"The American Pentecostal movement transformed church history in the 20th century. With roots in the 19th-century holiness revival, which taught believers to seek a second work of sanctification after their conversion, Pentecostalism added speaking in tongues as the necessary evidence of Holy Spirit baptism. Jacobsen (Messiah College) describes theological ideas from the first generation of Pentecostals, c. 1900, 1925, by closely analyzing the published writings of 12 of the most interesting and articulate leaders. Some choices are obvious, such as Charles Parham, founder of Pentecostal theology, and William Seymour, leader of the Azusa revival, which launched Pentecostalism into international recognition. On the other hand, Jacobsen also includes healing revivalist Fred Francis Bosworth, who embraced tongues but denied their necessity. Early Pentecostal theology was closely linked to spiritual experience—my experience is my creed, proclaimed one of the leaders—and was especially fluid before becoming more fixed after about 1925. As Pentecostal denominations such as the Assemblies of God matured, they also became more racially segregated. Jacobsen consistently makes good use of recent secondary sources to give historical perspective. Summing Up: Recommended. Graduate students and researchers/faculty." —W. B. Bedford, Crown College, 2004jul CHOICE
Douglas Jacobsen is Distinguished Professor of Church History and Theology at Messiah College.