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The books that shaped Barack Obama

MarkK
The list author says: "I believe that one of the best ways of understanding a person is by reading the books that they have read, which helps to provide insight into what they know. With this goal in mind, I have put together a partial list of the books read by our 44th President for those who wish to better understand him and the influences on his life."
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West
Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West
"Brown's book was one of the texts Obama read as a student at Punahow School."
Farewell to Manzanar
Farewell to Manzanar
"This memoir of the Second World War internment of the Japanese Americans was another book Obama read while at Punahow School."
Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands
Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands
Native Son
Native Son
"Growing up, Obama studied African American culture; Wright's book was one of the titles he read."
The Autobiography of Malcolm X
The Autobiography of Malcolm X
"Malcolm X's autobiography was a book Obama read growing up and one of the ones he re-read in preparation for writing his own memoir."
The Souls of Black Folk (Enriched Classics)
The Souls of Black Folk (Enriched Classics)
"Du Bois's book is another work that Obama read at a young age which he would return to in later years."
James Baldwin : Collected Essays : Notes of a Native Son / Nobody Knows My Name / The Fire Next Time / No Name in the Street / The Devil Finds Work / Other Essays (Library of America)
James Baldwin : Collected Essays : Notes of a Native Son / Nobody Knows My Name / The Fire Next Time / No Name in the Street / The Devil Finds Work / Other Essays (Library of America)
Invisible Man
Invisible Man
The Federalist Papers (Signet Classics)
The Federalist Papers (Signet Classics)
"The Federalist Papers was one of the books Obama read as a political science major at Occidental University."
The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge: A Novel
The Notebooks of Malte Laurids Brigge: A Novel
"After graduating from Columbia, Obama joined an informal discussion group; Rilke's novel was among the books they discussed."
Murphy
Murphy
"Beckett's novel was another of the works discussed by the discussion group."
Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes
Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes
"As Lawrence Tribe's research assistant, Obama helped Tribe write this book."
Groundwork: Charles Hamilton Houston and the Struggle for Civil Rights
Groundwork: Charles Hamilton Houston and the Struggle for Civil Rights
"Houston was a pioneering student at Harvard Law School; Obama filmed a short segment about him for cable television in 1991."
Frederick Douglass : Autobiographies : Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave / My Bondage and My Freedom / Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Library of America)
Frederick Douglass : Autobiographies : Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave / My Bondage and My Freedom / Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Library of America)
"Obama has mentioned reading Douglass's autobiographies while preparing to write his own memoir."
The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and Social Inequity
The Arrogance of Race: Historical Perspectives on Slavery, Racism, and Social Inequity
"As a professor at the University of Chicago Law School, Obama assigned excerpts from Frederickson's book for his seminar on racism and the law."
The Law of Nations
The Law of Nations
"This was another book Obama excerpted in his "Current Issues in Racism and Law" seminar at the University of Chicago."
Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey (Dover Thrift Editions)
Selected Writings and Speeches of Marcus Garvey (Dover Thrift Editions)
"Obama assigned some of Garvey's speeches as part of his seminar on racism and the law."
I Have A Dream/ Also Letter From Birmingham Jail (Tale Blazers)
I Have A Dream/ Also Letter From Birmingham Jail (Tale Blazers)
One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race
One Drop of Blood: The American Misadventure of Race
Master Of The Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson
Master Of The Senate: The Years of Lyndon Johnson
"Caro's massive study of Lyndon Johnson's tenure in the Senate was one of the books Obama read in preparation for his own service in that body."
The Post-American World
The Post-American World
"One of the books Obama read during the 2008 Presidential campaign."
The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt (Modern Library Paperbacks)
The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt (Modern Library Paperbacks)
"One of the books Obama has been credited with reading recently."
Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance
Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance
"Obama's own memoir of his early years, one written after his graduation from law school."
The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream
The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream