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Customer Discussions > History forum

A Forum to answer Lilyokalani questions

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Showing 126-150 of 1000 posts in this discussion
In reply to an earlier post on Jan 17, 2013 11:01:24 PM PST
Sixties fan says:
You have already told us who you are.
You said it yourself you were waiting for the Jews to become Christians. Patiently. That is a Christian belief of Christianity being better, or the only religion, and needing all of the Jews to come to it, as many before did.

We all remember what you posted Lily. You don't get to change it and make it sound like we did not understand what you meant with very clear words.

If you did discard everything you were taught, how is it that you are still klinging to the idea that the Jews must become Christians in order for the Messiah, second coming, or whatever else the Christians keep waiting that peace will finally, or something like that, will finally come to the world?

How about you discard that part above and leave all the Jews be?

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 17, 2013 11:05:02 PM PST
Sixties fan says:
1815 or any other year.....what part of Europe are you refering to?
And do you think all the countries in Europe were obssessed with the Jews on a yearly basis?

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 6:47:15 AM PST
Last edited by the author on Jan 18, 2013 7:44:02 AM PST
Amit kumar says:
Thanks Sixties for your wonderful Post.
Lilyo,There are nearly 1 Billion -1.2 Billion Hindus ,if you take all the Hindus worldwide,Then there are many Buddhists nearly 350-500 million and around 200 000 Zoroasterians.These religions are "Non Abrahmic" in origin and we have no problem with Jews at all and we like them as they are ad we do not say they are condemned if they do not folllow hinduism or buddhism or zoroasterianism because all are different paths to divine and for Jewish people ,divine made Jewish path which is very good and for christians christian path and muslims islamic path which all are very good,We revere Islam and Sufism also in that way and We keep our religion private like Jews ,Our religions does not seek mass converts to make it powerful . And We also have no problems with Jesus Christ or Sufi saints and respect him along with many sages like Assisi etc because church and christ are two different philosophies .But We surely do have a problem with those christian or Islamic cheaters whose clerics in church/mosque take god's name in front of us but are actually robbers ,looters and are on a conversion propraganda targeting simpletons by showing them trinklets ,the same strategy they had applied to native americans before looting their land.

Lilyo : Christ never wanted converts for popularising himself and was diameterically opposite to the church bishops and popes.HE was A JEW to the core and he lived in ERETZ ISRAEL,the land of the JEWS which you abhor.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 6:56:10 AM PST
Last edited by the author on Jan 18, 2013 7:19:28 AM PST
Amit kumar says:
You are right sixties,This is what is the christianity of "CHURCH".This is what Lilyo follows.This is what Scavengers like Church teach.Liilyo,Is this what Christianity taught you and your ilk ,so that JEWS can live in Ghettos? This is your christian heritage,acccept it and try to reform christianity instead of jumping and thumping here on Jews.What Human right violation you talk of? All the wealth in western world came from colonising other countries?
Merely saying "I condemn my country for violating human rights" is no execuse because your ancestors have been part of those looters.Did not arabs colonise India? How come Muslims come to India which was a Hindu land? because they are all converts from Hinduism..who were converted by sword.
I never heard you condemning arabs and Islamists for slaughtering Hindus and Buddhists.You never condemn Arabs for slaughtering Jews.You know why? Because you are a lady with selective amnesia and with lot of Jewish hate.If a Jew is not a zionist,You will again gulp them with harsh words.They have seen true colours of christian fundamentalism which exists in you and your ilk.In other words,You cannot be "trusted" at face value.

You think Christ gave you church going christians to loot other countries and make slaves of them to feed your stomach and also to give those heathens a Christ for redemption and ever lasting life ?
This is what your priests think and politicians priest thinlk all the time.

And do you think with your violent christian heritage ,are you holier than thou to condemn Israel?You made Jews flee to Israel.You are responsible for Jewish Fleeing.You made stituation for JEws so uncomforable that they had to Flee to their motherland and you come here as a disgusting demagogue condemning Jews when your youself are a participant willful one in the first place.I do not understand why you cannot understand common sense.
Do you think Islam has been very peaceful for last 1500 years? Do you even know how much violence has Islam unleashed for converting and colonising people and you think we shoud ignore all that?Do we not know the agenda of Islam? Who is the greatest statesman of Islam in last 500 years who did anything to reform Islam? Who? There is noone so I do not know which trajectory Islam is going.Christianity had scientists like Galileo,Copernicus etc which led them to question church ..but what about Islam? There are no Galieos and Copernicus in Islam even after 500 you know where it is going to go when the full power of Islamic clerics is unleashed.But You support these people to get even with Jews and Zionists with your blind eyes.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 7:22:46 AM PST
jeffesq613 says:
No, it just confirms your motivation and utter lack of objectivity or concern for facts.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 7:32:59 AM PST
jeffesq613 says:
Perhaps she believes King Solomon was reincarnated as the owner of a barbershop. I have to say that I like Lily much more than some of the other anti-Semites on Amazon. Her sheer ignorance and stupidity provide constant amusement.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 7:33:49 AM PST
[Deleted by Amazon on Feb 25, 2013 5:30:37 AM PST]

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 7:33:56 AM PST
Last edited by the author on Jan 18, 2013 7:38:20 AM PST
Amit kumar says:
lilyo: Jews were there in Israel all throughout from time of Joshua till today .Read some history please.By speaking lies ,your lies do not become truth Lilyo.People go by evidence and history.
and History is not interpretation as you suggested earlier.History is evidence.
I repeat : Jews were there in israel continiously from last 2000 years and it is not that they come from sky.Obviously,You read and go to many Islamic sites to spite Jews with the statisitics you gather from there but truth is something else.ok?

Btw,Your much evidenct ignorance shows when you say Jews lived in Israel 6000 years ago but Jews and Romans fought in 60 AD which is 1950 years not 6000 Years.Why do you not understand common sense and instead of thumping/harping like a islamic cleric,you should carefully collate all the materials of Jewish population in Israel from 60 AD to 19th century and see the truth.But you do not wish to see "truth",you want to see lies.If you see truth,You will support zionism and Jews,sadly you do not want to see the truth.All muslims know Jews lived in that land for last 2000 years.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 7:43:44 AM PST
Sixties fan says:

I don't know if she "abhors" Israel. She just seems to think that the Jews of Europe came and "stole" land the Arabs may have lived in.
Which is not true, and she could not bring any evidence to it.

She thinks that in 1948, after the Arabs again declared war against the Jews just before the Independence, that the Jews and not the Arab leaders are the ones responsible for making the Arabs flee their homes with the promise of getting all the land from the Jews.

And Arab Leaders (Husseini) and the Arab countries which attacked Israel lost that war. Instead of getting all of Israel they lost a part of what had been divided to become a Palestinian State (another one, after Jordan was given to the Hashemites).

As you know, the Jordanians conquered Judea, Samaria and Old Jerusalem while the Egyptians took Gaza and expelled all the Jews from there.

It is one thing to be upset about some Arabs being forced to flee by their leaders, or expelled because they started the war and were fighting Israel.
But it is another to not be upset when since 1920, the Arabs started rioting against the Jews based on Husseini's lies to them about the Jews wanting to take their homes and land and murdering and expelling the Jews from their homes and cities.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 7:51:09 AM PST
Amit kumar says:
Why does she not read history and opens her eyes?
why she believes islamic propraganda machine so much?
Sixties,We know all this Islamic propraganda since We live in asia and you and me know more because your heritage is baghdadi jew and mine Hindu.We know how Iraq treated its Jewish citizens.
But lilyo does not know anything.We know how Hindus were 22% in 1947 in Pakistan and now they are only 1% where as in India,Muslims were 13% and now they are going to be 20%.

Lilyo believes iSlamic propraganda because it is more sensationalism with it clerics screaming like in circus,children throwing rocks and stones.She thinks if someone says lies 10 times,it becomes truth.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 8:08:26 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
I would say that some people, because of how their mind works, see only one side and cannot see another at any cost. It does not matter how much evidence is in front of them. They cannot accept that the truth they are given is the truth.

But they have nothing to show about their truth. No evidence, no real history, only what the group (s) which has been spreading these stories has given them.

1) She is fanatical about Jesus being the god creator of the world despite it going against the teachings of Judaism, Jesus being Jewish.

2) She is equaly fanatical in her patience until all Jews convert to Christianity. It does not occur to her that we might rather convert to Hinduism or Buddhism, but never Christianity. Not those who convert out of fear, as so many have done already (also into Islam for the same reason).

When someone believes something as deeply as she does about this land theft.....nothing will make her see the evidence that the land theft happened on the Arab side of homes and whole villages and cities
where the Jews lived. Just as it is happening with the Christian Arabs in Bethlehem and other parts of Judea, Samaria, Gaza and Egypt.

I have posted all of those articles which prove that the Jews did not steal any land, including Husseini saying so. It does not matter. Her mind cannot accept it. Not even a fraction of it.

As we all know, when some people believe amount of evidence will change their outlook on the issue.

If anyone of them could accept 1% of the evidence given them, they might open themselves to understand the rest. But they cannot.
It is simply human nature, Amit, and that is why the Jews had enough and had to go back to having their sovereign State in their ancient land. Anywhere else it would not have been the same.

The Hashemites know how the Jews feel. They lost their land of thousands of years to the Saud clan. But they got such a nice gift from the British, and the fact that they could not fight the Sauds, that they decided to keep it and stay there and not fight again.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 8:38:32 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
We have said it again and again, it is some, SOME, Christians and Muslims who have been taught to hate the Jews. The teaching against the Jews is there in both the Gospels and the Quran.

And leaders from both religions, if greedy and believers that the Jews can do no right, will treat (and have treated) the Jews in horrendous ways, as it has been done since the fall of the Roman Empire.

That is why some of the present Arab/Muslim leaders and also some Christian leaders from the Vatican on, continue to deny the Jews the right to be a sovereign Nation, while there are Christian and Muslim leaders and non leaders who do not agree with them but do not have the power to stop what has been happening since 1920.

Some Muslim leaders wanted a Jewish soverereign Nation in Israel post 1898. Husseini did not. He got the power, the militias and stopped the Jews for a long time from achieving a Nation.

Some Christians and Muslim are indeed taught to hate the Jews.
Look at the textbooks and tv shows in all the Arab States about the Jews. They are taught, just as you were, that their land was stolen from them.

They are not taught the truth. That some wise Arab leaders wanted to live side by side with the Jews for the prosperity of all.
They are taught that the Jews want to kill them all and steal all that belongs to them.

You won't do the research, read what we post, and continue to believe exactly what the Arabs in Gaza, etc have been led to believe in . Not all, of course, but enough of them that those who want peace and are willing to live with Israel side by side are silenced one way or another.
Those are the facts of what has been happening from Husseini to Abbas.

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 8:45:57 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
<<Sixties: "corfue" ??? Isn't that in Greece somewhere?>>>

Very close to the Pantheon, actually.

Talking about 1815 Europe, here is what happened in 1815.
I will post the before and after of Jewish History as well to give it a historical prospect:


The immediate effect on the Jews of Napoleon's deposition was a return to their previous lack of freedom. At the Vienna Congress, Jews sent a Christian attorney, Carl Buchortz, to act on their behalf. An agreement was reached whereby "Jews were given rights in proportion to accepting the duties of citizenship." This was the first time that Jewish rights became a European political issue.

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 8:48:07 AM PST
Sixties fan says:

1810 to 1815

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Names Index

Entries Index

Places Index

1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1810 - 1874 ABRAHAM GEIGER (Germany)

Author and Bible critic, he helped to inspire the Jewish Reform movement. He was elected Rabbi of Breslau in 1840 and was one of the founders of theJuedisch-Theologisches Seminar in Breslau, the first reform rabbinical seminary in Central Europe. He eventually refused to preach to the Breslau reform congregation, feeling that they had gone too far with their reforms. Geiger viewed Judaism as a religion divorced from national aspirations, so much so that he was against Jewish political solidarity during the Damascus Affair. Although he considered circumcision "barbaric" he was against its elimination in the same way that he was against changing the Shabbat to Sunday. His works include Das Judenthum und seine Geschichte (Judaism and its History) as well as studies on Maimonides, the Karaites, and the influence of Judaism on Islam.

1810 - 1904 HAYIM SELAG SLONINSKI (Bialystok, Poland)

Known as "Hazas". Orthodox mathematician and science writer. His works included Kochva d'Shavit on astronomy, Toldot ha-Shamayim on the calendar and Yesodai Hochmat Hashiur (Founding of the Science of Calculation). He founded Ha'Zefira, a Hebrew newspaper on science. His writings were accepted even by Orthodox Jews.

1810 - 1883 (25 Shvat 5643) ISRAEL LIPKIN (SALANTER) (Lithuania)

Scholar and founder of the Mussar or moralist movement, which stressed humility, as well as moral and ethical teachings. He was influenced by Joseph Salant (1786-1866) who is the spiritual Father of the Mussar movement and considered him his ideal. After serving for a time in Vilna as mashgiach (spiritual guide), he realized success in his ethical sermons to the degree that he established his own school. The Yeshiva Knesset Yisroel at Slobodka was founded on Salanter's principles. Similar schools were soon opened at Telshe, Lomza, and Slutsk. Although these teachings were designed to compliment the intellectual study of the Talmud and to encourage students' moral self-examination, many rabbinical leaders became concerned that it would lead to a neglect of talmudic study. Once, during a cholera epidemic, he commanded his congregation to eat on Yom Kippur, setting an example by eating at the pulpit. He worked tirelessly to combat the disease, even on the Sabbath. Salanter was known for lecturing on Judaism to Koenigsburg University students. He advocated vocational training for Jewish youth. He was also in favor of translating the Talmud into Hebrew . Salanter left no major works, but his many articles were published in collections such as Imrei Binah (Sayings of Wisdom), Or Yisrael (Light of Israel), and Even Yisrael (Rock of Israel).

1810 July 17, FIRST REFORM SERVICE (Germany)

Was organized by Israel Jacobson in Seesen, Germany. Five years later, he began Reform services in his home in Berlin where he introduced prayers in German.

1811 GAZA (Eretz Israel)

The Jewish community decided to relocate to Hebron. They took their synagogue's 15th century doors and reset them in a synagogue in Hebron where they were destroyed by the Arabs in 1929.

1811 - 1884 JUDAH BENJAMIN (USA)

"Brains of the Confederacy". He served as a senator in the United States Senate from 1852 until the Civil War. Jefferson Davis appointed him Secretary of State of the Confederacy. After the war, he fled to England where he joined the English Bar.

1811 December 28, CIVIL RIGHTS (Germany)

Were extended to Jews in Frankfurt.

1812 HANNAH ADAMS (1755-1831) (USA)

Wrote History of the Jews from the Destruction of Jerusalem to the Present Time. Adams, who was not Jewish, also included information on American Jewry and is considered one of the first woman professional writers in America.

1812 NAPOLEON (France)

Began his Russian campaign. Hasidim in Russia debated whether supporting Napoleon against the Czar would speed up the coming of the Messiah. In Western Europe many of the civil restrictions on the Jews fell wherever Napoleon conquered, although this did not take place in Russia.

1812 January 21, - 1875 MOSES HESS (Germany)

Author, socialist, and forerunner of the Zionist movement. In his book Rome and Jerusalem (1862), he based German anti-Semitism on race and nationhood and advised Jews to accept the fact and revive their own state in Eretz Israel. Hess, a socialist, orginally worked with Marx and Engels but grew disillusioned with the idea that a "progressive society would eradicate anti-Semitism".


Chancellor Hardenburg announced that full rights were extended to Jews of the Prussian Monarchy. Jews were still not allowed to be appointed to judicial and administrative offices. One of the other directives was that from then on Jews had to adopt family names.

1812 June 18, WAR OF 1812

Was declared by Congress. During the war, John Ordroneaux, a naval commander, sank five British ships in one battle and was raised to the rank of commodore. In 1814, at the Battle of Fort McHenry, there were 30 Jews in the garrison. Its defense inspired the composition of the "Star Spangled Banner". Another Jew, Captain Mordecai Myers, became a hero when he saved more then 200 men, as well as most of the supplies from sinking boats. He later became one of the first Jews to settle in western New York.

1812 December 4, ARGENTINA

Though the Inquisition would only officially be abolished the following year, President Bernardino Rivadavia (1780-1845) called for freedom of immigration and promised the preservation of Jews' basic human rights.

1813 - 1893 ISAAC MEIR DICK (Lithuania)

First Yiddish author to use humor rather than satire. He also wrote in Hebrew and many of his characters were later adopted by Sholem Aleichem and I.L. Peretz. In all, he wrote over 300 stories, and a two volume collection of his Yiddish humor was published.

1813 March 24, ARGENTINA

The Inquisition was officially abolished. Two months later, the Assembly passed regulations allowing freedom to practice religion in one's home.

1814 March 29, DENMARK

The king officially allowed Jews to find employment in all professions and made racial and religious discrimination punishable by law.

1814 July 21, PORTUGAL

King Ferdinand VII re-established the Inquisition six years after it was abolished by Joseph Boneparte.

1815 - 1871 (19 Tevet 5631) ABRAHAM SAMUEL BENJAMIN (The Ktav Sofer) (Hungary)

Rabbi, educator, and Orthodox leader of Hungarian Jewry. He was the son of Moses Sofer and took his father's place upon his death in 1839. His responsa and clarifications on the Torah were published under the title Ktav Sofer.

1815 - 1905 ISAAC HIRSCH WEISS (Moravia)

Scholar and writer. Weiss taught at the Vienna Beit Hamidrash and believed in a combination of tradition and secular culture. His most famous work was Dor Dor ve-Dorshav, in which he traces the history and development of the Oral Law from its inception until the expulsion from Spain.

1815 - 1865 ROBERT REMAK (Posen, Poland)

One of the founders of modern neurology. He introduced the use of electricity in the treatment of neurological disorders.


The earliest Hasidic Yiddish works were published. The books Shivchei Ha Besht (In praise of the Baal Shem Tov) and Stories of Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav were published in the same year.

1815 ESTHER EMANUEL (Louis Grafemes)

Dressed as a man, she joined the German army to be near her husband. She was promoted to sergeant major and decorated with the Iron Cross. Only after her husband's death did her true identity become known.

1815 March 6, LUBEK (Germany)

With the defeat of Napoleon, new restrictions were imposed on the Jews all over Europe. In Lubek, the guilds demanded and obtained a decree expelling all Jews.


The immediate effect on the Jews of Napoleon's deposition was a return to their previous lack of freedom. At the Vienna Congress, Jews sent a Christian attorney, Carl Buchortz, to act on their behalf. An agreement was reached whereby "Jews were given rights in proportion to accepting the duties of citizenship." This was the first time that Jewish rights became a European political issue.

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 8:52:39 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
1816 to 1819

1816 - 1882 COUNT ARTHUR DE GOBINEAU (France)

Radical author, he upheld the credo of purity of race. In his book The Inequality of Human Races Gobineau "proved" that only the white or "Aryan" race was capable of preserving civilization. His works inspired Alfred Rosenberg (Nazi theorist).

1816 - 1907 MORITZ STEINSCHNEIDER (Hungary)

Teacher and scholar known as the "Father of modern Jewish bibliography". A prodigious author in his own right, he showed how classical Greek knowledge was transmitted through Hebrew and Arabic to Western Europe. He cataloged all the Jewish writers in Arabic, along with their bibliographies and biographies. As a teacher, he counted among his students Judah Magnes, Ignaz Goldziher, Solomon Schechter and Hayyim Brody.

1816 MUNICH (Bavaria, Germany)

Jews were allowed to bury their dead within the city limits. Until this time, all the Jewish dead had to be transported to Kriegshaber for burial. This marked the beginning of the official Jewish presence in Munich.

1816 - 1841 EDWARD DAVIS ("Teddy the Jewboy") (Australia)

Australian Highwayman. Davis was born in London and deported to Australia in 1832 for stealing five shillings. After his arrival in Australia he escaped and organized a gang of runaway convicts known as the Teddy and the Jewboy gang. Davis was considered a kind of "Robin Hood" for his help to the poor, polite language, and refusal to engage in violence. Although Davis only used force in self-defense, his luck failed him when in December 1840, one of his men killed a shopkeeper. Davis and five of his men were caught and convicted. He was accompanied by the hazzan of the Sydney Synagogue when he was hung. His brother John was at the same time police chief in Penrith and his nephew became speaker of the Tasmanian House of Assembly. Many former deportees formed the basis for the Australian Jewish community.

1816 - 1909 (29 Av 5669) SAMUEL SALANT (Chief Rabbi of Jerusalem) (Eretz Israel)

The son-in-law of Joseph Salant. He arrived in Jerusalem in 1841 and proceeded to become one of the most influential figures in Eretz Israel. During his time as chief rabbi, the population of Jerusalem grew from 5000 to 30,000 Jews. Salant was behind the establishing of educational facilities which would include instruction of Arabic and Hebrew. He was one of the founders of Bikur Holim (Cholim) hospital and encouraged people to move into the "new" neighborhoods outside the old city walls.


Was formed in New York. Its founders included Joseph Boudinot, a former president of the Continental Congress, and John Quincy Adams, then secretary of state. Many other such societies were organized, leading the Jewish community to publish pamphlets and articles against these efforts. The first pamphlet, Israel Vindicated (1820) was published by Abraham Colins.

1817 - 1896 ADAM GIMBEL (USA)

A poor immigrant from Bavaria, he built a retail empire including Saks Fifth Avenue and, of course, Gimbels.

1817 - 1891 HEINRICH GRAETZ (Germany)

Celebrated historian, his works were based on original sources. Though he was sometimes biased, especially when it came to Eastern-European Jewry, his works on history are nevertheless considered monumental even today.

1817 MIR (Poland)

Rabbi Samuel Tiktinski (c. 1883) founded a Torah college (yeshiva) which eventually served five hundred students and was renowned throughout the Jewish world.


Prussia, Austria and the Church (Pope Pious VII) forbade liberal movements. In Werger, the cry "Hep, Hep" (Hierosolyma est Perdita - Jerusalem is destroyed) rang through the streets. In Heidelburg, the criminal rapist of a Jewish girl was freed by a mob.

1817 - 1896 (21 Adar 5656) ISAAC ELCHANAN SPECTOR (Kovno, Russia)

Considered the leading Russian rabbinic scholar of his day. Spector, who was active in many aspects of Jewish life, was a supporter of the Hovevei Zion movement, declaring it a mitzvah (religious duty) to settle in Eretz Israel. He fought for the right of Jewish soldiers to obtain kosher food and against a ban on ritual slaughter proposed by the Russian government. His considerable responsa were published in three parts: Beer Yitzchok, Nachal Yitzchok, and En Yitzchok (the Well, Stream, and Spring of Isaac).

1817 - 1893 (28 Av 5453) NAPHTALI ZEVI YEHUDA BERLIN (the Netziv) (Belorus, Russia)

Head of the Volozhin Yeshiva, which grew to over 400 students during his time. He was both a scholar and an organizer, and the yeshiva reached its zenith under his guidance. His works include Emek Davar, a commentary on the Torah, and Emek Hanatziv, a commentary on the Sifri. He was among the first religious leaders to encourage weekly study of the Torah portion. He joined the Hovevei Zion movement, which urged Orthodox Jews to support settlement in Eretz Israel. In 1892 the Russian government closed his yeshiva, and he felt that his place was with his community despite his great desire to go to Eretz Israel. His health rapidly deteriorated and he died shortly after.

1818 - 1864 ISRAEL JOSEPH BENJAMIN (Benjamin II)

Traveler and explorer. Benjamin fashioned himself after Benjamin of Tudela (1154) and undertook to find the 10 lost tribes. His travels took him throughout the Far East as well as North Africa. His exploits and information on the Jewish communities he visited were published as Sefer Masei Yisrael (The Book of the Travels of Israel).

1818 JOHN ADAMS (1735-1826) (USA)

Statesman and President. In a letter to Mordecai Manuel Noah, he wrote: "I wish your nation may be admitted to all the privileges of citizens in every country of the world." Regarding the re-establishment of a Jewish state, he wrote in the same year: "I really wish the Jews again in Judea an independent nation."

1818 - 1876 LUDWIG TRAUBE (Germany)

Founder of experimental pathology. He gained renown for his research on diseases of the lungs, heart, and kidneys.

1818 May 5, - 1883 KARL MARX (Father of Communism)(Germany)

Converted to Protestantism as a child. He embraced Lutheran anti-Judaism and charged that the basis for Judaism is greed and that social emancipation could only be accomplished by freeing society from commercialism, which was associated with Jews. Although many Jews embraced Communism as a panacea, many fled to the haven of socialism or capitalism. Still, the Capitalists call the Jews Communists and vice versa. Marx's theories were published under the title Das Kapital in 1867.

1818 October 18, HAMBURG (Germany)

Dedication of the Reform Temple, the first temple established specifically for that purpose. A year later, the temple composed a new prayer book, deleting any mention of the Messiah and the return to the Holy Land.

1819 - 1900 ISAAC MEYER WISE (USA)

Emigrating to New York in 1846, he later settled in Cincinnati where he became the head of the American Reform movement. He was responsible for the founding of the Hebrew Union College and the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

1819 - 1880 JACQUES OFFENBACH (France)

Composer. Son of a cantor, he composed over one hundred operettas including Tales of Hoffman. His Paris Life, Blue Beard, and Beautiful Helen are the best of French comic operas.

1819 August 2, GERMAN POGROMS

Began in Lubeck, and Bremen. They soon spread to Bamberg, Heidelberg, Frankfurt, Mannheim, and Hamburg. Most of the riots were the consequence of rising nationalism (see 1817), the defeat of the French, and the anti-liberalism that resulted from it all.

1819 August 31, HAIM FARHI (Acre, Eretz Israel)

Was murdered on the command of Abdullah Pasha. Farhi was the head of an important banking family, which had been influential in helping Abdullah come to power. Farhi had previously narrowly escaped death at the hands of Abdullah's predecessor, Ahmad al-Jazzar Pasha. During Napoleon's siege of Acre in 1799, Farhi refused Napoleon's offer of a promised Jewish independence and defended the city. Farhi was warned that his former backer had a change of heart but he refused to flee, fearing a backlash against the Jews in the Galilee. He was noted for his generous philanthropy, especially in Acre and Damascus.

1819 November 27, FOUNDING OF THE VEREIN FUER CULTUR UND WISSENSCHAFT DER JUDEN, (The Society for Culture and Science of Judaism) (Germany)

Set up by Leopold Zunz and Eduard Gans. It delved into Jewish history, culture, and literature using scientific methods of criticism and assessment. The Society lasted less then five years. Gans and many others converted to Christianity.

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 9:05:18 AM PST
Sixties fan says:

<The Enlightenment

[The crusade against "Christian" racism - "Christians" and Jews have the same roots - writers]

For as long as Christianity held unchallenged sway in Europe, Jews could exist only on the margin of European social life. With the coming of the 18th-century Enlightenment, however, their isolation slowly began to crumble. A new class of bourgeois intellectuals - the philosophes - denounced [[racist]] Christianity in the name of Deism, or "natural religion", and ushered in the secularism of the modern era. As a result of their efforts, for the first time in centuries the status of the Jews became a matter for widespread debate. Many philosophes found it only natural to sympathize with the Jews. Not only were Jews the oppressed people par excellence in a century which prided itself on its concern for justice, but they were also the most notorious victims of [[racist]] Christian intolerance, which the Enlightenment was sworn to destroy.

Accordingly, protests against the persecution of Jews - and especially against the Inquisition, the Enlightenment's bête noire [[black sheep]] - became one of the standard set pieces of 18th-century rhetoric. Led by *Montesquieu, *Lessing, and *Rousseau, Enlightenment writers everywhere preached that Christian and Jew shared a common humanity and common human rights. Relatively few of these men foresaw the Emancipation, which for most of the 18th century remained a distant prospect. But emancipation was proposed as early as 1714 by the English freethinker John Toland, and it drew increasing support from philosphes as the century went on. When, at last, the Jews of France were emancipated in 1791, it was largely the authority of the Enlightenment which overcame the objections of churchmen and gentile economic interests.

Despite its achievements, however, the Enlightenment's pro-Jewish agitation was not so purely humanitarian as it appeared. Much of the indignation which Jewish suffering aroused was calculated not to comfort the Jews, but to exploit their plight for the purpose of condemning Christianity. Admiring accounts of the Jewish religion, such as those favored by Lessing, were also intended to discredit Christianity - often so blatantly that, like Lessing's famous Nathan der Weise [[Nathan the Wise]], they expounded Judaism as a religion for philosophes to make Christianity seem backward by comparison.

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 9:06:21 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Part 2

[Jews are mostly wanted to give up their "observances"- envy of Jewish economic success]

In short, when the Enlightenment chose to defend the Jews, it did so largely for reasons of its own; and it dealt with them, in consequence, not as real individuals, but as a useful abstraction. The sole novelty of its approach was that, whereas the Jews had once been a witness to the truth of Christianity, now they were expected to demonstrate its error. The actual Jews, meanwhile, were usually regarded with suspicion and distaste. The Judaism which they practiced, after all, was a religion much like Christianity and hence to the Enlightenment a "superstition" to be eradicated. What was still more serious, Judaism was often considered a particularly anti-social religion, one which nurtured a stubborn sense of particularism and created grave divisions within the state. These opinions were so widely held by Enlightenment writers that even friends of the Jews continually urged them to abandon their traditions and observances. Only Montesquieu, of all the 18th century's great thinkers, showed any willingness to accept the Jews without reforming them into something else.

Indeed, the most common argument for emancipation, as conceived by *Dohm, *Mirabeau, and other,s was precisely that it would convert the Jews to the majority culture, thus expunging their most obnoxious traits. This view was ultimately upheld by the French revolutionaries, who declared, when they emancipated the Jews in 1791: "To the (col. 111)

man, everything; to the Jew, nothing." Though as a citizen the Jews was to receive full rights, as a Jew he was to count for nothing.

Even so, this program of compulsive emancipation did not fully reflect the intense Jew-hatred of the more extreme philosophes. Though it is surprising to recall the fact, among this group were some of the leading minds of the 18th century, including *Diderot, d'*Holbach, and *Voltaire. Despite their intellectual stature, these men launched scurrilous attacks on the Jews which far surpassed the bounds of reasoned criticism. Many of their polemics were not only intolerant, but so vicious and spiteful as to compare with all but the crudest propaganda of our own day. To some extent, this anti-Jewish fervor can be understood as merely one aspect of the Enlightenment's war on Christianity. Diderot, d'Holbach, Voltaire, and their followers were the most radical anti-Christians of their time, and - in contrast to the more moderate Deists who praised the Jews - they did not hesitate to pour scorn on Christianity by reviling its Jewish origins. This tactic was all the more useful because Judaism, unlike Christianity, could be abused in print without fear of prosecution; but even the fact that the Jews made a convenient whipping-boy cannot explain all the hostility which they excited.

"Enlightened" diatribes [[propaganda attacks]] against Jews were often so bitter, so peculiarly violent, that they can only have stemmed from a profound emotional antagonism - a hatred nourished not only by dislike of Jewish particularism, refurbished from ancient Greco-Roman sources, but also by unconscious Christian prejudice and resentment of Jewish economic success. Voltaire, in particular, detested the Jews with vehement passion. A large part of his whole enormous output was devoted to lurid tales of Jewish credulity and fanaticism, which he viewed as dangerous threats to European culture. At times, Voltaire actually pressed this argument so far as to imply that Jews were ignorant by nature, and could never be integrated into a modern society.

To be sure, racist ideas of this kind made little headway against the ingrained egalitarianism of the Enlightenment. Neither Voltaire nor any other pre-Revolutionary thinker seriously denied that Jews could be assimilated, so that in this sense, at least, anti-Semitism was hardly known. Still less respectable were outright fantasies like the blood libel, which most Enlightenment writers firmly repudiated [[refused]].

[The new definition of the Jews as an "enemy of the modern secular state"]

Yet the fact remains that, for all their resistance to racism and other delusions [[ideas]], some of the leaders of the Enlightenment played a central role in the development of anti-Semitic ideology. By declaring the Jew an enemy of the modern secular state, they refurbished the anti-Semitism of the Middle Ages and set it on an entirely new path. In so doing, moreover, they revealed a depth of feeling against Jews which was wholly disproportionate to the Jews' supposed faults, and which would continue to inspire anti-Semitism even when the Jews' secularism was no longer open to question.

[P.W.]> (col. 112)

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 9:09:05 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Part 4

<Emancipation and Reaction

[Anti-Semitism before - anti-Semitism as the "hatred of a stranger"]

The newer 19th-century version of anti-Semitism arose on a soil which had been watered for many centuries in Europe by Christian theology and, more important, by popular catechisms. The [[racist]] Christian centuries had persecuted Jews for theological reasons, but this "teaching of contempt" had set the seal on the most ancient of all anti-Semitic themes: that the Jews were a uniquely alien element within human society. In every permutation of European politics and economics within the course of the century, the question of the alienness [[enmity]] of the Jew reappeared as an issue of quite different quality from all of the other conflicts of a stormy age. Jews themselves tended to imagine that their troubles represented the (col. 112)

time-lag of older, medieval Christian attitudes, of the anger at "Christ-killers" and "Christ-rejecters", which would eventually disappear. It was not until the work of Leo *Pinsker and [[racist ]] Theodor *Herzl, the founders of modern [[racist]] Zionism, that the suggestion was made that anti-Semitism in all of its varieties was, at its very root, a form of xenophobia, the hatred of a stranger - the oldest, most complicated, and most virulent example of such hatred - and that the end of the medieval era of faith and politics did not, therefore, mean the end of anti-Semitism.

[Jewish "emancipation" in France and in the criminal racist "USA"]

As a result of both the French and the American revolutions there were two states in the world at the beginning of the 19th century in which, in constitutional theory, Jews were now equal citizens before the law.

[[The main purpose for the racist "Christian" leaders was that the Jews could be drawn into their armies - in the criminal racist "United States" for the destruction and elimination of the First Nations (natives, "Indians"), the First Nations Holocaust]].

In neither case was their emancipation complete. In the [[criminal racist]] U.S. certain legal disabilities continued to exist in some of the individual states and the effort for their removal encountered some re-echoes of older Christian prejudices. The Jews in America were, however, at the beginning of the 19th century a mere handful, less than 3,000 in a national population approaching 4,000,000, and there was therefore no contemporary social base for the rise of a serious anti-Semitic reaction.

[Emancipation is worsening the economic conflicts in Europe - racist "Christians" are afraid of emancipated Jews]

The issues were different in Europe. In France there had been more than a century of economic conflict between Jewish small-scale moneylenders, illegal artisans, and petty credit and their gentile clients and competitors. The legal emancipation of the Jews did not still [[calm down]] these angers but, on the contrary, exacerbated [[worsened]] them. The spokesmen of the political left in eastern France during the era of the Revolution and even into the age of *Napoleon argued, without exception that the new legal equality for the Jews would not act to assimilate them as "useful and productive citizens" into the main body of the French people but, rather that it would open new avenues for the rapacity of these aliens. Napoleon's own activities in relation to the Jewish question, including the calling of his famous French *Sanhedrin in 1807, were under the impact of two themes: the desire to make the Jews assimilate more rapidly and the attempt, through a decree that announced a ten-year moratorium on debts owed to Jews in eastern France, to calm the angers of their enemies. On the other hand, Jews were visibly and notoriously the beneficiaries of the Revolution. It was, indeed, true that a number of distinguished émigrés had been helped to escape by former associates who were Jews, and it was even true that the bulk of the Jewish community, at least at the very beginning of the Revolution and a few years later during the Terror, feared rather than favored the new regime.

Nonetheless, in the minds of the major losers, the men of the old order and especially of the [[racist criminal "Christian]] church, the Jews were the chief, or at the very least the most obvious, winners during the era of the Revolution. The association of French anti-Semitism with counterrevolutionary forces, with royalist-clericalist reaction, throughout the next 150 years was thus begun very early. In the demonology of anti-Semitism it was not difficult to transform the Sanhedrin in Paris in 1807 into a meeting of a secret society of Jews plotting to take over the world. This connection was made in that year by Abbé *Barruel in his book Mémoire pour servir a l'histoire du jacobinisme [["Memory to Serve at History of Jacobinism"]]. This volume is the source of all of the later elaborations of the myth of the Elders of Zion.

In Europe as a whole a new kind of anti-Semitism was evoked by the new kind of war that the revolutionary armies, and the far more successful armies of Napoleon, were waging against their enemies. Between 1790 and 1815 the armies of France appeared everywhere not, as they announced, as conquerors holding foreign territory for ransom or for annexation, but as liberators of the peoples from the yoke of their existing governments in order to help (col. 113)

them regenerate themselves in a new state of freedom. Wherever the Revolution spread, its legislation included, in places as far-flung as Westphalia,Italy, and even briefly, Erez Israel (Ereẓ Israel) [[Land of Israel]], equality for Jews. It was entirely reasonable on the part of the Austrian police, and the secret services of some of the other European powers, to suspect that some of the Jews within their borders were really partisans of Napoleon.

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 9:10:42 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Part 5

[Restricted emancipation since 1815 - steps for emancipation and envy of Jewish economic success - the fight about the "capitalist spirit"]

In the wake of his defeat the emancipation of the Jews remained on the books in France, but it was removed elsewhere, with some modifications in favor of Jews, as an imposition of a foreign power. The battle for Jewish equality had to begin again; it became part of a century-long battle in Europe to achieve the liberal revolution everywhere. This struggle had not yet ended by the time of World War I, for at that moment the largest Jewish community in the world, that in the Russian Empire, was not yet emancipated and had, indeed, suffered grievously throughout the century.

In the early and middle years of the 19th century, the most important battleground between Jews and their enemies was in Germany. Capitalism was rapidly remaking the social structure and Jews were the most easily identifiable element among the "new men". The victims of the rising capitalist order, especially the lower-middle classes, found their scapegoat in the most vulnerable group among the successful, the Jews. In a different part of society, and from a nationalist perspective, the most distinguished of German historians of the day, Heinrich *Treitschke, was insisting toward the end of the century that the acculturated and legally emancipated Jews, who thought in their own minds that they had become thoroughly German, were really aliens who still had to remake themselves from the ground up and to disappear inconspicuously.

Not long after the turn of the century Werner *Sombart (Die Juden und das Wirtschaftsleben [[Jews and Economic Life]] 1911) was to express his own ambivalence about capitalism as a whole by insisting, against Max Weber, that it was the Jews, and not the Protestants, who had always been, even in biblical days, the inventors and bearers of the capitalist spirit. Such identification between the Jews and the spirit of capitalism had been made, to their discredit, seven decades earlier, in 1844, by the young Karl *Marx in his essay "On the Jewish Question". for anti-Semites of both the political right and the left, who hated capitalism for different reasons, such identification was one of the sources and (col. 114)

rationales of Jew-hatred throughout the modern era, into the Nazi period. Hatreds rooted in class conflict combined with angers which derived from visions of national and cultural authenticity to produce the most violent and murderous attack on Jews in all history.> (col. 115)

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 9:11:56 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Part 6,

["Christian" defamation of Jews with cartoons in 19th century]

[The defamation strategy with the pork]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 121-122a: An English cartoon of 1802 shows Moses Abrams bewailing the fact that his brother's body, pickled in Jamaica for burial and consigned as pork, has been eaten on the voyage to London.


"Mine God! Mine God! Then you have eat mine Broder! He was die in Jamaica, and Sholomons Isaacs was make him Picle to bury at our Shynagogues. Oh! Mine poor Brother! mine God, mine God! - We had as you say, Sir, a Task consignd to you, but, owing to our Voyage being extremely long, we were compelt to expend your Pork,, there is your Task and I shall with Pleasure pay you the Value of the Meat." [[As for Jews the pork is a forbidden animal, the meat has no value and the brother does not get anything...]]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 121-122b: cartoon of Jews eating pork, 18th century

In an 18th-century cartoon, members of London's Great Synagogue prepare to enjoy the forbidden food.

[The defamation strategy of having sex with "Christian" women and incontrollable Jewish potency]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 129-130a: "Moses in the Bullrushes", by the English caricaturist, G.M. Woodward, 1799. [[Moses is making love in the corn fields]]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 129-130b: "Solomon enjoys himself with two pretty Christian girls". One of the many anti-Semitic caricatures by the English artist, Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827)

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 129-130c: "Moses erecting the Brazen Serpent in the Desert". This cartoon from the British Mercury, 1787, has an allusion to the Baal of Peor (Num. 25)

[[The cartoon shows that Moses could not control his potency, and that most people are fleeing in the background. Well, there were lots of "Christians" who could not control their potency either...]].

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 131: cartoon Susannah and the Elders. A German caricature of the painting by the 19th-century artist, Arnold Boecklin

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 131-132: [[a Jew at a "Christian" prostitute, paying five Francs with a 100 Francs bank note]]. A cartoon by the French caricaturist, H. Gerbault

[The defamation strategy with the love of money]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 141-142a: a Rowlandson cartoon of two Jewish moneylenders drawing up a bond with a young aristocrat

(vide pictures online)

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 9:14:20 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Part 7

German anti-Semitism since 1819

[The "German spirit" is nothing for Jews - anti-Semitic works by Richard Wagner - son-in-law Stewart Chamberlain - ideal of unification as "Germans"]

On the surface of events modern German anti-Semitism began with riots by the peasants in 1819, using the rhetoric of older Christian hatreds. This hatred of Jews was soon transformed by the rising romanticism and the nationalist reactions to the Napoleonic wars into an assertion [[declaration]] that the true German spirit, which had arisen in the Teutonic forests, was an organic and lasting identity in which the Jews could not, by his very nature, participate. For this purpose the work of *Gobineau on race was pressed into service to make the point that the Jews were a non-Aryan, Oriental element whose very nature was of a different modality. Richard *Wagner insisted on this point not only in his overt anti-Semitic utterances but also indirectly in his operas, in which he crystallized the Teutonic myths as a quasi-religious expression of the authentic German spirit.

In Wagner's footsteps there appeared the works of his son-in-law, Houston Stewart *Chamberlain (The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century; 1899), which pronounced the presence of Jews in German society to be radically inimical to its very health. In the popular mind these theorists of national culture were understood within a situation in which the intellectual importance of Germany in Europe was not equaled by its political significance, for the scandalous division of the country lasted until 1870. To be united and German was the dominant ideal.

[The idea of the "Cosmopolitan Jew" - equality of 1859 in Prussia and since 1870 in whole Germany without social base]

The very difficulties in realizing the unity of Germany brought the existence of Jews into unfriendly focus. Very few elements in mid-19th century Germany society, even among their friends, were willing to regard Jews as true Germans. Jews were asking for political equality more in the name of the universal rights of man - that is, as partisans of the cosmopolitan principle - than as sons of the German people. As a result, the ultimate attainment of equality, first in Prussia in 1859 and ultimately in all of Germany in the aftermath of the unification of the country in 1870, had a quite narrow social base. It was identified with the rise of the bourgeois liberalism, but this element never dominated in mid-19th-century Germany as it did in contemporary England.

[Jewish competition against "Christian" middle class - reaction of the "Christian" middle class - Socialism]

What was worse, from a Jewish perspective, was that as a middle-class element the Jews were themselves in competition with the very class which had facilitated their entry into society. Toward the end of the century the German middle class itself was shifting its political alignment from liberalism to romantic conservatism. To be sure, the main thrust of German liberalism continued to regard anti-Semitism as reactionary, just as the main body of German Socialism would have no truck with the identification of all Jews with the capitalist (col. 115)

oppressors of the working class.

[Anti-Semitism with a mix of envy and myths]

[[The speculation system of the international stock exchange, the change of structures by industrialization, and the some rich Jews like Rothschild brought up a new hatred against the Jews, when Jewish bosses bought farms and set the German farmers into their industries...]]

Nonetheless, anti-Semitism was sufficiently potent for all its themes to coalesce into the image of the successful, non-national, unproductive foreigner, whose power resided in money and in his mastery of the legerdemain of modern manipulation. This "Jew" was a lineal descendant of the Jewish maker of love potions in Greco-Roman demonology and the poisoner of wells of the medieval myths, but the new version was very up to date and answered to contemporary frustrations and angers.

In the last quarter of the 19th century, anti-Semitism became an acceptable element in German political life to be manipulated at opportune moments by political leaders seeking popular lower-middle-class support. The very term anti-Semitism had been invented by Wilhelm Marr in 1879 and it was in that year that the court chaplain, Adolph *Stoecker, had made his first public anti-Semitic speech, "What We Demand of Modern Jewry", and had then turned his Christian Socialist Party in overtly anti-Jewish directions. With the rise of German imperialism toward the end of the century and the sense of success it gave [[racist kaiser]] Germany,political anti-Semitism waned, but social distance continued unhaltered.

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 9:16:38 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Part 8

French anti-Semitism since 1815

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 143-144a: cartoon of Rothschild, a French cartoon
by C. Léandre, 1898 [[showing Rothschild as an old and wild half-bird taking the whole globe]]

[French Jews in French society after 1815 - anti-Semitism from the extreme left and right - Industrial Revolution and the Jew as a scapegoat - defeat of 1870 and the Jews as a scapegoat]

In France, Jews had not been an issue of any considerable importance after the restoration of the Bourbons to power in 1815. There alone Jewish political gains had been safeguarded without question, because the fundamental social changes which had been introduced by the Revolution could not be radically altered by the return of the émigrés.

Nonetheless, Jews remained one of the most visible symbols of these very changes, and the attacks upon Jews, both from the extreme right and the extreme left, were sufficiently overt to provide the spark for greater difficulties in the second half of the century. Two of the greatest theorists of Socialism in France, *Proudhon and *Fourier, were anti-Jewish on the ground that Jewish capitalist interests stood counter to those of the peasants and the workers, and that the Jewish spirit as a whole was antithetical to their vision of a reformed humanity living the life of unselfish social justice. In France, too, the changes being brought about by capitalism and the Industrial Revolution made many people feel helpless, as their lives were being remade for the worse.

The power of the *Rothschilds was very evident in France, especially in the age of Louis Napoleon, and some of the anger at the new age came to expression in attacks on them by left-wingers such as *Toussenel. In the time of conflict which followed the fall of France in 1870 major elements among all forces contending for power after the debacle could blame their troubles in the Jews.

In the renewed political battles of the 1870s and 1880s the overwhelming majority of the Jewish community in France was associated with the liberal republican forces against the conservative Catholics, who were enemies of the Republic. From 1879 to 1884 republican anti-clericals dominated in parliament and succeeded in freeing French education from clerical control. One of the building blocks of the almost successful counterrevolution of 1888, in which General Boulanger very nearly made an end of the Republic, was anti-Semitism. The myth that the small handful of Jews in France had enormous and highly dangerous power had been broadcast two years before in perhaps the single, most successful anti-Semitic and counterrevolutionary book ever published, Edouard *Drumont's La France Juive [["Jewish France"]], which went through innumerable editions.

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 151: pledge form distributed by the periodical l'Anti-Sémitique for a congress held in Paris in 1884
Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 152: thirsty earth, cartoon of La Libre Parole, 1893

Text: "Elle devient sèche, cette vielle terre de France; elle a soif de sang et de larmes. Il faudra l'arroser incessamment."

The Jew to his laborer, the Angel of Death: "The ancient soil of France is drying up; it's thirsty for blood and tears again. ... it must be watered constantly." The first issue of the French anti-Semitic illustrated periodical, La Libre Parole, 1893

[[The cartoon says: there has been no war for a long time. Bankers are organizing wars and the victims are giving blood to the earth. - But the bankers are not only Jews, but also "Christians". And the industrialists make the big war profit, and the industrialists are mostly - "Christians"...]]

[Dreyfus affair since 1894]

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 115, French cartoon of Alfred Dreyfus, 1894
[[when he was blamed of espionage for racist kaiser Germany. Dreyfus is shown as a
dragon snake and the shield "traitre" (treacher)]]

Late in 1894 anti-Semitism became the central issue of French society and politics for at least a decade and the reechoes of the positions taken in those years can still be heard. Captain Alfred *Dreyfus, the first Jew to become a member of the general staff of the French army, was accused of spying for Germany. The (col. 116)

outcry against Dreyfus was joined not only by the clerical-royalist right but also by some elements of the French left. His ultimate vindication was the result of the exercise of moral conscience in the service of trough b a number of individuals more concerned about the preservation of the Republic than about the rights of Jews. (col. 123)

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 9:17:50 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Part 9

Anti-Semitism in Romania

Encyclopaedia Judaica (1971): Anti-Semitism, vol. 3, col. 152b: Mastheads of two Rumanian [[Romanian]] periodicals, 1899 and 1907

<In Romania, despite promises that had been made in the Berlin Convention of 1878, Jews were systematically excluded from most walks of life. Even the native born were declared to be foreigners, so that very few Jews held citizenship. There was little that Jews could do except attempt to flee in large numbers.> (col. 124)

[[The Romanian government applied the racist Zionist practice that Jews would be a nation, and by this all Jews were foreigners. The Romanian government did not make any difference between racist Zionists and non-Zionists, as it seems]].

Anti-Semitism in Austro-Hungarian Empire

<In the Austro-Hungarian Empire the blood libel was revived in 1899 in Bohemia, but this was only the most sensational case of a series that had begun in *Tisza-Eszlar, a small Hungarian village, in 1882. Much Jewish energy went into the defense against such charges. What was being debated was not so much the blatant lie of the blood accusation but rather the more fundamental issue of the moral integrity of Judaism and the Jew. This was, essentially, still medieval anti-Semitism, but more contemporary currents were running strong. There were deep national tensions within the multinational Austro-Hungarian Empire, and the Jews were caught in the middle of all of the most embittered of these situations. In Bohemia they identified with the ruling Germans, to the chagrin and anger of Czech nationalists, but the local Germans nevertheless rejected the Jews as not true members of the Volk [[population]]. In Galicia, the poorest and most medieval of the Austro-Hungarian provinces, the dominant Poles could claim a majority over the Ukrainians only by counting the Jews as Poles, but that did not induce them to accept even those Jews who were polonizing themselves. The masses of Galician Jewry, almost a million at the turn of the century, were living in poverty that was abject even by Russian and Rumanian [[Romanian]] standards, with no hope of betterment.> (col. 124)

In reply to an earlier post on Jan 18, 2013 9:26:07 AM PST
Sixties fan says:

Do any of my post about Jews in Europe from in the 18th and 19th Century answer your question about what wasn't about the Jews?

Some European countries, if not all, seemed to spend an amazing amount of time trying to take away or taking away any rights the Jews worked very hard to gain.

Sounds to me exactly what did happen once they decided enough was enough, after the Dreyffus affair, and the rejection from Husseini and others to allow the Jews the right to their own sovereign Nation in the Jewish people's ancient land.

Not in Europe, not in America, not anywhere in the world could Jews have rights.


And if a Judeophobe tries to stop a people from being sovereign again on their ancient land (because he also does not accept Jewish Enlightment and rights, what are those people supposed to do but to fight back, as they finally did from 1936 on?

Posted on Jan 18, 2013 11:02:22 AM PST
Palladin55 says:
Palladin55: "1) are Jews entitled to a homeland?"
Liyoklani..Depending on what you mean by "entitled" and what you mean by "homeland"

By homeland, I mean a country of their own. Arabs have their own countries, 22 of them. Greeks have a homeland called Greece. The French have a homeland called France. Why not Jews? What's your objection? If you had read some of Sixties fan earlier posts you would find that migration of Jews to Palestine started in the 1890's when the region was mostly uninhabited. There are secular reasons not only religious reasons for an ethnicity to have its own country.
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