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What Your Preschooler Needs to Know: Get Ready for Kindergarten (Core Knowledge Series) Kindle Edition

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About the Author

E.D. Hirsch, Jr., is an emeritus professor at the University of Virginia and the author of The Knowledge Deficit, The Schools We Need, and the bestselling Cultural Literacy and the Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. He and his wife, Polly, live in Charlottesville, Virginia, where they raised their three children.

Linda Bevilacqua is the president of the Core Knowledge Foundation and was responsible for the development of the Core Knowledge preschool program that is now being used in over 1,200 preschool classrooms across the country. She and her husband, Jean-Jacques, live in Charlottesville, Virginia.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.


Ah, the happy years before school, the carefree time before that dreaded day when the young child becomes, as Shakespeare put it:

The whining school-boy, with his satchel
And shining morning face, creeping like snail
Unwillingly to school.

For children who are ready for the school experience, kindergarten and first grade can be exceedingly happy and absorbing times. No creeping unwillingly for them! But that certainly isn’t true of children who are not ready. Usually they will not enjoy the challenging early years of schooling. And even their futures might be compromised, since researchers have determined that children who have fallen behind in first grade tend not to catch up academically. As a consequence, the educational importance of the early years, from 2 to 5, has become increasingly well-known by psychologists and policy makers, and recently by the general public. State legislatures are beginning to offer universal preschool programs, available to all children.

What Parents Need to Know about School Readiness

During the past twenty-five years, however, there has been a barrier to effective preschooling, whether at home or at a school. That barrier has been a set of romantic ideas about early childhood, ideas that are widespread among some early-childhood experts and the general public. An American parent who picks up this book may have heard things like the following: that teaching pre-literacy and pre-math skills to preschoolers is unnatural, premature, and developmentally inappropriate; that such exposure distracts from healthier, more natural learning experiences; that it can be injurious to the child. These romantic ideas about early childhood have exerted a huge influence in American thought, but they are now thought by leading psychologists to be misleading and oversimplified. There is, in fact, great benefit and great fun to be gained by engaging young children in suitable educational activities.

In the United States today, some children do come to school ready to learn; generally, they are fortunate enough to come from privileged and educated families that understand the importance of these early formative years and have the capability to make the most of them. Many, many other children, though, are not ready when they enter kindergarten. While they may come from loving and well-intentioned families, often their parents have neither the financial resources nor the free time to ensure that their children engage in educationally productive experiences, either at preschool or at home. These children enter kindergarten under a severe academic disadvantage. They do not know the words and things they need to know in order to thrive in kindergarten and first grade. They do not understand things that other children understand, and they fall further behind with each passing grade.

Research on the Important Preschool Years

The significance of this early disadvantage and its deleterious consequences cannot be overstated. One study (Hart and Risley, 1995) followed children from infancy through the elementary grades. Researchers meticulously examined everything that went on in the children’s homes during the early years, then evaluated the children during their preschool years, again in kindergarten, and in third grade. Here are some highlights of their findings:
The number of words spoken to children throughout infancy and early childhood varied tremendously from family to family, and the amount of language children heard directly correlated to family income level. For example, children from the poorest families heard less language than children from working-class families. And children from both these groups heard far fewer words than children from families in which parents were professionals.

Based on these findings, researchers were able to extrapolate that, by the time children entered school, those from the professional families would have accumulated experience with nearly 45 million words, while those from the poorest families would have had experience with only 13 million words—a 30-million-word gap! Not only was there a difference in the sheer number of words that children heard, but also in the variety and the complexity of the language heard.

The number of words and the richness and complexity of the language that a child heard in his family setting, this study found, was predictive of the child’s own vocabulary and early academic skills when they were evaluated in preschool and the early grades. Briefly put, children who heard more words had more words in their own vocabulary. Furthermore, the children with stronger language skills learned to read more easily and effectively than the children with weaker vocabularies.

Other studies (Jager-Adams, 1990) found that a child’s reading proficiency at the end of first grade is highly predictive of:
• Reading ability in later grades
• High school graduation
• Financial income as an adult

Combine the two studies, and you have the picture of how important school readiness is to a child’s future. Those children to whom parents read, speak, and present language describing the world of things and ideas begin school more ready to absorb all that they will be offered, and it promises to make a difference to them—and to their society—for the rest of their lives.

Despite such findings, the record shows that the children of America are not getting the most out of the public education that this nation offers. Perhaps most staggering of all, reading proficiency tests administered nationally throughout the country have recently shown that as many as 78% of the children tested fall below the proficiency level at the fourth-grade level. This figure suggests that all families, not just those in dire poverty or with little education, could be doing better at helping their children enter kindergarten ready to learn.

The good news is that we do know ways to prevent these dire consequences. Thanks to years of research, observation, and practice, we know what children need to learn and what experiences they should have before entering kindergarten. Now we just need parents and preschools to put this knowledge into practice.

What is Core Knowledge?

Core Knowledge is an educational program designed to provide a guided, direct, and effective way of providing all children the knowledge and skills that only the favored few have possessed in the past. The program has been developed over many years and with the contributions of many experts, under the auspices of the non-profit Core Knowledge Foundation, and all proceeds from the program go back to the foundation to help more and more parents and children.

The Core Knowledge Foundation has developed educational guides from preschool through grade eight. The preschool program, on which this book is based, has been in use for over a decade among children from all social groups and in many settings across the country; it has been field-tested and refined over the years. The research evidence for its effectiveness is now overwhelming, and can be viewed at

The Core Knowledge School Readiness Program

The Core Knowledge preschool program was developed after consulting the most distinguished developmental psychologists and observing the most effective practices throughout the world. The rationale behind the selectivity and sequence of the Core Knowledge materials, now well accepted, was first developed in my 1987 book, Cultural Literacy. Intrinsic to the Core Knowledge Preschool Program, whether for schools or for home, is its careful sequencing of social and academic skills, with a strong emphasis on the knowledge that is most useful and productive for children living in American society today.

Granted, you will find plenty of other read-aloud books that are well illustrated and attractive individually. So what do the Core Knowledge preschool family materials have that others on the market do not have? Unlike other pre-kindergarten home education products, the Core Knowledge Home Preschool books are based on an overarching set of goals for learning at the preschool level, for children aged three through five. Only the Core Knowledge Home Preschool Program offers a package of readings and activities, totally coordinated to follow a cumulative sequence of essential knowledge and skills, derived from sound research. These readings and companion workbooks follow a month-by-month pattern that has been vetted by international researchers and tested over many years, with proved effectiveness. In this read-aloud book and the activity book materials accompanying it, you will find a coordinated set of simple and fun activities that family members can share with children, knowing that they are working together to get their children ready for kindergarten.

There are already more than a thousand Core Knowledge preschool classes operating across the country, following exactly this sequence of lessons and activities. The number of Core Knowledge Preschools continues to grow rapidly as their rationale and efficacy become more widely known. We at the Core Knowledge Foundation believe that all parents should also be offered this opportunity to prepare their children for a happy, productive time in school—and for the rest of their lives.

((From the ‘Songs” chapter))


Young children seem to be irresistibly drawn to music. It is a form of communication, a means of creative expression, and an emotional outlet.

Listening intently to music, children are sharpening their sense of hearing and paying attention to rhythms and harmonies that are fundamentally mathematical. What’s more, they enjoy music of all varieties.

Look at preschooler faces and bodies when they are engaged in a musical activity. They convey eagerness and enthusiasm–in a word, the sheer fun of music!

We encourage you to share a wide ...

Product Details

  • File Size: 8820 KB
  • Print Length: 224 pages
  • Publisher: Delta (December 10, 2008)
  • Publication Date: December 10, 2008
  • Sold by: Random House LLC
  • Language: English
  • ASIN: B000YJ54AI
  • Text-to-Speech: Enabled
  • X-Ray:
  • Word Wise: Not Enabled
  • Lending: Not Enabled
  • Enhanced Typesetting: Not Enabled
  • Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #347,779 Paid in Kindle Store (See Top 100 Paid in Kindle Store)
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More About the Author

E. D. Hirsch, Jr. is the founder of the Core Knowledge Foundation and professor emeritus of education and humanities at the University of Virginia. He is the author of several acclaimed books on education issues including the best-seller Cultural Literacy. With his subsequent books The Schools We Need and Why We Don't Have Them, The Knowledge Deficit, and The Making of Americans, Dr. Hirsch solidified his reputation as one of the most influential education reformers of our time.

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

57 of 57 people found the following review helpful By Seana Parker-Dalton on April 14, 2008
Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
My daughter's not in preschool yet (we can't afford it, plus she's not potty trained yet) and I wanted a guide to help her learn while she's home with me (we read a lot, but can get in a rut). The book is nicely divided into sections for songs, poems, science, history, etc. and it's easy to segue into activities from many of the passages. She's learned a lot of songs and rhymes (that I had forgotten about)and it's inspired me to get more poetry and nursery rhymes from the library. A CD might be something to consider for later editions, because if you don't know the tune of the song, nursery rhyme or fingerplay you're kind of stuck. I'll probably buy the curriculum from the Core Knowledge Foundation that you can get to compliment this reader, because I'm also interested in knowing what skills she should be working on. I'm considering homeschooling, and so far, I like what I've seen of this "system".
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42 of 42 people found the following review helpful By Ayres VINE VOICE on January 4, 2009
Format: Paperback
I will start by saying that this series is excellent. I will add that purchasing this book alone will be little benefit without the activity books What Your Preschooler Needs to Know: Activity Book 1 for Ages 3-4What Your Preschooler Needs to Know: Activity Book 2 for Ages 4-5. I originally purchased just this book, but since I already read, sing and do poetry with my daughter, there wasn't much of an added benefit with this alone. I decided to purchase the activity book for 3-4 to start off and see if I liked it. I'm glad I did.

As a stay-at-home, I sometimes run out of ideas on ways to teach my daughter to prepare her for school. This book has all the basic songs, rhymes and stories that we remember as kids. The activity books expound upon those items by asking your child to think harder about what he/she heard and make observations. Together the books teach pattern recognition, colors, shapes, and encourage imagination. They also are a great help for parents to identify some of the basic needs for children when it comes to education as well as giving various ways the activities can be utilized. My daughter and I have taken several of the activities and built new ones from them.

This is an excellent learning series that I would recommend to anyone.
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23 of 24 people found the following review helpful By Tamara L. on May 13, 2008
Format: Paperback
I received this book as a gift to use with my small children. My children ages 20 months and 3 years thoroughly enjoy it. They like each section, especially the stories, the history and the science. It is presented in a simple format that helps children learn.

The nursery rhymes and stories are great. I was even excited to be reminded of some fond childhood memories of certain nursery rhymes and songs, etc. I agree with the other reviewer, I wish that a CD (or even the sheet music) was included to help with the songs if you do not remember the tune.

If you teach your children using units, this book can be a great resource. For instance, it helped me with a unit we were studying at home about the American Flag. When I ask my 3 year old who was the first to sew an American Flag, she responds "Betsy Ross". She will also tell you that there are 50 stars on the flag, each representing a state in the United States of America. She also has learned that George Washington was the first president of the United States. All of this knowlege is because of this book and because of reinforcing exercises that we do at home.

I would recommend this book to anyone with small children who has the desire to help their children have a love of learning.
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14 of 14 people found the following review helpful By Janet S. Winn on March 28, 2012
Format: Paperback Verified Purchase
I have a copy of "What Your Kindergartener Needs to Know" so
I was surprised and disappointed in the absence of math in the
preschool edition.
Math can be a major stumbling block for even the most able reader.
Preschool math concepts are not even mentioned.
It also was lacking an index.
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27 of 31 people found the following review helpful By Stephanie Monaghan on May 15, 2009
Format: Paperback
I agree with a previous reviewer: where's the companion CD?

If you haven't been working with your child, this book can be a good place to start. If, like me, you have, chances are your preschooler already knows a good many of the songs, rhymes and stories, thus limiting this book's value. My own daughter already knew about half of the songs and rhymes and nearly all of the stories; many of the rest I'll probably skip past.

However, I'm a bit surprised at some of Hirsch's choices. I'm not sure under what criteria he considers such relatively obscure rhymes as The Pancake or Jillicky, Jollicky "need to know", while obvious classics -- Mary Had a Little Lamb, Baa Baa Black Sheep, Three Blind Mice, Humpty Dumpty, Hickory Dickory Dock, London Bridge and more -- are conspicuous by their absence. And in light of classic Hirsch works such as "Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know" and "The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy" I found the paucity of the stories section particularly surprising: Cinderella, Snow White, Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding-Hood, The Ugly Duckling -- all passed over, in an apparent nod to multiculturalism, in favor of "Why Flies Buzz".

While the stories included are well-told, and my daughter loves the illustrations, the level of English is a bit of a stretch for all but the most precocious of preschoolers. In reading them to my own child, I had to "tone down" the vocabulary, replacing, for example, "shimmy" with "climb".

Properly supplemented, "What Every Preschooler Needs to Know" can make a good compendium of many (though not all) childhood classics. Toss in that companion CD and I'd be happy to give it four stars.
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