanding of how important it is to eat correctly and the results we will see. My biggest disappointment is that when we share our reasons for our new eating plan with friends and family they aren't more interested in exploring this book and learning about how they can become healthier. Our feeling was, after reading this book, that we couldn't afford to not do this. I think people basically don't want to make changes, even if they will be healthier.
on December 25, 2005
This is a fantastic book that's loaded with so much eye opening information, it's the kind of book that I'll read again. I feel if you don't convert to a whole food plant based diet after reading this book, I don't think anything in the world will convince you....the evidence is just overwhelming.
As for my story, I was on statins for high cholesterol for over 6 years....and a moderate to high dose at that. Over the years, my cholesterol kept rising gradually and my total cholesterol was just over 300 and a triglyceride level in the mid 200's without statins. The moderate/high dose statin brought my cholesterol down to the range of high 190's to low 200's. Over the years, I tried to get off the medication and I was told to try to eat a low fat diet, don't eat shrimp, lobster, etc. I went off the statins, tried this diet for several months and none of this helped....actually my cholesterol went higher....I was told it's hereditary, there's nothing you can do, and I should take the statin and that I would be on them indefinitely. Well, after reading the book "The China Study", there's a few paragraphs tucked in this great book mentioning that the major factor causing high cholesterol is eating any animal protein. The only meat I ate at the time was fish and chicken and small portions of it....and maybe beef a few times a year, if that. I have to say I was skeptical and figured what do I have to lose, so I went on a whole food plant based diet (vegan diet)as Dr. Campbell in the book suggests. I started that last November (same time I stopped taking the statins), and I had my cholesterol checked this past summer and was stunned at the result....my total cholesterol went from over 300 without statins, high 190's/low 200's on moderate/high does statin, to 175 without statins on Vegan diet, with good LDL and HDL. I'm guessing next time it's checked it will be even lower. Also, my triglycerides went from the mid 200's to 64! All as a result of just giving up animal products....amazing. Now I wonder....why wasn't I ever given this option by the doctor's I've seen over the years? Even if a person doesn't want to give up animal products completely as I have, why isn't this advice offered as at least an option to a patient.....and let the patient decide? What a concept!
Of course, I feel my cholesterol and triglycerides levels are just the tip of the iceberg on how my health has improved on a plant based diet....the only regret?....I wish I started the vegan diet earlier....I never have had so much energy and just downright have never felt so good....seriously...this is not an overstatement.
As to all the doubters out there with harsh reviews, I say to each is own but ignore the evidence at your own risk. I've seen many of my friends and family sick by what I feel this book has proven by many studies to be nothing more than a bad diet for the most part and most of them are looking for a magic pill to save them....and the old standby argument that it's all genetic doesn't appear to hold much water either....again, proven by studies in the book.
My friend, family, and co-workers know how I eat now and wonder why I want to live forever....that's not the issue....quality of life over quantity of life...isn't this what we should all be after?
on January 16, 2012
Due to recent publicity from Bill Clinton's post-surgery dietary changes, and the recent release of the film, Forks Over Knives, this 2006 book is benefitting from a resurgence of attention. After reading this book, I could only think- I wish I had found this book sooner.
I have read a lot of books on food, diet, and nutrition- and almost always they have left me disappointed. I find nutrition books are either focused only on one food type or nutrient, or push some gimmicky diet (a la the Atkins Diet), or are too esoteric and free from any grounding in sound science, or are mind-numbingly boring and poorly written.
This book from Dr. Colin Campbell is none of those things. "The China Study" takes a macro, bird's eye view of what we eat. For example, Campbell writes, "As you shall see, considering how networks of chemicals behave instead of isolated single chemicals is far more meaningful." This book is an attempt to look at the whole picture. As Campbell writes, "This is the story of how food can change our lives." Indeed it is.
Dr. Campbell, in this book, espouses a whole food, plant-based diet. He very intentionally does not refer to the diet he encourages as "vegan", due to the politically charged nature of that word, and because he is not strictly-speaking a vegan. This book is entirely apolitical. Its author makes it clear that his motivation for his dietary behaviors is purely health, not to protect animals or be a steward of the environment (although the latter he does mention as a bonus implication of his choices).
Dr. Campbell begins his book, in the chapter "House of Proteins" laying out a convincing argument of why animal-based proteins (particularly casein, the protein found in cow's milk) are harmful to the body. To support his thesis, Dr. Campbell falls back on his life of research (most notable of which is "The China Study", which Chou EnLai, the Premier of China in the early 1970s funded when he was dying of cancer. It is the largest and most comprehensive demographic study ever conducted that looks at what people eat and their levels of general health. Dr. Campbell was one of the team of researchers appointed to conduct this study.)
Dr. Campbell never stretches the findings of his studies too far, and is quick to make clear that the correlations found in his studies does not necessarily mean causation- that is, just because populations that consume more animal fats and animal-based proteins have high incidences of "diseases of affluence" (cancer, heart disease, stroke) does not mean that these proteins cause such diseases. But the combination of the correlations, with the clear and powerful way that Dr. Campbell outlines his observations of how animal-based proteins can disrupt some of the body's most essential organic processes, allows one to comfortably make a strong probabilistic guess that these type of foods are best eliminated from one's diet.
After Dr. Campbell outlines the various diseases, their possible relationships with animal-based proteins, he arrives at suggestions in the chapters "Eating Right: Eight Principles of Food and Health" and "How to Eat."
From there Dr. Campbell answers the question that surely so many readers will have through the first half of the book, which is, "If you're right, Dr. Campbell, why am I just hearing about this stuff now?" In the chapter "Science: the Dark Side", Dr. Campbell outlines how the food industry (of which his parents, ironically, were a part- they were dairy farmers) and government agencies (some of which he used to sit on- and with which he has firsthand experience interacting) are compromised, and are not sources of sound nutritional advice. Dr. Campbell outlines the way in which powerful corporations with clear monetary interests fund these boards. It is a blatant conflict of interest that has profound implications on how and what our country eats.
The other convincing case that Dr. Campbell makes for why you do not hear his argument in the mainstream dialogue is the fact that hospital networks, who can derive up to 65% of their income from heart-related surgeries and medicines, and who employ surgeons who are faced with mountains of debt from years of study and who stand to make gobs of money from conducting surgeries, are not ready or willing to adopt preventive approaches to heart disease.
Dr. Campbell cites the case of surgeon Dr. Esselstyn, who proposed to the Cleveland Clinic a preventive "arrest and reversal" nutrition program for heart disease patients as a first step before surgery. The hospital said they had no interest in such a program according to Dr. Campbell; and yet, some of the trustees and surgeons of the very same hospital would send their own wives and children to Dr. Esselstyn for his nutritional advice. Clearly, these were people who believed in the preventative power of Dr. Esselstyn's advice, but who also had interests so entrenched that it was easier for them to maintain the status quo than adopt Dr. Esselstyn's more preventative approach.
Dr. Campbell in the chapter "Scientific Reductionism" attacks the micro focus of research that simply looks at individual nutrients and vitamins. He demonstrates how the recommendations of groups like "National Academy of Sciences Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Committee" only "apply to foods as sources of nutrients- not to dietary supplements of individual nutrients." Dr. Campbell vehemently opposes the notion that "`specific components of the diet can be modified' to the benefit of one's health." He argues that foods like lean pork meat or fat free milk are an absurd notion that ignores the macro implications of available research: that the mere presence of animal-based proteins in your diet has the potential to disrupt important biological processes in the body, and that these harmful consequences cannot be avoided through the modification of animal proteins, but only through the elimination of them entirely from the diet.
As I noted in a review of the film, Forks Over Knives, the central thesis of this book is communicated in that work too, and something is even gained through the medium of film. Although, one should not, I believe, watch the film in light of reading the book, but rather should watch it in addition to reading this book. There is much to be gained from reading this book, from absorbing Dr. Campbell's thesis as he clearly and powerfully lays it out step-by-step.
That President Clinton's adoption of Dr. Campbell's whole food, plant-based diet has given this book a revival that it so deserves, I am forever grateful. That the former President had the choice of the best medical advice money can buy, and that he ultimately decided to follow a path Dr. Campbell sets out in this book, no longer surprises me. For anyone concerned with how what we eat impacts how we feel and how we live our life, for anyone struggling with, or at risk of: cancer, diabetes, heart disease, high cholesterol, obesity- I highly recommend this book. There may be a large portion of this book that you do not agree with, which is fine. Regardless of how much of this book you agree with, there will be at least morsels of sound science, delivered in a distilled, comprehensible style that you will be able to absorb, implement in your life, and benefit from.
on August 10, 2011
I am a Registered Nurse with a good working knowledge of diseases and nutrition. Even though I knew and did everything the traditional medical community did and was doing 'all the right things', I was unhealthy, overweight, and at extreme high risk for death! The scientific research taking place over several decades in The China Study is well documented with compelling evidence that makes eating a plant based, whole food diet completely logical. This book was a real "wake up call" for me. My view of food, the entire food industry, and in particular views on my own health have changed forever. I had blinders on, like most people. I thought my health problems were "genetic" and inevitable, and pretty much expected to get cancer or die of a heart attack and there was little I could do to prevent it, that I was doing all that I could, never imagining that I could take control of my health! I am now empowered with solid knowledge of how to be healthy, to reverse my heart disease and type II Diabetes, to avoid most diseases including cancer, and feel happier and healthier than ever before. All of my life I loved meat and dairy, but the overwhelming evidence presented in this book make me not ever want to put them in my body again. Since I have been vegan, I have lost substantial amount of weight, my doctor has taken me off medication for high blood pressure, Type II Diabetes, migraines, GERD, chronic joint/muscle pain, and high cholesterol. I no longer have Metabolic Syndrome (key indicator for impending heart attack) and am no longer in the "high risk" group for heart disease, in fact my last cardiac-checkup and my stress-test were so good, the doctor made me repeat the test because he couldn't believe the improvement, and I have never felt better in my life! Since I read The China Study, I have seen the documentary "Forks Over Knives", which dramatically cemented in my head the animal protein effects on the body. We all know cholesterol is bad for us, right? Did you know that ALL bad cholesterol (LDL) comes from animals? Eat animals = high LDL = heart disease, period!!! And then there's all the garbage pumped into animals raised for food and all of their stress hormones (from inhumane treatment NOT protected by animal cruelty law because they aren't "pets"!) released into their bodies you take in when you eat them.
I was like most people, not thinking about where my food came from, or what it was invisibly doing to my body. I was letting animal agriculture lobbyists dictate to the government what I can and cannot know about the food I was eating, and believing the "whitewash" propaganda. I was a victim of the country's healthcare system that wants us to be sick, taking expensive medications and getting expensive treatments and surgeries, and I blindly expected my doctor to tell me whatever is best for me; and I was getting sicker each year. I had my first heart attack in 1998 at the age of 39, and immediately began eating exactly as the American Heart Association told me to: no fried foods, only lean cuts of meat, increased fiber, cutting out red meat, no more simple carbs and sweets, eating more fruits and vegetables, and getting regular exercise. I continued to develop plaque in my arteries, and developed angina. In 2009 I had another heart attack, and had a stint placed. I was counseled by a Dietician who felt I was already on a very heart-healthy diet and exercise program and told to 'keep doing what you are doing' and was put on statin meds (along with other prescriptions I was already taking for Diabetes, GERD, hypertension, chronic pain, frequent migraines, and angina) and 2 months later I had another heart attack, and was told by my cardiologist I should "get my affairs in order", there was nothing more "they" could do and pretty much gave me a death sentence. So I lived thinking I was dying; until I decided to do something on my own, acquire knowledge, so I began deeply researching and I found this life-changing book. I immediately stopped eating meat, dairy, and eggs (the dairy was hardest to give up, because it has an addictive effect on the body) but I knew I had to do this if I wanted to cheat death!
Three months into a diet based entirely on plants with no dairy, eggs, processed food, and little oil, I had lost 35 pounds and my blood sugars were normal, and my GERD was gone and I was able to get off those prescriptions. After 5 months on the diet, I was able to get off my blood pressure medicine and the NSAIDs for chronic pain, and had lost another 20 pounds. I had not had an episode of angina nor have I had a migraine since my starting on a plant-based diet, so I don't need my Nitro or pain meds for migraine anymore. My arterial blockages which were at 70 and 85% are cleared completely. I have effectively reversed my heart disease and type II Diabetes, cured my GERD, migraines, and angina. I am heart attack proof and will not get most types of cancer, all thanks to the research of Drs Esslestyn (Forks Over Knives) and Campbell (The China Study) and being able to commit to a whole foods, plant based diet.
I have now been able to eliminate oil from my diet as well. I always enjoyed my food before, and sure, I miss some aspects of the normal, American diet, but I do NOT miss what it was doing to me; it was killing me! I really love all of the colorful and nutritious food I eat nw on a vegan diet, and so does my husband and son, who also eat a strong plant based diet after learning from The China Study and Forks Over Knives. I am 52 years old now, and have the energy and health of a 25 year old. I have so much energy! I can't believe after feeling "old" tired, and sick every day for 20 plus years, that I am feeling this good and not taking ANY prescriptions! To tell you the truth, I am very worried about our country's new healthcare plan that goes into effect next year, and was pretty sure with my health issues, I would be passed over for care, and probably not be able to get the medicines I was prescribed to keep me alive. Now I do not have that worry, I simply don't have health issues anymore!
I hope you will not wait until you are at the point I was to feed your body a truly healthful diet instead of a death diet. Sure, I had nothing else to lose by trying it, but IT WORKED, and anyone who eats a whole food (no processed stuff) plant based diet will become their healthiest self. I am healthy now, and even if you don't have health problems, wouldn't you want only the best for your body? I highly recommend anyone interested in their health or the health of their loved ones, to watch this documentary and share it with those you love. It will empower you to take control of your own health and well being.
on November 23, 2010
If Dr Campbell promotes moral or environmental reasons for going vegan, I'd congratulate him. But he is promoting it as the ultimate diet for humans.
Unfortunately, his advice that we should go vegan is not backed by his own study.
After reading this book, I went to find the actual study (the monograph "Diet, Life-style and Mortality in China") and there were many holes in his hypothesis. There was no correlation between animal protein and disease! I also found conflicting evidence in science journals. He ignored contrary results and left out data that did not support his view.
What I find disturbing is, this book is for the general public and will affect the dietary choices of many people. Most people don't have the time to research these facts for themselves so he takes advantage of that (but if you do, PLEASE go check the information for yourselves before making a decision on removing meat entirely for health reasons). Critical thinking is important.
Anyway, here are the problems with the information in this book:
- This study was an observational study. Problems with studies like these, it doesn't prove causality. Even with that, the results showed no correlation. In fact, it revealed that wheat had a stronger correlation than animal protein intake - which of couse, he left out of the book.
- Casein in milk, he demonstrated, causes cancer. But he also left out feeding SUGAR along with the protein. Sugar has been shown to promote tumor growth. He also didn't mention that casein is not consumed isolated in nature (human breast milk has casein too, should we ban that too?)
- He cited an Indian study that showed rats taking 20% casein with the toxin aflatoxin will develop cancer whereas rats taking 5% casein did not. He just forgot to mention that the rats on the low casein diet died after 6 months. While the 20% casein rats lived for 2 years.
- Protein from plants can also be "complete proteins" if you eat a wide variety of plant foods, based on Campbell's conclusions that complete protein like animal proteins can cause cancer, that must apply to plant proteins as well.
- He says "..there is a mountain of scientific evidence to show that the healthiest diet you can possibly consume is a high-carbohydrate diet". Actually, clinical studies show the opposite - that high carb diets (particularly refined carbs) are bad for diabetics, those who are obese, those with metabolic syndrome and some even show that it's bad for people with heart disease.
- He links total cholesterol with cancer mortality rates. Researchers still have trouble proving high cholesterol is associated with heart disease let alone cancer! (high triglycerides, with high VLDL and low HDL are better indicators than cholesterol. In fact, 50% of people who develop heart disease have mid to LOW cholesterol levels).
- He says overall, the more meat the Chinese consume, the higher the cancer rates. But unfortunately, he left out the county of Tuoli (as demonstrated by Denise Minger) a county with high consumption of meat AND dairy enjoyed ironically low incidences of cancer. The Masai, the Eskimos and even the French with their diets of high fat or dairy and animal protein have good health (low rates of heart disease, low cancer rates, low obesity).
- He believes that the lower rates of cancer among the Chinese compared to Americans must be due to their diet of low animal protein. It is well known that calorie restriction in animals and even in humans can improve health and longevity. This was shown during the world wars when food was rationed, rates of cancer and other diesases fell! The China study was done in the mid 1970's to 1980s - the tailend of the mass starvation of the Chinese before the Mao government loosened its grip on capitalism in the late 80s. For decades prior to the China Study, many counties had little food to eat. Ask any Chinese baby boomer from China and they can tell you how poor they were as children. I've heard stories of people eating roots and bark from trees out of desperation. Meat was highly valued and hard to come by. So the whole notion that the Chinese CHOSE to be vegans is insulting.
- Campbell makes it out as though we should all eat like the Chinese, for disease-free long life. Go find the statistics for longevity of the Chinese and you'll find the average life expectancy of the Chinese is lower than Americans. Yes, you heard right. You can check this yourself online. In fact, the countries with the highest life expectancy are the ones who consume the highest intake of fat and meat. It is a myth that the Japanese centenarians in Okinawa eat a low fat diet. They eat plenty of fish and seafood and their dishes are greasy.
There are more inconsistencies with the information. But you get the point. Before anyone accuses me of being a Campbell basher, think about this: he is SELLING a book, he has his reputation to defend, I don't sell anything, I'm not associated with the meat industry (I dislike them in fact), I bought this book (verified by Amazon) and giving an honest review without vegan-rose-colored-glasses on. I read it with an open mind and came out disappointed and mildly disgusted. Why? Because his suggestions may cause harm to his readers.
I'm not suggesting we go and eat as much factory farmed meat as we want. But free range, organic grass fed meat is healthy - high in omega3, low in omega6, low e.coli count, higher vitamin A and vitamin D in organs.
My review is not an attack on Dr Campbell as a person. I have not made any personal remarks about him. Nor am I attacking veganism or vegetarianism. I think they're morally valid ways to eat that work for some people. What I am attacking is the information, the content and what adverse affects it could have on people's health.
If you're hell bent on giving veganism a go, please take out sugar, refined wheat and Western tofu products from your diet.
I highly recommend this book - read it, check the facts and judge it for yourself.
on August 22, 2011
Read The China Study before agreeing with anyone's opinions here, mine included. Several of the claims by a featured negative reviewer are inaccurate, chief among them his unfounded and broad assessment that at the time of the study the Chinese diet was homogenous. Campbell specifically describes the variability in diet across the locations sampled. Unlike the reviewer, Campbell gives proof of variability. He describes how blood sampling was used to assess the amounts of animal fats, animal proteins, blood cholesterol, and other blood contents in the location-specific populations.
My reading of The China Study and of other works by medical researchers with strong dedication to fact has led me -- a gourmet -- to eschew much of the tasty but unhealthy fare in my diet. On my plate is plenty of what my mother used to call "bunny food" before she died early of cancer. My cholesterol is dropping and my general fitness and alertness are improving because of diet. (My ears are not lengthening, nor am I getting furry.)
I am always wary when a supposed "Truth in Science" person calls a scientist of Campbell's stature a "zealot". Leave that language for describing philosophical differences. Far more worrisome is what one discovers by following the money in medical research. Whose money is critical to staffing and funding medical schools and research institutions? Whose names are on the very buildings in which our medical experts work? Who are the "experts" called to serve on the policy-making government commissions and nonprofit councils? As with the cozy relationship between practitioners and the pharmaceutical industry until Marcia Angell pulled the curtain from around the vacations, free samples, and weekly pizzas, there are corrupting revolving doors in Congress and in medical research that make it profitable to align one's unproven or poorly founded opinions with the food industry. Too bad everyone who profits from the American dairy industry doesn't wear a white mustache.
In the end, this is science. It is not, as FOX news likes to claim, fair and balanced. Either thousands of people have improved their health and reversed diet-influenced disease or they haven't. When cardiologists send their loved ones to other cardiologists knowing they will prescribe a plant-based diet, the truth is leaking out to the general public. You choose: Greens or scalpel?
I believe in science and consider Campbell's work highly laudable for its contributions to the health and happiness of individuals and to controlling health care costs for our nation.
on December 12, 2009
The most critic review about this book has misled the readers in one aspect due to his misunderstanding of Chinese life style. This reader criticize the book using his own experiences of his journal to China. He see how Chinese live with his own eyes. The credibility is certainly high, as many Americans who's been to China experience the same. However, what he didn't know is a mistake of anachronism.
As Chinese, I have to point out this mistake. This reader said that Chinese eat a lot of meat or even snakes in the diet. However, this is the phenomenon beginning primarily after 1990s. Snakes eating are the "las Vagas" of the United states, uncommon only in southern part of China (Canton Province). When I was a small child in the 1980s, cancer was rarely heard of. My mother said, when she was a child, she never heard about cancer. We are also wondering why the cases of cancer have ever increased since the 1980s.
Dr. Campell's study is primarily built on the data collected earlier than 2000, when the environmental issues (pollution) were not serious in China.
Therefore, I believe that Dr. Campell's study has strong validity in describing the real situation more than a decade ago.
Please notice that China has changed a LOT in the past three decades. The data would be different today.
on December 28, 2006
I was put in a modern medical assembly line to "repair" the effects of modern lifestyle on my coronary arteries. After my angioplasty/drug eluding stent ordeal I got a second opinion (too late). The second Doctor prescribed this book. I read it, believed it, and have lived it for 8 months. I lost 30lbs., my stamina and physical performance has improved dramatically, and my cholesterol has dropped from 270 to 130 and I have gone off some of the drugs. Now whenever someone I love develops symptoms of lifestyle disease, diabetes, obesity or heart disease I give them the book. I thank you Dr. Campbell.