The author of this book, Paul Findley, was a Congressman from Illinois for some 22 years. This puts him in the unique position to criticize his target. That target is the pro-Israel lobby, specifically AIPAC (The American-Israel Public Affairs Committee). Findley believes that many politicians have lost elections due to the influence of this group. Findley himself thinks they played a role in his own defeat in the early 1980's. Why would AIPAC use lobbying clout to defeat politicians? Because some of these figures dared to question the intimate relationship between the U.S. and Israel.
The book is extremely well written and organized, although there are no numbers in the text to match the endnotes at the back of the book. At first, I snickered at some of the accusations Findley makes. After all, shouldn't a criticism of AIPAC be extended to ALL political action groups? Wouldn't it be just as easy to point out that this is a symptom of a larger problem, that of outside influence in politics? What quickly becomes apparent is that AIPAC uses threats and intimidation to cow any voices that speak out against what Israel is doing to the Palestinians. Those who can't be dealt with immediately are publicly branded as anti-Semites or Jew haters. Some are even compared to Nazi war criminals. The people Findley discusses are hardly goose-stepping thugs. They are people who are concerned that Israel is using American weapons to kill innocent civilians. Some oppose the Israeli theft of Palestinian land, or Israeli spying within U.S. institutions. Almost all of these people begin to receive letters, threatening phone calls and other heavy-handed tactics designed to shut them up.
Findley shows how the pro-Israel lobby intimidates government officials, educators, restaurant owners and journalists into toeing the Israel line while denying the Arab position on any matter. Even presidents have felt the pressure from Israel's lobby. Reagan renewed the shipment of cluster bombs to the Israelis even after it was known that Israel used them on Palestinians in the past and would probably do so again in the future. Although not mentioned in the book, even Clinton felt the pressure. He came close to pardoning Jonathan Pollard, the Israeli spy, until the heads of the FBI and CIA threatened to resign if he did so. Findley talks about Pollard in the book, and the tale is staggering to behold. Pollard continues to receive pay from the Israelis, even though he is in prison. Documents stolen by Pollard were never returned by Israel, and many of these papers ended up in the hands of the Soviet Union, endangering U.S. lives and security. Israel also refused to hand over Pollard's handlers. These Israeli agents ended up with lucrative positions back in Israel.
Probably the most disturbing account in this book is that of the USS Liberty. The Liberty was a U.S. warship that was viciously attacked by Israeli planes and gunboats in 1967. Despite flying a U.S. flag in a stiff breeze and clearly marked numbers and names on the hull, the Liberty was strafed, torpedoed and napalmed by Israel. The toll was staggering: 34 dead and 171 injured. The U.S. government not only delayed sending a rescue mission to the imperiled ship until well after the attack, they covered up the entire incident. Documents were destroyed or hidden and letters to the families of the dead failed to take into account what really happened to their loved ones. A book written about the attack by James Ennes was blackballed. Even if this attack was a mistake, and Findley presents plenty of evidence to the contrary, covering it up is a crime tantamount to treason.
There is plenty of evidence in this book to make any thinking person stand up and take note. To criticize Israeli policy is not anti-Semitism. Not one of the people in this book ever tried to deny Israel the right to exist as a state. They merely wanted Israel held accountable for its behavior towards the Palestinians. As can be expected, Findley has suffered insults and slurs for his beliefs. Read this book.
on December 15, 1999
I feel that this book is a must read for all Americans interested in U.S. - Middle East relations and the challenges to formulating a more balanced and just policies. Paul Findley, an Illinois Congressman for 22 years, examines the role of pro-Israel special interest groups in heavily influencing public officials and policy makers into making biased and counterproductive decisions impacting our relationship with the countries of an important region of the world. Findley has carefully researched and examined the extent of pro-Israel lobbying in this nation. While he defends the rights of American citizens to support causes they feel a moral obligation to, he argues eloquently that the interests of another country should never be placed above the interests of the United States.
I highly recommend this book to anyone interested in understanding the importance of having balanced foreign policies, particularly at a time when the United States is trying to serve as an honest broker to resolving conflicts in the Middle East and elsewhere. It was educational and a real eye opener to me, a seeker of truth and objectivity.
on January 20, 2007
I read this book many years ago when I was a student of Middle East Politics at UC Berkeley. I recently took it down to compare it with other recent works on the subject. I now appreciate that former Congressman Findley's book was truly a trail blazer in exposing the systematic attempt by Israeli supporters to stifle all dissent. What Findley documents are individual examples of blatant intimidation to publicly humiliate and demean anyone in this country that has the audacity to question the United States' blind policy in supporting Israel. This book should be read by every American who is concerned about the "closing of the American mind" on debate about Israel and US policies in the MIddle East. Given the perilous times that we now live in, it is vital that this country engage in a vigorous national debate. In addition to Findley's book, I would also recommend everyone read James Petras' "The Power of Israel in the United States" and President Jimmy Carter's recent book.
on January 5, 2000
Paul Findley has written one incredible, eye-opening book that calls into question the high pressure, unethical, slander tactics used against academics, religious figures, journalists and political figures who speak out against the American Israel Public Affairs Committee's overzealous involvement and desirous control of economic and military diplomacy as well as education. This is a group that nobody wants to mess around with. The power hungry citizens and 'big wigs' in this lobby have a disturbing amount of clout that really makes you look at government differently. To stand up and speak out against Israel's lobby and their very questionable dealings in national and foreign affairs is essentially to put a career/social/economic death mark on your forehead. The shady dealings that this group instigates and leads, whether it be on a large or small scale, undermines the ethics and principles for which this country and the Jewish faith stand for. This book is an education in itself. Although disturbing, because it makes the Constitution seem like a useless piece of paper with 'silly' writing on it, Findley's book is very benefical if you want to know how a facet of foreign and national policy operates.
on February 14, 2004
Ever since I happened to notice George W. Bush repeating over and over again during his presidential campaign the mantra, "I know one thing -- Israel is our friend", my interest was piqued. At the time, I thought conservatives were largely at odds with Jews due to their reputations for being liberal Democrats. (Since then, I have discovered that conservative Christians often support Israel because of their biblical beliefs regarding Jews as God's chosen people).
Later, I saw Hillary Clinton stammer and look visibly shaken during an otherwise very confident and fine performance on a Crossfire appearance, when Chris Matthews pressed her about the Palestinian right to statehood, and her only being able to blindly repeat the stock answer "well, I support Israel's right to defend itself." I thought...hmmm, this is interesting. It seems that nobody, regardless of political persuasion, wants to say anything even remotely being construed as being against Israeli policy.
Since then I have read a lot on the issue and have been watching the news media and our government officials more closely. The most recent standout example was when Howard Dean was publicly criticized for the apparent crime of saying that US needed more balance in its policies with respect to the Israel/Palestine issue. Joseph Lieberman publicly castigated Dean for that statement, saying he was hurt and saddened Dean had been so insensitive to Jews.
Does sensitivy to Jewish feelings mean that we must muzzle oursleves with respect to U.S. foreign policy? After all, it is our money, our security, and our lives that we're talking about. Findley's book shows that this is more true than we ever thought possible in a supposedly "free" society. He shows how powerful pro-Israel lobby wields such influence that governmental officials and the media cannot even public disagree when Israeli interests counter U.S. interests. If what Findley says is true, a one-time leader of the powerful AIPAC actually boasted that his organization actually controls U.S. foreign policiy in the Middle East. Apparently Congressmen and Senators routinely "clear" their positions and legislation with AIPAC before proceeding.
Over and over again I have watched the U.S. government and our main media outlets whitewash, or more likely, completely fail to cover, Palestinian deaths at the hands of Israelis, while never failing to report and denounce Israeli deaths at the hands of Palestinians (despite the fact that far more Palestinians have died). Our unbelievable amount of monetary and military aid to Israel, more than 3 billion annually, is outside of the realm of public debate.
Along the way I have talked to many Jews and non-Jews, in a sincere effort to come to some understanding about all this, to determine what is at the root of this seemingly inseperable and super-loyal bond between the U.S. and Israel.
Up until I read Findley's book, nobody has ever been able to articulate the reasons behind the power that Israel holds over our country (and thus over U.S. taxpaying citizens). In talking to others, I dismissed comments I got like "well, you know the Jews run the country", knowing that Jews have always been shunned and discriminated against and that was too convenient an answer. I wanted real answers -- facts, not opinions -- from an insider, someone in a position to know. With this book I got them.
The edition I read was from 1985, but based on what I observe going on in the country today, things have not changed any since then, if they have not gotten worse. It is impossible to call into question our foreign policy or the actions of the Israeli government without being labeled anti-Semitic, something that is very dangerous indeed. Equating the individual with the individual's goverment is always a dangerous thing. Open debate and access to facts must be a staple of a democracy, of a "free society", as our president is fond of saying.
It appears to me that whether Jew, Arab, or any other religion, too much of a marriage of church and state, or perhaps more precisely, a marriage between religion and ethnicity, always results in great conflict, unrest and thousands of dead people. When people start painting all people of a certain ethnicity with the same brush, when we start talking about "the Palestinians" or "the Jews" as if they all were the same, we run into big trouble.
As an analogy, imagine if we had citizenship quotas in the United States -- for example, to rectify past injustices, if by law we had to maintain no less than a 70% Native American population in the United States, and that political boundaries were be constantly being adjusted to preserve this majority. If you think for a second that the rest of us would take that lying down and just walk away, without a revolution, well we all know that would just never happen.
But this is exactly what is happening in Israel - an Israeli ethnic majority is openly pursued and maintained, yet it is still referred to, at least by the United States, as one of the few democracies in the Middle East.
I truly marvel at the psychology of those among a people as historically opressed as the Jews, who cannot seem to look past their own needs and their own pain to see the pain and injustice suffered by others at their own hands. (Findley correctly points out that many Israeli and Jews in America do publicly speak out) but I am speaking of those who show no apparent sympathy for the plight dreary and powerless life of the average Palestinian. This extreme and destructive self-intrest exists on both sides -- the Palestinian suicide bomber likewise displays an appalling lack of empathy for his fellow man.
Thank goodness for courageous people like Paul Findley and for those profiled in his book who do "dare to speak out". These people evidently recognize that truth is the most precious ingredient in a democracy, and more importantly, it is what we must all work hard to seek seek out and strive to live by.
I strongly recommend this book for people find themselves looking at the all the spin, who know that facts as they are presented just don't add up.
This book fills in the gaps and is wholly consistent with what I see going on today. There was not one thing that I read in this book that didn't seem quite right. If you can clearly see the "what", but are still trying to find out the "why", this book will connect the dots for you.
on May 20, 2005
Wow !! I have read many books on that subject...But Paul Findley's book sits at the top of them all !!
Bravo Mr.Findley for exposing the thruth !! Antisemitism ????? Naaaaaaaah !! Not at all !! Critizism ???? Yeaaaaaah!!!
The word antisemitism is used at every zionist sauce !! There is a large jewish community where I live and they all agree that Israel politic of agression on Palestine is a non-sense...furthermore an ultra-orthodox group is simply saying that Israel existence is a sin !!!
I was barred from discussion groups on internet as soon as I mentioned Paul Findley's book ''They dare to speak out ''
Nothing spooky about zionist running USA...it is a fact !!
Is AIPAC a threat to our democraty ,freedom,amendments...???
We have to be aware of AIPAC influence on the Congress...the White House...the Pentagon...
People like Wolfowitz,Perle,Fleischer,Freeh..etc have dragged USA in a illegal invasion...Iraq !!! Our soldiers are paying the price of Israel policies of agressions
Wolfowitz masterminded Iraq invasion long before the very first Iraq war...Desert Storm...he needed a spark..9-11 provided him ,Bush and Cheney what they needed...
Richard Clarke also denounces the influence of Aipac..Wolfowitz...Our medias are biased...How can we expect to get some truth when a man like Wolf Blitzer a former AIPAC employee an d Jerusalem correspondant are anchoring the news ???
on February 7, 2002
This is a very well written and researched book by former congressman Paul Findley. Every patriotic American who cares about the U.S. national interests and its wellbeing, not some narrow alien interests, should read this book. It's also vital for anyone who wants to understand the real reason why until this moment there's continual conflict in the Middle East with no end in sight.
The book documents AIPAC's (Israel's lobby in the US and its outreach) intimidation tactics and the fear it inspires in all sections of the US establishment and society to provide uncritical, unqualified, and unquestioned support for Israel, even if that support is detrimental to US interests. It mainly covers the period from the late sixties to the late eighties. Findley did a meticulous research and interviewed many key personalities especially for the book.
The book starts with Findley's own experience, when the lobby played a key role in his defeat in congressional elections by excessively funding his opponent and using smear tactics because he was urging Congress to make the vital US aid to Israel contingent on Israel's cooperation in a just peace with the Palestinians, to establish good relations with Arab nations that are very eager to do so with the US (e.g., Yemen and Syria), and to force Israel to stop illegal settlement activities in the West Bank and Gaza.
Then it covers similar experiences with other Senators and Congressmen who criticized Israeli policies. Although all of these legislators voted in support of Israel 90% to 98% of the time, including Findley himself, the lobby demanded absolute loyalty and practically ousted all of those who don't have an unblemished voting record for Israel. Findley also illustrates the lobby's outreach, especially the so-called stealth PACs (Political Action Committees) who represent Israel's interests, although their titles mask this fact, to circumvent legal limits on funding for contestants. Even the Oval Office is not immune from the Lobby's pressure. For example, Ronald Reagan had to use the Lobby's help to pressure Congress to approve extension of US Marines' stay in Lebanon in 1982.
The Lobby's power doesn't stop at the legislative body, Findley argues, but also permeates the executive branch as well. Many State Department and Pentagon officials complained that their departments are thoroughly infiltrated by Mosad spies and that Israel has more inside information than most top officials. For example, during the Yom Kippur war of 1972, the Pentagon made an inventory search for 90mm ammunition to replenish Israel but couldn't find any, only to be flabbergasted that Israel knows better and found the ammunition in a depot in Hawaii! Others complained that Israel has access to top-secret R&D departments and knows classified codes and specifications that even top officials in the Pentagon are prohibited to know they even exist! These rampant spying operations culminated in 1985 when Jonathan Pollard, an Israeli spy, caught by the FBI after he smuggled to Israel volumes of vital US secrets. These secrets eventually ended up in the KGB hands and caused the US irreparable damage.
Findley demonstrates that the Lobby's intervention is undermining US values of free speech and academic and journalistic honesty. For example, during the 1976 Israeli aggression against its neighbors, Israeli jetfighters and torpedoes launched an hour-long attack on the intelligence ship USS Liberty, murdering 34 and wounding 171 American sailors. Within 15 minutes of the onslaught the Sixth Fleet stationed in the Mediterranean dispatched jetfighters to defend the ship but were later called back midway after learning it was Israel attacking the ship, leaving the sailors to Israel's mercy. An ensuing investigation proved that the attack was deliberate to prevent the ship from learning Israel's covert activities during the war, but the incident was virtually blacked out. Intimidation of the media is widespread and many journalists who criticized Israel's oppression of the Palestinians were forced to resign. For example, during the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, Thomas Friedman's description of Israel's bombing of Beirut as "indiscriminate" against civilians was censored out of the New York Times. In 1974, National Geographic magazine was forced to make the first retraction since its establishment in 1888 of an article proving that Syrian Jews were treated well. The Lobby pressured the magazine to twist the facts to cast Syria in negative light. Even the clergy weren't immune from intimidation. For example, the Reverend Francis Sayre had his career ended when he criticized Israel's maltreatment and dispossession of Palestinians in Jerusalem.
Most disturbing, according to Findley, is the Lobby's smear campaign against Americans of Arab ancestry and its active opposition to any academic program that treat Arabs fairly. For example, in 1977, three colleges (Swarthmore, Haverford, and Bryn Mawr) were forced to withdraw request for funding of a Middle East Studies program because "Arab money is too hot to handle". In 1982, the University of Arizona's Near East Center was virtually shut down, its heads resigned, and its material banned in the community because it illustrated Arabs in positive light, even though the coordinator's material covered the period from 600 to 1948, before the establishment of Israel! Edward Said, a prominent Columbia professor, was constantly harassed and picketed by the Lobby's campus outreach using the Lobby's "Creative Packaging" strategy when he spoke for the Palestinian cause. They disrupted many of his lectures by shouting and insulting him. "It's a pure fascism, outright hooliganism", Said laments.
Those who libel Findley as anti-Semite apparently haven't read the book. He dedicates an entire chapter to contest that "not all Jews toe the line". Many courageous Jews stood up to the Lobby and embraced Palestinian rights to dignity and self-determination. Unfortunately, they were degradingly branded as "self-hating Jews" and shunted as pariahs from the organized community. Findley counters that the Lobby abuses the "anti-Semitic" slander to silence criticism of Israel and that the exploitation of the slander to cover Israel's misdeeds harms Jewish interests in the long run.
Findley concludes that only knowledge and activism by concerned citizens can curb the Lobby's abusive power.
on June 5, 2004
Findley's book should compel us to reevaluate our relationship with Israel. It is compulsory reading even to those who are remotely interested in America's Middle East policies. Factual, objective and deeply disturbing, this book courageously exposes the hijack of powerful American political institutions by pro-Israeli lobbies. America's claim to be a `honest peace-broker' in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is thoroughly discredited in this book.
Fanatically attached to Israel, it's the latter that diabolically manipulates for its own selfish interests the United States foreign policies with regards to the Middle East. Just like the Nazis who skillfully exploited the Weimar democracy to bring about totalitarianism, Israel does the same with America's democratic and liberal institutions to justify its ongoing persecution of the Palestinian people.
As an American, I feel painfully devastated to know that the majority of our elected Congressmen are utterly spineless with their persistent failure in resisting the unjustifiably aggressive pro-Zionists lobbies. The terrible truth is that these cowardly, if not traitorous, politicians are so eager in their demonstration of loyalty to Israel rather than to their own country. Findley illustrates numerous instances of the lobbies' persistence in securing their questionable objectives even when they openly conflict with America's domestic interest.
It is unnerving to realise that the officials of AIPAC, ADL, AJC and other pro-Israeli lobbies have penetrated almost every level of America's leading political, economic and social institutions. Chapters 7 & 8 have been devoted to analyzing the lobbies attack on academic freedom in the U.S. Even our students are not being told the complete truth as to what is actually occurring in the Middle East.
In their misguided religious zeal, Christian Zionists have appointed themselves as the unofficial spokesman of the Israeli government in justifying the latter's oppression and denial of Palestinian rights. Little do these Christians realize that this perverse attitude runs counter to the genuine spirit of their faith. Findley examines this disturbing phenomenon in chapter 9 of his book.
This book makes it painfully clear that these unscrupulous lobbyists are more than prepared to pursue their agenda by every criminal and unethical means which include intimidation, sustained harassment, blackmail, character assassination and the occasional death threats. If you seek to understand the American occupation of Iraq (despite the worldwide protest against such aggression), this book may provide some answer. Suffice to say that the devastation of Iraq greatly promotes Israel's interest in the region. Our dear President has, like those who were before him, succumbed to the subtle yet determined persuasion of the powerful pro-Israeli lobby.
This book deserves to be distributed as widely as possible. Every American who loves his country should read it. Only then will he understand why the rest of the world, especially the Muslim Middle East, is against our great nation. I salute Mr. Findley for making the courageous, if not controversial, decision of writing this book. I truly appreciate his contribution in making me comprehend the ugly reality of America's attitude towards the Middle East. Anti-Semitic he is not; a national hero he is.
Paul Findley was a Congressional representative for 22 years and became friendly with Arabs on a diplomatic mission. He learned about the Arab side of the argument in their relationship with Israel in the Middle East. Apparently, he became too cozy with the Arabs for the Israeli lobby in the United States to bear so the America Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) began to campaign against him during his bid for re-election. A Jewish newspaper went so far as to call him a practicing Anti-Semite during the campaign for his sympathy for the Arab cause. Whether he lost the election soley to such smear tactics is questionable.
The Arabs claim that US weapons provided to Israel for defensive purposes only are often used against them in a illegally aggressive manner and therefore they disapprove of our military support of Israel. Israel has also been known to build settlements illegally on the West Bank, which raises the ire of the Palestinians. The biggest problem is that more sympathy and support from the US government goes to Israel and the Arabs are rarely given a chance to have their side of the argument heard in the US.
The support for Israel comes from the Jewish political groups in the US. They put a lot of pressure on representatives to toe the line in support for Israel. They do not tolerate dissent on the issue and do not want any arguments against complete support for Israel to be discussed. Raising such arguments can get the dissenter labelled falsely as an anti-Semite or at least anti-Israel. Although other ethnic groups in the US have lobbies for the interests of their homelands, the Israel lobby is the most effective and powerful and skews our foreign policy towards Israel's interests rather than our own. People have been attacked physically and verbally and have had livelihoods threatened for opposing the Israeli lobby in the US.
Israel itself can be a very treacherous ally considering that they deliberately attacked on our ships during the 1967 war in Israel. It was the USS Liberty that was attacked and several of our military men died in the attack. Israel also killed off innocent civilians in their invasion of Lebanon which further rankled our relationship with other Middle Eastern countries.
On the home front, Jewish political groups also attempt to control academic freedom when it comes to Middle Eastern studies. They do not want any information presented that might be critical of Israel or sympathetic to the Arabs.
The Jews in the US seem to be driven by fear to control the debate over the Middle East for their side only. They do it for survival reasons, thinking that if they protect Israel as their homeland, they will always have a place of refuge in case a new holocaust starts. Many Amercian members of The Tribe would like to speak out against the pro-Zionist lobby and the status quo in Middle Eastern policy here in the US, but they are also intimidated by the pro-Zionists. Zionists also get a lot of support from conservative Christians who think it is God's will that we should always support Israel, according to their interpretation of Scripture.
This is a good book for those who want to know more about why we are fighting in the Middle East other than the argument that Bin Laden hates our freedoms. It is because we give Israel unquestioned support against Arab nations that has enraged terrorists like Bin Laden against us. It explains why the Jews do what they do without resorting to Anti-Semitic conspiracy theories or dehumanizing arguments. Ironically, it is the Jewish activists' suppression of free speech and fair debate that may increase anti-Semitism. Findley wants open debate so a middle ground can be found for the interests of Jews, Israelis, Arabs, and Americans.
on September 23, 2006
I read a lot of books and this is one of the most important books I've ever read. It is absolutely packed with facts that very few Americans know, facts that will probably contribute to what kind of America will exist in the future. If we continue our slavish, nearly unconditional support for the militaristic policies of Israel's Likud Party it seems likely that we will experience more deadly terrorism and possibly slip into a more authoritarian society. Not the America you've come to know and love.
Paul Findley was a Republican member of Congress from Abe Lincoln's Springfield IL for 20 years until the Israel lobby contributed to his defeat in 1982. He became interested in MidEast issues by accident doing a service for one of his constituents, but as his knowledge grew he stood up for MidEast peace in Congress until the Israel lobby defeated him. In 1978 he was so popular he won 70% of the votes in his district; in 1980 the lobby aggressively supported his opponent and he got 56%; in 1982 Dick Durbin ran against him with Israel lobby support and Findley lost by 1407 votes.
But, they say what goes around comes around and after his defeat and having seen the dirty, smear tactics the Lobby used against him he spent a couple of years researching and writing this book. (It is remarkable that Israel-supporters, one of whose major organizations is the Anti-Defamation League, is so practiced at the systematic use of public defamation of those who only mildly disagree with them.) This book is packed with examples of the hardly believable, massive influence the Israel lobby has exercised over politics, public debate in the media and university campus discussion even mildly critical of Israel. It is extremely well researched and has a very high signal to noise ratio (very little mere emotional rhetoric). Although Findley had considerable difficulty finding a publisher, as do all books and articles critical of Israel, the 2003 edition is the third.
It cites the example of people like Charles Percy, J. William Fulbright, George Ball, Adlai Stevenson III, and many others commenting on the stranglehold this lobby has on American policy and discussion about Israel. The level of this influence will shock you if you read this book, that's guaranteed.
How many of you know how many detrimental events have arguably occurred to America because of our nearly unquestioning support of Israel? OPEC's 1973 oil embargo, the 1983 bombing which killed 243 Marines in Beirut, 9/11, and many more. (Of course the Israel lobby would come up with a whole list of clever and devious arguments that these events weren't the result of US support for Israel, but if you read Findley's book you will begin to learn to identify these clever, disingenuous arguments.)
A very tiny example of influence can be seen in the one-star votes this book has received here on Amazon, they have no arguments but merely try to bring the rating of this book down. It is remarkable that this book has received so many reviews (77 and counting) and so many of them are so highly positive. Read it and prepare to be shocked.
For additional information on the Israel lobby read Michael Saba's, "The Armageddon Network" and the scholarly article, "The Israel Lobby and US Foreign Policy" by John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt published in the London Review of Books and on the Kennedy School of Government website in 2006.