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20 of 22 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars why we buy what we buy
Dr. Saad has been a pioneer in bringing evolutionary ideas to the field of business. An overwhelming body of literature has now demonstrated that human decision-making is influenced by adaptively motivated biases we inherited from our ancestors. It follows that those motivated biases will influence how we allocate our scarce economic resources. This has profound...
Published on June 20, 2011 by Douglas T. Kenrick

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19 of 21 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Uneven
This is basically a tour of the evolutionary psychology (EP) space, with a particular emphasis on consumer behavior. It's got all the standard theories and studies and authors, presented in a pretty engaging style.

There were two sections that were a little different and that I particularly liked. In one, at the beginning, the author takes on several...
Published on August 9, 2011 by C. P. Anderson


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20 of 22 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars why we buy what we buy, June 20, 2011
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
Dr. Saad has been a pioneer in bringing evolutionary ideas to the field of business. An overwhelming body of literature has now demonstrated that human decision-making is influenced by adaptively motivated biases we inherited from our ancestors. It follows that those motivated biases will influence how we allocate our scarce economic resources. This has profound implications for consumer behavior, as Geoffrey Miller and others (Jill Sundie at UT, Vlad Griskevicius at Minnesota, and Josh Ackerman at MIT) have been arguing. These researchers have also been providing ample empirical demonstrations of the power of that viewpoint. Gad Saad has been been advancing an evolutionary approach to business for years, sometimes encountering opposition from colleagues in his field (who labor under a set of false Blank Slate assumptions that Saad reviews in the first chapter, along with brief rebuttals).

The consumer goods in Saad's clever title are not chosen randomly, but are matched to what he views as four overriding Darwinian pursuits:

1. Survival: We are here because our ancestors were inclined to eat fatty cooked meats and other calorie-dense foods scorned by all California vegans today. Transported into the present, our ancestors would have lined up at McDonald's for those juicy burgers in his title. In the modern world, Saad notes that the top ten restaurants are McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Burger King, Starbuck's, Subway, Pizza Hut, Wendy's, Taco Bell, Domino's Pizza, and Dunkin' Donuts. That diet does not help us live to 90, but the inclinations that drive those choices probably helped our ancestors survive until reproductive age.

2. Reproduction: As Saad notes, men are overwhelmingly the consumers of pornography, and this sex difference is just the tip of the iceberg. Indeed, flashy overpowered sports cars are also overwhelmingly a male purchase, and, Saad argues, mainly used as a sexual signal (and indeed the media from Fox News to the Belfast Telegraph is abuzz this week with a series of studies by Jill Sundie and colleagues that demonstrates the links between Porsches and mating displays). In Saad's own research, he finds that simply driving an expensive sports car triggers a boost in men's testosterone levels.

3. Kin Selection: Saad notes that many of our purchases are made for direct kin. This month, I've shelled out money for Legos, art supplies, summer recreational programs, as well as a number of special foods aimed to please my seven-year-old son. I just got back from lunch with him, his older brother, and my two grandchildren, and to test your knowledge of marketing behavior and inclusive fitness, guess who paid?

4. Reciprocity: We not only buy gifts and lunches for our kin, we buy gifts for friends, pick up the tab at the restaurant when we're with close friends, and so on. We do so not because we're economically "irrational," but because it feels good to make our close associates feel good. Indeed, gift-giving is linked not only to friends and kin, it is used to woo mates and to maintain relationships with them (think Valentine's day and anniversary presents). I enjoy Saad's abundant use of statistics to bolster the points. He informs us that fully 10 percent of retail purchases in North America are for gifts, which boils down to $1,215 per person, which starts to add up after a while (to a whopping $253 billion per year in the economy, in fact).

One could quibble with Saad's list of motivational forces, but I will instead simply agree with something that David Buss says in the foreward to the Consuming Instinct: This is a book that should be required reading at business schools. Besides a broad-ranging overview of research on marketing, psychology, economics, anthropology, and biology, Saad peppers the book with lots of take-home messages for consumers, policy-makers, and business people (this is an appealing feature of books aimed at the business crowd -- a la Heath and Heath's Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die and Goldstein, Martin, and Cialdini's Yes!: 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive- practical bottom-line suggestions of how the science can be used).

If you are either a professional businessperson or simply a consumer, I would challenge you read this book and Geoffrey Miller's Spent: Sex, Evolution, and Consumer Behavior -- and not come away thinking very differently about people's motives for buying the many, many, things they buy.

Doug Kenrick is author of Sex, Murder, and the Meaning of Life: A Psychologist Investigates How Evolution, Cognition, and Complexity are Revolutionizing our View of Human Nature
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19 of 21 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Uneven, August 9, 2011
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
This is basically a tour of the evolutionary psychology (EP) space, with a particular emphasis on consumer behavior. It's got all the standard theories and studies and authors, presented in a pretty engaging style.

There were two sections that were a little different and that I particularly liked. In one, at the beginning, the author takes on several arguments that are typically made against EP. Valuable stuff. In the other, at the end of the book, Saad argues for EP as a basis for all social science research. It's a bit of a stretch, but a very interesting idea.

So, why only 3 stars? There are a number of reasons:

- There's not a lot that's new here. If you read Geoffrey Miller's Spent, you probably don't need to read this one.
- The author forgets to tie in consumer behavior at points, focusing more on straight EP. The things he has to say are invariably very interesting, but he really can leave the reader hanging.
- The author jumps around quite a bit. He does typically end one section with a transition to the next, but some of these are very jarring and artificial.
- Saad likes to engage the reader by sharing some personal stories. Some of these are great. Some, though, are shaggy dog stories.
- His treatment of religion is quite negative ("Bronze Age superstitions that are antithetical to every rational tenet"). I don't really mind that much personally, but I just kept wondering why that tone was necessary. That's especially the case when you consider that there is some EP thought out there that basically says we evolved to believe.
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4 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Read This Book If You Want Understand Consumer Behavior, February 21, 2013
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
The aphorist, Aaron Haspel, once wrote: “Once you see human interaction as a contest to signal mating fitness, you never see it as anything else.” That’s both interesting and true, but for the purposes of this review, I’m going to need to paint with a broader brush: once you see all aspects of human existence as a product of evolution, you never see them as anything else. Modern-day consumerism is no exception and it’s the subject of Gad Saad’s fantastic book The Consuming Instinct.

Saad is a professor of marketing at Concordia University and writes a popular blog at Psychology Today called Homo Consumericus. Using various parts of evolutionary theory, Saad dissects modern-day consumer behavior with applaudable gusto. Parts of his analysis are sure to be offensive to some, which suggests to me that he’s on to something. As a general rule of thumb, if some people are strongly offended by an idea, it’s worth giving it special consideration. This is because many truths simply aren’t all that pleasant. Many people respond to these types of books with knee-jerk reactions full of personal attacks and hatred because they confuse positive statements with normative ones. I would urge these people to consider that explaining how things are says nothing about how they ought to be.

The subtitle of the book is What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature. Not surprisingly, they reveal quite a bit. These four items speak to the four Darwinian pursuits that underlie human existence: survival, reproduction, kin selection, and reciprocity. The consuming instinct, then, can be studied under the lens of evolutionary psychology (EP), which is a theoretical framework that proposes that the human mind evolved by the same Darwinian forces that shaped all animals. The human brain is simply another product of the dual evolutionary processes called natural selection and sexual selection. More people are familiar with former and not the latter, which can explain things like art, religion, and consumer behavior.

It’s worth noting that amongst those who believe in evolution, there seems to be a small contingent of people who believe that evolution can explain the human foot, but anything above the neck is off limits. In other words, they are hesitant to give any credence to the field of evolutionary psychology because they don’t like some of the logical implications that follow. Like Saad, I believe this is an egregious mistake. The human brain is an amazing thing, but the fact that some people want to elevate it to something that was created outside the bounds of the natural world is silly. I think Malcolm de Chazal would remind us of the following: “Monkeys are superior to men in this: when a monkey looks into the mirror, he sees a monkey.”

Political correctness be damned, Saad takes a refreshing and no holds barred approach to debunking the myths of social constructivism, particularly the myths surrounding gender differences. The Harvard evolutionist E. O. Wilson, once said: “The genes hold culture on a leash. The leash is very long, but inevitably values will be constrained in accordance with their effects on the human gene pool.” Anyone who understands the power of evolutionary theory will understand that marketing efforts for products that don’t align with our natural instincts are doomed to fail. Excellent marketers are intuitively well aware of this reality too — they understand that the way to market beer to men is different than is way to market cosmetics to women.

There is a reason why men consume more pornography, more Ferraris, and are more likely to participate in extreme sports than are women. These differences are due to a deep rooted evolutionary causes and it’s a sad state of affairs when one is considered a cultural deviant for suggesting that men and women, thanks to the process of evolution, have deep biological differences. I’ll proudly wear the label of “cultural deviant” if that’s the term used to describe people who are more interested in knowing the truth than they are in hearing fictitious, yet comforting stories.

Here’s an interesting fact from the book: studies show that when men drive a Porsche they experience an increase in testosterone levels. It appears that the mere act of sexual signaling can cause an increase in testosterone in men. How many men would care about driving a Porsche if no one were around to watch though? I suspect that the answer is not many. I think this is why you see men cruising around in Porsches and Ferraris in crowded hotspots like Chicago’s Viagra Triangle on a Saturday night and not in downtown Longmont, Colorado. This, of course, prompts an interesting philosophical question: If a sexual signal is flashed and no one is there to receive it, does it really exist?

Another thing that’s bound to upset social constructivists is that universal metrics of beauty do exist, and are not arbitrary social constructs. Studies show that a deep male voice is universally attractive, which makes sense since it indicates a greater exposure to pubertal testosterone. Studies also show that women with the optimum waist-to-hip ratio of around 0.7 are preferred by men around the world. Universally, for men, achieving high status in the social hierarchy matters greatly if one wants to be an attractive mate, while, for women, it’s physical beauty that matters most.

One of my favorite chapters was called “Marketing Hope by Selling Lies”. In the chapter Saad explains that there are many unpleasant biological-based realities, like aging, mortality, sexual boredom in monogamous relationships, and the fact that children are born with innate differences in abilities. Marketers, and self-help gurus of all varieties, see this as an opportunity. After-all, it provides them a chance to sell hope, which is often nothing but an especially insidious form of snake oil.

Saad sees religion as the greatest (and perhaps evilest) product ever devised. He writes: “Religion possesses unique attributes that render it a marketer’s dream product.” Indeed it is. A number of televangelists get in front of audience every Sunday and tell their delusional, yet optimistic followers that God has great things in store for them in the afterlife if only they give up their worldly possessions to their preacher in this life. Don’t worry, God wants the preacher to have your money — apparently He said so. Alas, these religious charlatans are smart enough to know that it helps to plant the seed of fear early if you want to swindle people out of their money later in life.

The Argentine shipping magnate Aristotle Onassis once famously said: “If women didn’t exist, all the money in the world would have no meaning.” Even if you already intuitively understand why that is so, I highly recommend reading The Consuming Instinct anyway.
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2 of 3 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars Interesting leap into Evolutionary Psychology, December 6, 2011
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
This is a fine book. It made me think. It does a good job of breaking down social constructionist theory about how everything is about nature and not nurture - those were some of the highlights. I think the author makes some big leaps about how we have evolved and what we consume, many of which are probably accurate. He does seem to be quite angst about organized religion and the existence of God. I could do without the overt antagonistic elite atheism.

I appreciate his thinking, scholarship and for looking at this issue in a new way.
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3.0 out of 5 stars Intriguing idea, left me wanting more, February 19, 2014
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C. Magee (New York, NY) - See all my reviews
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
There is some very interesting stuff in this book. Chapter 10 (Darwin in the Halls of Business Schools) was most interesting, particularly in demonstrating how behavioral economics falls short in demonstrating *that* we have a tendency but not *why*. The author clearly demonstrates the value in looking to evolutionary influences on present behavior. This lens can inform whether we should expect a particular behavior to be culture-specific, gender-specific, or universal. And indeed there are intriguing examples of this.

But too often the book left me feeling like I was reading opinion rather than science, particularly when the author would offer another long list of examples of a phenomenon as if that were proof. Whether the author is in fact falling prey to the availability heuristic or just using it to drum up support for an otherwise sound thesis is hard to discern, but in either case the lists of examples feel manipulative. I was particularly unimpressed when he used examples to show how male politicians are much more prone to philandering than female politicians. It isn't mentioned that (a) most politicians are male, (b) there might be a difference between the actual rates of philandering and the reported or remembered instances, and (c) to the extent that these were generally heterosexual relationships, women are still involved.

The book is worth reading. I just wish the whole book were as good as the last quarter.
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4.0 out of 5 stars A Darwinian explanation for ostentatious human purchasing behaviour, July 7, 2012
By 
Anthony R. Dickinson (WashU Med School, USA) - See all my reviews
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
The latest in a series of related writings from Gad Saad, this volume is a flirtatiously styled yet seriously presented text which seeks to enlighten the reader concerning the biological basis of consumer choice in the market place. Indeed, the book could as well be subtitled `Satisfying the Darwinian fears linked to survival, mating, family relationships and friendships', but may then likely sell fewer copies in the airport bookstore. Essential reading for all sales and marketing professionals, but also for anyone wishing to study explanations (if not the ultimate causes) of individual and collective consumer decision-making. Not another `self-help' book, however (far from it !), the author's intentions are to simply defend his main thesis that, "Homo consumericus is a Darwinian organism shaped by millions of years of evolution, [our] consumer choices manifestations of their common biological heritage", and thus possessive of a common `consumer instinct' rooted in our human biological history. Although primarily an academic work written in clearly accessible prose, addressing (and presenting evidence for) largely the concerns and findings of academic research, Saad (successfully in my view) informs his readers as consumers, marketers, and policy decision makers.

Combining much of the same ground covered in the recently reviewed `Genome' (Ridley, 2011) and `Unthinking' (Beckworth, 2011) (see Metapsy reviews at:
[...] & [...]), Saad champions the cause of the view from evolutionary psychology that many consumer choices are driven by (if not at least explainable by) an appeal to their subsequent display as `extended phenotypes' (Dawkins); discussing cars, high heeled shoes, cosmetic use, and other luxury goods, as determined by their ostentatious personal possession, to be `artifacts rooted in a biological imperative'. Each of the 10 chapters (plus a concluding statement) cover a different exemplar area for exploration of Saad's thesis, with excellent referencing of the key papers and research findings supporting his claims for those wishing to follow up with the source literature. And the conclusions are consistent. Discussing fast food choices, the most popular (or at least globally best-selling) products are "directly linked in their congruence with an evolved predisposition" for fatty foods in lean times (Ch. 2). "Darwinian forces compel consumers to partake in a wide range of investments [read, purchases, for the purpose of] solidifying bonds of kinship" (Ch. 4). As for buying rounds in the bar, "Human sociality [online and offline these days] are driven by the evolutionary imperative to form bonds of reciprocity" (Ch. 6). In this sense, Saad's thesis is well presented and documented, with plenty of sex (as in reproductive success, not socialised `gender studies') thrown in as direct exemplar material for consideration (and entertaining if not newly informative reading), providing a text well worthy of addition to the two books mentioned above.

Without giving too much away here, the current reviewer envisages that some marketers and/or advertising professionals may find this text a little burdensome in using its findings to drive the details of their own next campaign with the optimum `market fitness' in mind. However, this is neither a failing of the work, nor was it (I believe) Saad's intention to suggest what the consumer industry `should' instead be doing. The author's explanations and thesis' predictions (this is documented science after all, not post-MBA marketing critique fodder), if thought about seriously, may nonetheless be of significant use to those embarked upon a career involving the need/desire to influence the decision-making and motivations of others, whilst also (perhaps) help explain why they themselves made some of the investments that they did (and why, at the time of purchasing them !).

Tony Dickinson
Academic Research Laboratory (ARL, HK), KBET+ (USA/China). July, 2012.
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3.0 out of 5 stars It's not all fun and games when it comes to this book, December 29, 2011
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
You get what the book says it will give no doubt about it, but you need to stay focused if u skim you will miss many important sophisticated details and words. But when he talks about the darwinism aspects of the consumer that's when the fun and games begins...its ok to skip to those middle chapters for the juicy comment although the book keeps you intrigued throughout the read
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4.0 out of 5 stars funny, and informative, November 11, 2014
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John J. Arch (Anaheim Hills, CA United States) - See all my reviews
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Infinitely entertaining, funny, and informative. You'll be smiling as you read each chapter, recognizing the habits and pitfalls pertaining to our insatiable consumption. Some passages are laugh out loud funny. You won't be disappointed.
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5.0 out of 5 stars A great discovery to understand the evolution dynamics and how they ..., October 12, 2014
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
A great discovery to understand the evolution dynamics and how they are manipulated by marketers so far ! Now I understand the causes of my most common behaviours which helped me to be more friendly with myself ! Thanks Gad.
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2 of 4 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Consume the Consuming Instinct!, July 23, 2011
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SurferDave (Boca Raton, FL) - See all my reviews
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This review is from: The Consuming Instinct: What Juicy Burgers, Ferraris, Pornography, and Gift Giving Reveal About Human Nature (Hardcover)
The Consuming Instinct is a solid, well-written, and well-researched book that summarizes most of the social science findings regarding evolutionary psychology as it relates to consumer buyer behavior. We would all like to behave in a certain way (e.g., eat healthier, exercise, etc.), and this book does a wonderful job of explaining why our best intentions and our actual results are quite varied. If you ever wondered why you "want" to eat a salad and go for a run, but instead end up ordering a burger while watching a movie, this book is for you. It ends the ever-changing notion of how consumers "should" behave, and offers compelling evidence for how they actually "do" behave. Further, the ideas posited in this book have held true over time; and from the wealth of evidence presented, they will likely hold true for the foreseeable future. Anyone looking for a deeper understanding of the underlying forces that drive human behavior, particularly as it relates to marketing and consumption, should consume The Consuming Instinct!
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