Each lens has a diameter, and you need the correctly sized filter for that diameter, so it really depends on your lenses... For example, my kit lens takes 58mm. The next lens I plan to buy (50mm f/1.4) is also 58mm. So they'll both take the same sized filter. I have another lens (Tamron 70mm-300mm) which needs a 62mm filter, so I would need to buy another, separate filter just for that if I decided I wanted filters for that as well.
Keep in mind, some lenses (generally very-wide angle and fisheyes) won't take this style of filter at all.