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We Were Not the Savages: A Mi'kmaq Perspective on the Collision Between European and Native American Civilizations New Twenty-First Century Edition 21st-century Edition

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ISBN-13: 978-1552660393
ISBN-10: 1552660397
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"Those of us who are of (European) ancestry have to unlearn much that passed for history . . . and take a hard look at what some of our forefathers and mothers did." --E. E. Cran, "New Brunswick Telegraph Journal

About the Author

Daniel Paul has worked for the Department of Indian Affairs as the District Superintendent of Lands, Revenues, Trusts and Statutory Requirements, was founding executive director of the Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs, and has served on many provincial commissions.


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Product Details

  • Paperback: 400 pages
  • Publisher: Fernwood Publishing Co., Ltd.; 21st-century edition (September 1, 2000)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 1552660397
  • ISBN-13: 978-1552660393
  • Product Dimensions: 9 x 6.3 x 0.7 inches
  • Shipping Weight: 1.1 pounds
  • Average Customer Review: 5.0 out of 5 stars  See all reviews (1 customer review)
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #3,923,346 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)

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Biography - Dr. Daniel N. Paul, C.M., ONS, Hon. D. Litt.
I was born December 1938, in a small log cabin to my late parents Sarah Agnes (Noel) and William Gabriel Paul on Shubenacadie Indian Reserve, Nova Scotia, Canada. I am the twelfth of fourteen children. At present I resides in Halifax in semi-retirement with my wife Patricia. We have two daughters, Lenore and Cerena, and two granddaughters

Email: ,Website:

The racial discrimination that I suffered during my lifetime has made me a strong advocate for human and civil rights. I am a steadfast believer in the equality of all humans, and that one must be proactive and involved, if society is to keep moving toward realizing the ideal of equality.

In recognition of my work to eliminate racism, and other forms of intolerance, I have received many awards and acknowledgments. The following are a selected list:

October 1, 2007 - PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA'S GRAND CHIEF DONALD MARSHALL SR. MEMORIAL SENIOR AWARD. In recognition and appreciation for outstanding contribution to the Mi'kmaq Community and Nova Scotia.

2006 - 2007 - MECNS AWARD, Multicultural Education Council of Nova Scotia annually honours a person that it considers to have provided exemplary service in the promotion and awareness of multiculturalism and multicultural education in schools, community, and government.

November 17, 2005 - ORDER OF CANADA: Named to the Order,- Canada's highest civilian award. The following is the introduction statement at the Investment Ceremony, October 6, 2006.

"Dr. Daniel N. Paul is a powerful and passionate advocate for social justice and the eradication of racial discrimination. As an author, journalist, consultant and volunteer, he has been an outspoken champion of First Nations communities across Nova Scotia for more than 30 years. The Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission, the Mi'kmaq Native Friendship Centre and the Confederacy of Mainland Mi'kmaq have all benefitted from his consensus building skills and commitment to the community. Through his newspaper columns and his book, We Were Not the Savages, he has helped to restore the proud heritage and history of the Mi'kmaq Nation"

LISTED IN CANADA'S WHO'S WHO - BEGINNING WITH THE 2004 EDITION: Recognized for fighting for civil and human rights for humanity, and writing accomplishments, etc.

October 2, 2002 - ORDER OF NOVA SCOTIA: Province of Nova Scotia,- the Province's highest award for outstanding contributions, and for bringing honour and prestige to Nova Scotia.

The Nova Scotia government press release: "He is a passionate writer who gives a voice to his people by revealing a past that the standard histories have chosen to ignore . . . By bringing new understanding and perspective to the past, he seeks to teach all people what damage racism can do."

June 2002 - CERTIFICATE OF APPRECIATION: Nova Scotia Department of Justice, "On behalf of the Provincial and Family Courts and the government of the Province of Nova Scotia, this Certificate is bestowed upon Daniel Paul in recognition of your significant contribution to the justice system of Nova Scotia."

January 14, 2000 - MILLENNIUM AWARD: Honoured by the City of Halifax for contributing in a special way towards making the community a better place for its citizens to live and prosper in.

June 7, 1997 - HONOURARY DOCTOR OF LETTERS DEGREE: University of Sainte-Anne, Church Point, Nova Scotia, In appreciation for publicizing the friendly historical connection between the Acadien and Mi'kmaq communities.

March 22, 1994 - HONOURARY CITIZEN OF THE ACADIEN DISTRICT OF CLARE CERTIFICATE: Honoured by the Municipality of Clare for publicizing the good colonial relationship between the Acadiens and Mi'kmaq,

April 21, 1994 - CITY OF DARTMOUTH BOOK AND WRITING AWARDS: Co-winner of First prize for non-fiction, 1993 edition of We Were Not the Savages

December 1988 to June 1990 - DISTRICT CHIEF - SHUBENACADIE MI'KMAQ DISTRICT: Honourary title bestowed at the second annual meeting of the Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs.

HOWEVER, MY MOST APPRECIATED HONOURS are the dozens of small items, letters, mugs, Eagle Feathers, etc., given to me by students as thanks for helping them better understand the importance of according all Peoples human dignity and respect.

The following is why I was born in 1938 on Shubenacadie Indian Reserve:

"My place of birth was preordained three years prior by a blatant act of racism committed against my family by white society. The gist of the story:

Until the fall of 1935, my father worked on the Saint John, New Brunswick, waterfront as a stevedore, thus he was a taxpayer. That year, because of depression related work shortages, he and many others were laid off.

Unemployed, with a growing family to support, he had to apply for city welfare to assure the family's survival; which was granted. A white resident, viewing this as an affront to his warped sense of fairness, went posthaste to the city's fathers and complained bitterly that they were feeding a bunch of Indians.

The fathers agreed with his complaint and reacted with the proper indignation of bigots. Thus, in late November of 1935, my parents and their five small children were rounded up and deported by the city council from Saint John to Shubenacadie Indian Reserve, Nova Scotia, a place they had never seen before.

Upon arrival at Shubenacadie Reserve, with little assets other than the clothes on their backs, and cold weather setting in, the Indian Agent gave them a roll of tar paper and told them to build a tar paper shack. Which they did, spending more than two years living in it before moving to the tiny log cabin where I was born.

The reason I mention the circumstance about how I came to be born on Shubenacadie Indian Reserve is to provide an example of the extent of the racism that First Nations Peoples had to contend with at that time. Without any human and civil rights laws to protect us, we were at the mercy of a largely uncaring biased white Anglo society. Therefore, legal redress wasn't available. Factually, the justice system was used by society more to persecute than to dispense justice to us. From birth, as Indians, we were classified as "Wards of the Crown," and, at best, treated as third class citizens. We had the same legal status in Canada as drunks and insane persons.

Because of the humiliation that my family and other Mi'kmaq, and other minority groups in this country have suffered because of racial discrimination, I'm an ardent spokesperson and activist for human rights."

The following is a description of growing up a Registered Indian:

Growing up a Mi'kmaq in Nova Scotia in the 1940s was to know degrading racial humiliation. Racial discrimination against Registered Indians throughout Canada was wide open and widely practiced. Many places were off limits to us because of our race, and there were Canadian laws that segregated us from the general public. Employment was scarce, our people were the last ones hired and the first ones fired.

As "Wards of the Crown" we were not permitted to vote in federal and provincial elections, not permitted in pool rooms, not allowed to have alcoholic beverages internally or externally, etc. In schools we were taught that we were from inferior cultures and that we had to adopt the ways of the White man if we ever wanted to be successful. Actually, some of our people did give up their Indian rights in the beliefs that they might be accepted as equals by Canadian society. Instead, they wound up dirt poor Indians living off reserve - barred by law from living on Indian Reserves. The racism we were subjected to caused a monumental lack of self-confidence among Registered Indians.

What started me on the road to becoming a human rights activists was an incident that happened in the 1940s. A food rations memo from the Superintendent of Indian Affairs, which is included in We Were Not the Savages, details the meager food list that was available to us.

The "generosity" of Indian Affairs displayed in its memo to Indian Agents about what subsistence sustenance rations should be provided to Registered Indians rekindles bitter memories in me. I'll describe just one of them. When I was four or five years old, in 1942 or 1943, Dad had found a job, a twenty-mile or so one-way walk away from home, and would not get paid until the following week. We ran out of food on Friday and had to go without over the weekend. Early Monday morning Mom and I walked the three miles to the Indian Agency where she asked the well-fed Agent for a special ration.

Before long the Agent had her begging and crying. Then he told her she would have to wait while he thought it over. At about 11:50, ten minutes before his lunchtime, he called us in and gave mother a $2.00 special order, but not before subjecting her to more humiliating verbal abuse. I remember the event so well for two reasons: First, I was so hungry I could have literally eaten a raw porcupine. Second, it was on that day that I made up my mind that when I grew up no one would ever do to me what that bastard had done to my mother without a fight. To this day no one ever has.

When I was fourteen, in the early 1950s, I took my lack of self esteem, instilled in me by the education I received in Indian Day School, to Boston to find work. It was a few years later when I resolved to try to change things for Indians for the better. It happened when I was around nineteen. I was working in a hat factory - stemming from our chats and my demeanor - it became crystal clear to an African American woman from Mississippi that I had been conditioned by White society to believe that all Caucasians were better than me. She called me over one day and gave me a good talking too. These words I'll remember always: 'Boy, you're as good as them, and probably better than most of them. Get your head up off the floor and be proud of who you are.'

I took her advise, and began to explore the actual history of the Mi'kmaq, and other people of colour in Canada and the United States. This was not an easy task, because most of the historical information available at that time was written by Caucasians, and was very Eurocentric. However, by reading a lot of it, it soon became clear to me that the history being taught about these racially persecuted people was mostly demonizing lies."

During my early years, I attended the Indian Day School on Shubenacadie Indian Reserve. One of the things taught to First Nation children at these institutions was that we were from inferior savage cultures, and if we wanted to succeed in life we would have to adopt the "civilized" ways of the White man. This, of course, was what created among First Nations Peoples a massive inferiority complex that still hampers our hopes of living in prosperity in Canada today.

At fourteen, halfway through grade eight, without parental permission, I left school and moved to Boston. After working in the States for seven years, at factories and labour jobs, I came to the conclusion that I would have to improve my education if I wanted to succeed in life. Thus, at twenty-one, I returned home to Nova Scotia and enrolled in Truro's Success Business College, graduating in 1961 as a bookkeeper. This happened in spite of the Indian Agent telling me, when I applied for education assistance, "that I should do what I was most suited for, get a pick and shovel." Consequently, I've completed many upgrading courses, and acquired a grade twelve equivalency certificate. But, mostly, I'm self taught, and consider myself a graduate of the University of Life.

My employment experience covers a wide range of activities - manufacturing, construction, accounting, public service, etc. In 1971 I began a fifteen year stint with the Canadian Government's Department of Indian Affairs, holding many positions. During my last five years with the Department I held the position of Nova Scotia District Superintendent of Lands Revenues and Trusts. In 1986, on behalf of six Band Councils, I left the security of the Federal Public Service and founded the Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs. I was the organization's Executive Director until 1994.

Today, I occupy myself writing, lecturing in schools and other entities, running a small advisory business, writing occasional columns for newspapers, am a Justice of the Peace for the Province of Nova Scotia, am a member of the Nova Scotia Department of Education's Mi'kmaq Education Advisory Council, am a board member of the Nova Scotia Police Commission, a board member of the Mi'kmaq Governance Committee, and I set on several nonprofit boards, etc.

A sample of my lifetime achievements.

I've written and had published six books - have written chapters in four others, have had numerous articles and short stories published in journals, human rights booklets, readers, school readers, newspapers, and magazines. My second book, a comprehensive history about the Mi'kmaq and other First Nations, We Were Not the Savages, was published1993. It was co-winner for nonfiction at the 6th Annual City of Dartmouth Book and Writing Awards in 1994, and was on the Nova Scotia bestseller list for seventeen weeks. It inspired a play entitled Strange Humours. A fully revised best selling twenty-first Century version was published October 2000 by Fernwood Publishing, Halifax. It has now been replaced by a third edition, published by Fernwood in September 2006, entitled First Nations History - We Were Not the Savages - Third Edition. NOTE: Each succeeding edition, although they bear the same name as the original, are not the same. Each succeeding edition contains a great deal of new information. Selected contents from the book have been cited by other writers as a reference in their books, articles, etc. Also, it is used as course material in several universities and high schools. It is the first such history ever written by a Canadian First Nation citizen, and possibly of the Americas.

I was a columnist for the Halifax Chronicle Herald for over ten years. The contents of my columns covered the spectrum from history to social issues. I had a wide readership, many of whom often engaged in serious debate through correspondence with me. The columns I wrote about history, racial minorities, poverty, justice, etc., were instrumental in helping to change attitudes about the issues in the minds of the more affluent. In fact, the information contained in my columns is still widely used as a resource by students and other scholars for writing papers, etc. All columns I've had published can be accessed free of charge on my Website at this URL

The contents of my columns and books have been so successful in dispelling the myth of the "savage Indian" and replacing it with the true history of Nova Scotia's brutal relationship with the Mi'kmaq First Nation, that they have changed hero perceptions of many prominent colonial officials to brutal barbarians forever. For example, the scalp proclamations issued by English Governors William Shirley, Edward Cornwallis, and Charles Lawrence for Mi'kmaq scalps, including men, women and children, in efforts to exterminate them, are no longer secrets hidden away in the Archives. A full account of the scalp proclamations and other barbarities committed against the Mi'kmaq and other First Nation Peoples are included in We Were No the Savages, details can be found at this URL:'kmaqHistory.html .

The following are a few quotes, by prestigious university educators, about the content of We Were Not the Savages:

"Reading the pages of this book, continually affirms for me, how good it is to be a Mi'kmaq. I so wish that my father was still living. Wouldn't he be so proud that such a book was available. I also wish that this history book was in existence years ago, a book that now empowers me and fills me with great pride to be a Mi'kmaq." Sister Dorothy Moore - Mi'kmaq Educator

"...Daniel N. Paul's We Were Not the Savages is a brilliant and painful account of how the Mi'kmaq were treated by the Europeans....
The inescapable conclusion from his book is that if Ottawa and Washington are so concerned about human rights, they might take a long hard look at what we did to the Mi'kmaq and other Tribes. We forced Germany to pay reparations after World War I. More recently, the Swiss were intimidated into paying Holocaust victims for deposits once held in Swiss banks. Likewise German companies accused of slave labor in World War II have been pressured into compensating their victims.
When will Canada and the United States begin paying reparations to the Mi'kmaq and other Tribes for what we did to them over the centuries? Daniel Paul makes a convincing case that the time is now!
We Were Not the Savages is a fact-filled read that will make Americans of European descent very uncomfortable. I highly recommend it".
Thomas H. Naylor, Professor Emeritus of Economics, Duke University

"We Were Not the a unique, in chronological scope and in the story it tells, covering the last three centuries of Mi'kmaq history in detail. It is also extraordinary in the way it presents a distinctive voice [for] the Mi'kmaq...
Prior to the appearance of... this book it was common for historians to downplay or even deny the violence inflicted on the Mi'kmaq people by European and Euro-American colonizers. As recently as 1989 the conveners of a conference on 'The Northeastern Borderlands' summarized what they thought was an emerging consensus on the colonization process in the Maritimes: "widespread peaceful interaction or, to use Donald Meinig's phrase, 'benign articulation' existed among the various Native and European peoples in the region." This work, more than any other piece of scholarly production, has headed off that consensus at a pass. Scalp-bounty policies are now recognized as a historical problem worthy of investigation...
The book will be of particular interest to readers in the United States for a variety of reasons. First, the early history of colonization in the Maritimes is closely tied to the history of the colonies that became the United States, and as late as the 1750s New England's political leaders played a prominent role in directing the course of colonial affairs on Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia. Our understanding of New England is diminished, if we neglect its broader sphere of influence. We Were Not the Savages gives that history the attention it deserves. Second, the chapters on the nineteenth and twentieth centuries provide a detailed and much needed basis of comparison for anyone seeking to understand the similarities and contrasts between the U.S. and Canada on questions of "Indian Affairs". And finally, it is important to recognize that we have far too few histories written by Native American authors - very few indeed that cover as extensive a time span as this book does."
Geoffrey Plank, Associate Professor of History, University of Cincinnati

"I think your book, We Were Not the Savages, is excellent. Indeed, the best on the subject - I take my hat off to you!
Having, over the years, in connection with my own writing, read most of the sources you cite in you book, I had long ago arrived at the same conclusion you have. Certainly, white intrusions everywhere in the world have been disastrous for indigenous peoples."
Dr. Allison Mitcham, Professor Emeritus, University of Moncton

"Count me in, too, among your book's advocates... [it] knocks the smile off Englishmen who claim their colonial presence among Indians was 'better' then that of the Spanish".
Professor C. Blue Clark, Interim Director, Native American Legal Center, Oklahoma City University

We Were Not the Savages is a provocative and excellent book. A work that deserves the highest praise It is brave, insightful, unflinching and above all honest. And, most important, it greatly enhances our positive images of Amerindians.
Professor Barry Jean Ancelet, French, University of Louisiana, Lafayette

I'm also a reviewer. I've reviewed books, essays, articles, scripts, and so on for publishers, individuals, newspapers, magazines, etc. Samples: Canadian Identity, Thompson Nelson, Social studies text for Atlantic Canadian students in grades 8/9. Culture Quest, Oxford University Press, Grade 6 Social Studies, Atlantic Provinces Curriculum Book Review, Unsettled Past, Unsettled Future: The Story of Maine Indians, by Neil Rolde, for the June 2005 issue of The New England Quarterly

I am a former member (14 years - 1972 - 1986) of the Board of director's of the Micmac Native Friendship Centre in Halifax, the last five of which I was it's president. Under my leadership the Center established many new programs to help Registered Indians acclimatize to living in an urban environment. And I was instrumental in helping the organization find reliable funding sources. Also, helped many of the organization's clients resolve human rights issues. And a -

Former Commissioner on the Nova Scotia Human Rights Commission, 1988 - 1993. In concert with fellow commissioners, we administered and enforced the provisions of the Nova Scotia Human Rights Act. Helped prepare proposals for the improvement of human rights programs in Nova Scotia. Made recommendations for the inclusion of the Mi'kmaq and sexual orientation in the Nova Scotia Human Rights Act, which was finally realized in 1991.

Former member of the Nova Scotia Court Restructuring Task Force, sponsored by the Attorney General's Department. The task force issued a report, March 1991, which contained recommendations on how the government should proceed with a major overhaul of the provinces justice system. The vast changes made to Nova Scotia's justice system since 1991 are a direct result of these recommendations.

Former president and board member of the Public Legal Education Society of Nova Scotia. The Society was constituted for the purpose of educating the public about the laws of the country and how citizens should utilize them to protect their civil and human rights.

Also, I am a former Member of the Nova Scotia Round Table on the Economy and the Environment, a former member of the Student Aid Advisory Committee, Nova Scotia Department of Education, a former member of the Anti-Racism Advisory Board of the Metro United Way, a former member of the Nova Scotia Advisory Committee on Multiculturalism, a former director on the Board of the Jost Mission Day Care Centre.

I am a former lay member of Nova Scotia Barristers' Society's self-governing body. During my term I was appointed to three committees: Discipline subcommittee "A" - This subcommittee, with its companion subcommittee "B," are charged with overseeing the ethical conduct of Nova Scotia Bar Members. Race Relations Committee - its responsibilities are to find means to establish equitable racial relationships within the Society and between the Society and the public at large. Nominations Committee, selecting candidates for the Society's executive.

Former member of the Advisory Council, Law Program for Indigenous Blacks and Mi'kmaq, Dalhousie University. The Advisory Council advises the Dean of the Faculty of Law and the Director of the Law programme for Indigenous Blacks and Mi'kmaq on means to achieve the Programme's goal of providing access and helping students to succeed in the Bachelor of Laws degree programme at Dalhousie Law School, with a view to increasing the representation of indigenous Blacks and Mi'kmaq in the legal profession.

Former Governor - Mount Saint Vincent University's Board of Governors, June 2006, December 7, 2008. Resigned to become Chair of the Province's Department of Education Mi'kmaq Education Advisory Committee.

During my employment, July 1971 to December 5,1986, with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, I filled various positions, and in the process received a first hand lesson on how the federal bureaucracy should not operate.

At times I was called upon to settle disputes between individuals, bands and government departments, etc. During my tenure I was threatened on several occasions with German Sheppard dogs, guns, knifes, fists, etc. However, most importantly, I got a lot of things moving for the Mi'kmaq. Land claims, helping bands setup viable bookkeeping systems, running their own band elections, and resolving legal issues, etc.

I didn't get fully involved in human rights activities until 1981. It happened soon after I became the District Superintendent of Lands Revenues and Trusts for the Nova Scotia District office of Indian Affairs in Halifax. The man who got me deeply involved was Raymond Francis, the Chief of the Pictou Landing Band, who came to the Halifax District Office to see me with the story about how his band had been hoodwinked into giving up their Riparian Rights to Boat Harbour, Northumberland Strait, by the Department of Indian Affairs and the province of Nova Scotia. The province wanted to use the harbour as an industrial waste lagoon for a Scott Paper Company pulp mill to be located at Abercrombie Point, Pictou County. The racism displayed by both levels of government in their efforts to acquire Riparian Rights for the Harbour from the band was blatant and mind boggling.

I became incensed when I read the files and resolved to do something about it. I led the fight diligently, and the band eventually won. In compensation, as part of the settlement, it received over 35 million dollars and a hundreds of acres of land. I was also successful in settling several other land claims. A few examples: I took the lead role in overcoming the bureaucratic nightmare surrounding a land addition to Yarmouth Indian Reserve. Also, I headed up the successful efforts to resolve other reserve land addition matters, disputed right-of-ways of various natures, old estate problems that were decades old, etc. In addition, I acquired road right-of-ways into reserves that had not been provided with such. I had resolved favorably, on behalf of the Chapel Island and Millbrook Bands, illegal encroachments by Nova Scotia Power upon their respective reserves. Both Bands received considerable monetary compensation.

I instigated and headed up the successful effort to resolve the Afton Band's 170 year old Summerside property legal claim. The property is now a Reserve.

Also, I was the Superintendent that oversaw the reinstatement of hundreds of Mi'kmaq women and children to their Band Lists. These were the Band members who had lost their Indian status because of discriminatory Sections of the Indian Act, which automatically enfranchised Registered Indian women who married non-Indians. It was my well of knowledge of the history of the Mi'kmaq that enabled me to provide the proof that the Department required for reinstatement of a great many who had no proof of entitlement.

Executive Director Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs
Full story of the CMM's founding can be reviewed at this URL:'kmaq.html

On December 6, 1985 I agreed to help six chiefs found the Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs, Millbrook Reserve, Truro NS

As founding Executive director of CMM, I wrote and registered the organization's constitution and bylaws, and wrote and implemented the policies and directives required for its management and operation. I also wrote personnel and financial policies, job descriptions, and all other necessary tenets and procedures deemed necessary for the efficient and productive operation of a professional organization .

My duties included: the management of the organization, i.e. setting up and overseeing accounting procedures, budgeting, planning, negotiating for the assumption of control by CMM of programs from federal government departments and the establishment of methods to insure the timely and professional delivery of these services to Mi'kmaq communities. I supervised 25 professional and nonprofessional staff, including individuals who held degrees, or other professional designations in such variable fields as finance, technical services, engineering, planning, band government, economic development, education, and land claims research. Budgets for the Organization during my term of office averaged four million dollars per fiscal year.

I liaised and negotiated on behalf of the Confederacy, its Band Councils and individual Band Members, with federal and provincial government ministers and their staffs, and officials of other private and public entities for funding, resolution of aboriginal rights issues, related legal problems, human rights problems, etc. I also acted as public relations man for the organization. As such I was often before the news media being interviewed, which, because I was able to steer them in the direction that was most advantageous to the Mi'kmaq, I throughly enjoyed.

The organization's annual audits, as per the requirements of the Nova Scotia Societies Act, and the terms of contractual arrangements with funding agencies, was carried out by chartered accountants. During my term of office the opinions expressed by the Confederacy's auditors were unqualified and the organization was in the black at the conclusion of each fiscal year. The overall performance of the organization was rated by Indian Affairs, and by many peer groups across the country, as one of the best in Canada.

Also, during my term, I founded and published the Micmac/Maliseet Nations News. Distribution; 4,000 copies monthly - readership, approximately 25,000. In addition to publishing duties I wrote editorials for the paper and much of its copy. The paper is still in operation today, 2010, with a circulation of approximately 30,000.

And, I founded, and was Chief Executive Officer of the Mainland Micmacs Development Corporation. What I consider the proudest accomplishment of this endeavour is that I, in conjunction with the Confederacy's legal council, worked out a Constitution for the Development Corporation that makes all the members of the Bands associated with the Confederacy, during their lifetimes, the shareholders.

I also founded and became president of the Micmac Heritage Gallery. The Gallery was located on Barrington Street in Halifax and specialized in retailing the labours of Nova Scotia Mi'kmaq artists and crafts persons. It also retailed the artistic efforts of Native American producers from across Canada and the United States.

I performed other related duties, such as a public relations spokesperson for the organization and band councils, as required by the Board of Directors.

This not being an in-depth bio, for those who are interested in reviewing a more detailed account about my contributions to society, please read my book First Nations History - We Were Not the Savages - Third Edition, and visit my Website

The following is sample of my current voluntary public works activities

Without remuneration, except for some travel expenses, I have been featured in many videos prepared by a Public Broadcasting T.V. station and by Mount Saint Vincent University, CBC TV and radio, etc. Subject matter for these were the life and times of the Mi'kmaq and the racism they faced and are still facing. In 2001, I was featured in two videos, "Growing Up Native" by CBC and EASTERN TIDE's "Expulsion and the Bounty Hunter" by Bear Paw Productions."

I have established, at my own expense, an internet Email network that distributes to students, teachers, and the general public, across North America, and worldwide, free of charge, historical information about First Nations, cultural events, etc. Anyone wishing to be added to the List can do so by sending him and Email requesting inclusion.

Also, I've established and maintain at my expense a Website, , it's about First Nation cultures. I founded it for the purpose of using it as a tool to help educate non-First Nation Peoples, and my own People about First Nation histories. It features Mi'kmaq and other First Nations history highlights, paintings, photos, etc. It's widely used, free of charge, by students, teachers, historians, and the general public across North America and many countries of the world. It now receives over 8,000 hits a week - passing the 1,

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the more I read about the NAtive American, the more I am convinced of the horrors that were committed to them in the name of civilization. Great reading and factual account of what you will not read in most American history books
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