I've only gotten to that point once and the file was saved. And, especially for an extended "field recording", I can confirm using 32GB HCSD cards successfully. Hope this not only answers your question but provides further encouragement for your pursuits!
I don't have a suggestion for an xlr...I use Audio-Technica ATR3350 Omnidirectional Condenser Lavalier Microphone ...connects mini pin in back of H4N...about $19 for one give or take...does the job just fine for me...if you want to hear this lav I did a little promo video for my business. Go to www.howlinghuskyproductions.com and on the home page click on the video. The level is a little higher than I wanted and I should have managed that better in post production but it will give you a general idea of how the lavalier I use sounds...not sure if that helped or not but good luck to you, hope you find what you want for a good price.
The built-in microphones are excellent, however, if you're trying to record the vows at a wedding, you're going to have to get this recorder VERY CLOSE to the officiant and the couple marrying. The further the distance any recorder with built-in microphones is from the source of the sound, the more room reverberation and other people sounds you'll have on your recording. The other option is to get a separate microphone that you can plug into the recorder and put that near the couple and run a cable back to your recorder near you. I have had a lot of success using a Wireless Lavalier microphone system to run to my Zoom recorder. It's the only way to record spoken word properly: getting the microphone as close to the sound source as possible. I hope this helps. I teach audio at a community college, so I have a lot of experience with this.
It can be done, but not directly. The H4N will allow you to record four channels at once, which are saved as two stereo files. If you have audio software, you can then divide those stereo files into individual mono files. It's a little cumbersome, but it can be done.
It depends on what kind of Microphone. It works on two double A's. Using a pretty sizable boom Mic, I was doing about 4 hours of recording at a time before I'd have to replace them. If you do a lot of field recording it's normal to buy quite a few batteries for a project.
Yes. The mini stereo jack on the the back side of the unit allows you to record audio instead of using the attached microphones. I suggest you download the manual for the Zoom H4N and check out the following pages: page 030 shows the jack in question; page 147 gives the input impedance of 2K ohms with a level between -7 dbm and -47 dbm so depending on your DSLR you may need to use some kind of preamplifier between your camera and the H4N.
If you're just recording melodies and stuff to remember for later, this might be a tad overkill. This recorder is great but it's loaded with features that might not be necessary for you. If you want a simple recorder with instant playback, I suggest the zoom H1.
The H4N is great if you want to plug in mics and do a really solid recording with the intent of distributing the final product. But if you just not rough tracks for playback, go with the younger brother.
You will lose some quality and depth even on the D3200 (which is a bit step up in the audio department from most DSLRs), depending on your audio recording settings. If you can, always record to your external device and sync in post.
It comes with an AC adapter (not a battery charger), and a removable wind screen for the microphones. I don't remember if it included an SD card; I went and got an 8GB card to use in it. NOTE: Be sure to use the Zoom to format the SD card.