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Jews vs. Goyim?

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In reply to an earlier post on Nov 27, 2012 10:47:28 PM PST
Last edited by the author on Nov 27, 2012 10:48:13 PM PST
Susanna says:
YOu do it to Jews and hand candy out. Hypocrite.

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 27, 2012 10:51:41 PM PST
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Posted on Nov 28, 2012 5:25:51 AM PST
Palladin55 says:
Bookish says "You mean carving up territory among empires and giving a tiny minority a prize because someone else maltreated them? ?

Actually, Jews were a substantial majority in the part of Palestine that was allocated by the UN for a Jewish state.

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 7:34:34 AM PST
Lientje says:
Palladin55: #2 and yes they were - and still are.

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 7:36:14 AM PST
Lientje says:
Palladin55: The PLO did not love the Israelis either, but they were more willing to listen. They were somewhat more
docile. And I do emphasize the word "somewhat" but you see they were not treated with respect and they were also
not treated as citizens.

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 7:55:27 AM PST
Last edited by the author on Nov 28, 2012 8:09:49 AM PST
Lientje says:
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In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 7:57:38 AM PST
Lientje says:
Palladin55: "yokalani has every to post her views here, but you would think she'd at least have some idea about the history of Israel 'from the git go' Maybe she doesn't realize there was a genocidal war by several Arab countries against Israel from 'the git go'?

Let's call 1948 the git go. Pretend you were a Palestinian in 1948. What would your reaction be? Duh? You created the Irgun
or continued it. There were no peace pipes. You are getting what you asked for.

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 8:00:45 AM PST
Lientje says:
Bookish: "If you've made serious mistakes, and whoa have you, then make nice. It's ridiculous not to treat others with human dignity and take revenge on people that did not try wipe out your entire tribe. "

Only on this type of forum would this have a 0 to 4 count. I added a yes, though usually I don't vote at all. What a pathetic
group of people, really.

Posted on Nov 28, 2012 8:02:51 AM PST
Palladin55 says:
Lilyokalani...The Palestinians in the Gaza strip (under Egyptian control) and the West Bank (under Jordanian control) before the 1967 war weren't Israeli citizens, so weren't treated as such. They weren't seeking respect or approval from Israelis. They wanted an end to an independent Jewish state.

There is a tendency to frame the conflict as a civil-rights issue. Much like the struggle of black Americans for equality in the South. This is not the case. It's about the annihilation of a democratic Jewish state to be replaced by another repressive Islamic state. If it was about civil rights, I'd be on your side.

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 8:06:21 AM PST
Lientje says:
Susanna: "YOu do it to Jews and hand candy out. Hypocrite. "


In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 8:13:11 AM PST
Lientje says:
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Posted on Nov 28, 2012 8:13:23 AM PST
Palladin55 says:
"Let's call 1948 the git go. Pretend you were a Palestinian in 1948."

Easy. I would have accepted the UN plan to partition Palestine into a Palestinian state and a Jewish state. Unfortunately, it wasn't the Jews who rejected the idea, it was the Arabs. BTW..Palestinians, under Arafat, were offered a state again in 2001 but rejected it.

Posted on Nov 28, 2012 8:26:14 AM PST
Palladin55 says:
"When does it start being about civil rights? After the 1963 war? How about in 1948 and 1949?

Prior to the 1967 war, West Bank and Gaza Palestinians were under control of Jordan and Egypt, not Israel. Arabs in Israel were given citizenship. Speaking of civil rights, where else, in that region besides Israel can an Arab homosexual live without being executed? Where's the justice and civil rights in these countries? Or do you just want to single out Israel?

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 11:11:50 AM PST
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In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 11:14:17 AM PST
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In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 11:16:47 AM PST
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In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 11:55:16 AM PST
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Posted on Nov 28, 2012 3:38:36 PM PST
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Posted on Nov 28, 2012 3:41:45 PM PST
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In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 3:42:56 PM PST
Lientje says:
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In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 3:44:41 PM PST
Lientje says:
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In reply to an earlier post on Nov 28, 2012 3:57:57 PM PST
[Deleted by Amazon on Feb 25, 2013 5:23:12 AM PST]

Posted on Nov 29, 2012 4:59:01 AM PST
Palladin55 says:
Lilyokalani says: "Sure you would have. Uh huh. "

Sometimes I wonder who I'm talking to through cyberspace. Maybe someone who's in the 5th grade?

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 29, 2012 6:40:29 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Here is a Time line of what has happened since 1920:
Who has been accepting and who has been rejecting living together in Palestine?
Part 1
Eli E. Hertz

Over 100 Years of Chronic Arab Rejectionism

The history of the Arab-Israeli conflict reveals 24 major junctures when compromise was offered since the 1920s, dating from pre-state, League of Nations Mandate to the present time. Plan after plan, including patently pro-Arab proposals, were put on the table. Since the 1993 Oslo Accords, 15 agreements and memorandums have been signed. This chapter examines those agreements and Arab response or compliance in each case.


"The Palestinians never miss an opportunity to miss an opportunity."
Israeli Foreign Minister Abba Eban

Arab claims that the Israeli "Occupation" prevents peace is nothing more than a red herring. It is not "The Occupation" that Arabs reject; it is Israel 's right to exist as a Jewish, sovereign and legitimate political entity.

What prevents achieving peace is Arab rejectionism, which began in the 1880s when the first Jewish immigrants returned to the land of Israel . 1 Since the 1920s, long before the establishment of Israel or the 1967 Six-Day War, Palestinian Arabs have used a combination of diplomatic moves and violence, particularly terrorism 2 against Jewish civilians, effectively rejecting every form of compromise.

At the crux of the Arab-Israeli conflict is the Arab world's refusal to accept a non-Muslim political entity in the Middle East.

Peace requires an Arab world that recognizes Israel as a legitimate political entity. Legitimacy means a polity with viable and defendable borders where the Jews can exercise their own rights of self-determination by virtue of demographics (i.e., a Jewish majority) -hegemony that is reflected in the cultural and the political life of the Jewish nation.

The Arab refusal to recognize Israel and their attempts to destroy the Jewish state are among the defining characteristics of Palestinian society. Measures designed to destroy Israel vary from use of force (through wars, Intifadas , violent riots, revolts and terrorism) to use of economic and demographic forces (economic boycotts, demands for jobs in Israel, Palestinian infiltration into Israel without visas or other permits, and demands that Palestinian refugees from 1948 and their descendants be allowed to return to Israel). Absolute antipathy and intolerance towards non-Muslim political entities is a fate Jews shared with the Maronite Christians in Lebanon , even though Israel inhabits no more than 0.01 percent of the Middle Eastern landscape.

For almost 100 years, Palestinian behavior has been based on rejectionism and political violence. The Palestinian refugee problem created in 1948 did not spark those strategies, nor did the "Occupation" of the Territories in the wake of the 1967 Six-Day War, which brought Israeli control over West Bank (Judea and Samaria ) and Gaza .

Arabs have rejected the presence of Jews with political aspirations to rebuild their ancient homeland since the advent of political Zionism. When in 1891 the number of Jewish immigrants leaving the country equaled the number of new arrivals, and nine years of Zionist endeavor, had produced barely a dozen struggling and insolvent Jewish agricultural settlements. Arab notables from Jerusalem called upon the Ottoman administration to ban Jewish immigration and the sale of land to Jews. 3

At each juncture when attempts to reach a `live-and-let-live' solution have been advanced, Arab responses have boiled down to a two-pronged offensive that dovetails diplomacy with violence. In short, the Arabs, and particularly the Palestinians, have refused to recognize Israel as a legitimate entity or to negotiate genuine compromise. Instead, they have tried to drive the Jews out through violence and terror.

PART I: The British Mandate (1917-1947)


1917 Balfour Declaration:

The British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Arthur Balfour, wrote to Lord Rothschild: "His Majesty's Government ... views with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." Balfour underscored that "Nothing shall be done, which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of the existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine ."

Arab Response: Rejection!

Violence: In the springs of 1920 and 1921, the Arabs instigated anti-Jewish riots in cities where both Arabs and Jews lived. Attacks were also launched on Jewish settlements in the countryside, leading to 13 deaths in 1920. Another 47 Jews were killed and 140 wounded in settlements and Jewish neighborhoods the following year.

Diplomacy: The Arab Executive Committee demanded an end to Jewish immigration. The Moslem-Christian Associations, meeting in Jerusalem with the British Colonial Secretary Winston Churchill in 1921, called upon Great Britain to rescind the Balfour Declaration, stop Jewish immigration and agree to appoint a national government answerable to a popularly elected Parliament controlled by the Arab majority. 4

In response, the British temporarily halted Jewish immigration and convened the 1921 Haycraft Commission of Inquiry. The Commission found the Arabs responsible for the outbreak of violence that was sparked by "British pro-Zionist commitments."

In the fall of 1921, Churchill attempted to bring Arabs and Jews together in London to negotiate a formula for peaceful coexistence. For almost a year, the Arab delegation doggedly refused to meet with Zionist leaders, claiming that such a meeting would be demeaning. In February 1922, Churchill offered the Arabs the establishment of a legislative council, but they turned it down because the offer also included provisions for Jewish representation. 5


1922 Churchill White Paper: 6

The Arabs continued their demand that Jewish immigration cease, despite records, which show that in 1922 there were only 80,000 Jews in the entire country. Seeking to placate the Arabs, the British partitioned the Palestine Mandate: Jews were prohibited from settling in 77 percent of Mandate Palestine-all the territory east of the Jordan River . They were allowed to settle anywhere in western Palestine (including today's Israel proper, the West Bank and Gaza .) Thus, Eastern Palestine, renamed Transjordan , was removed from the area that was set aside for the Jewish National Home in the historic Balfour Declaration and handed over to the Emir Abdullah. This split was viewed as the "definitive Palestinian Settlement," with Transjordan as `the Arab National Home,' parallel to the Jewish National Home on the West Bank of the Jordan River all the way to the Mediterranean Sea (from the river to the sea).

Arab Response: Rejection!

Diplomacy: The Zionist movement reluctantly agreed to conform to the policy set forth in the 1922 Churchill White Paper, but the Arabs continued to reject any form of coexistence. They boycotted British attempts to hold elections for the establishment of a joint legislative assembly that included the Jews, rejecting any form of a Jewish body politic. They even refused to establish an Arab Agency for development of the Arab sector that would parallel the Jewish Agency. 7 Six years later, in 1928, the Arabs recognized their mistake in turning down the British offer of a legislative assembly. At the 7 th Palestinian Congress, they demanded the British give them a parliamentary government, but with ethnic tensions mounting, Britain was not about to renew its offer. 8

Violence: In 1929, Arab mobs again attacked Jews throughout Mandate Palestine, reacting to fear mongering instigated by the Supreme Moslem Council. The wave of violence known as the 1929 Disturbances left 135 dead and included the massacre of 70 non-Zionist religious Jews who lived in Hebron , the City of the Patriarchs. The British evacuated 700 Hebron survivors to Jerusalem for their own safety. Only a handful of Jews returned to Hebron in 1931, and they were ultimately evacuated in 1936, after renewed Arab violence. That last evacuation brought an end to the Jewish presence in Hebron dating back to ancient times. Three decades later, after the 1967 Six-Day War, a Jewish community was re-established in Hebron.


1930 Passfield White Paper:

The Passfield White Paper was based on the 1929-30 Shaw Commission of Inquiry 9 and the 1930 Hope-Simpson Report 10 after investigatory committees on land use sought a formula to mitigate tensions between Arabs and Jews. British Colonial Secretary Lord Passfield, who issued the 1930 White Paper, took a dim view of continued Jewish immigration. The document called for renewed attempts to establish a joint Jewish-Arab legislative council that would automatically give the Arab majority de facto domination over the Jews. British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, however, never accepted Passfield's recommendations. 11

Arab Response: Rejection!

Diplomacy: The idea of a shared stewardship of one polity never survived. In December 1930, British authorities invited Arab leaders to a "roundtable conference" with Zionists to discuss constitutional issues. The Arabs boycotted the opportunity for representative government and the plan was buried. 12

Pro-Zionist forces - both Jewish and gentile - viewed Passfield's recommendations to end Jewish settlement as a breach of the Balfour Declaration upon which the Mandate over Palestine had been granted to the British. Intense lobbying in the media and the halls of government led Prime Minister MacDonald to send an official letter to the head of the Zionist Movement. In it, he declared his government's intentions to fulfill the terms of the Mandate toward the Jewish people as a whole, not just the Jews living in Mandate Palestine.

In December 1935, Great Britain again raised the idea of an "advisory legislative council" instead of a parliament, consisting of three Muslim, four Jewish and two Christian members. For months, the Arabs vacillated, until the British government dropped the constitutional scheme. 13 Within weeks, Palestinian Arabs were once again killing Jews and also the British.

Violence: The 1936-1939 Arab Revolt, a three-year period of violence that targeted Jews and the British, was marked by murder, destruction of public infrastructure and Jewish property, and attacks on settlements. Eighty Jews lost their lives in the first stage of the revolt.

Diplomacy: In January 1935, 500 Muslim religious notables met in Jerusalem to enact a fatwa (Islamic religious ruling) that prohibited Muslims from - selling land to Jews on pain of death. In April 1936, with attacks on Jews and British officials still ongoing, six political factions within local Arab society - nascent political parties - joined forces to found the Arab Higher Committee (AHC).

The moving force behind the AHC was the Mufti of Jerusalem. The supreme religious leader of the Palestinian Muslim community, Hajj Amin al-Husseini was an ardent Arab nationalist and anti-Zionist. The AHC's first resolution was to call for a general strike until three demands were met: a complete halt of Jewish immigration, prohibition of land transfers to Jews, and establishment of an "Arab national government," a solution that would disenfranchise Jews.

In reply to an earlier post on Nov 29, 2012 6:45:08 AM PST
Sixties fan says:
Part 2

July 1937 Peel Commission Report:

The Peel Commission, convened in May 1936 to investigate the roots of renewed Arab violence, was charged with making recommendation to bring about coexistence.

Arab Response: Rejection!

Diplomacy: In his deposition before the Peel Commission, the Mufti demanded three main concessions: complete abandonment of the Jewish National Home; cessation of all Jewish immigration and land purchases; and termination of the Mandate by the establishment of a pro-British Arab regime, as was done in Iraq . The Mufti also complained that too many Jews already lived in Palestine , and in response to a question from commission members, indicated that some Jews would have to leave "kindly or painfully." 14

Although Arab leaders alleged that Jewish land acquisitions displaced Arabs, the commission found those complaints baseless . Instead, the commission found that Jewish immigration and British rule had actually led to higher wages, an improved standard of living and increased job opportunities for Arabs.

Despite those findings, the British yielded to Arab pressure and restricted Jewish immigration in March 1938 to 3,000 for the next six-months. The effect was to drastically reduce annual Jewish immigration by more than 75 percent. The commissioners also recommended partition of Palestine , proposing the formation of a small Jewish state, with the remaining territory united with Transjordan to form an Arab state.

Diplomacy: The 12 th Zionist Congress neither accepted nor rejected the partition plan, stating only that it "found the terms of the scheme unacceptable." At the same time, the [Zionist] Congress called for "negotiations to ascertain the precise terms of His Majesty's Government for the proposed establishment of a Jewish state." 15 The Arabs rejected the plan outright. Immediately upon publication of the report, the AHC, which had become the representative body of local Palestinian Arabs, repudiated the report. In September 1937, the 450 delegates of the Arab National Congress met at the Bludan Conference in Syria and rejected the Peel Commission's recommendations.

Violence: Parallel to rejecting a generous pro-Arab plan, Palestinian Arabs resumed the Arab Revolt. They stepped up attacks on Jews, and targeted moderate Arab brethren who were open to compromise. The revolt left 415 Jews dead. An estimate 25 percent of the Arabs who lost their lives in the revolt were killed by their brethren, the Palestinian Arabs. 16 Between 1936-1939, Arabs also destroyed 200,000 trees in JNF (Jewish National Fund) forests as part of their war on a Jewish presence; in the corresponding period, Jews planted about 1,000,000 more trees. 17

Diplomacy: Near the end of the Arab revolt, the most radical hard-line faction of Palestinian society gained the upper hand over the moderate Palestinian faction that opposed the revolt as unproductive. The so-called moderates were, however, far from conciliatory toward the idea of a Jewish state. They rejected the idea of partition, but were prepared to take a long view and put up with a trickle of Jewish immigration for the limited time mandated under the terms of the patently pro-Arab 1939 White Paper. Under the guidance of the Mufti, the hard-liners presented an all-or-nothing stance that called for full Arab independence in all of Palestine and the establishment of an Arab state.


1939 White Paper:

With the outbreak of World War II looming, the British sought Arab support in the strategically sensitive Middle East at all costs. The result was the 1939 White Paper, which capitulated to Palestinian Arab demands. It permanently reduced Jewish immigration to a trickle just when Jews were fleeing from Nazi Germany and other parts of Europe . It also specifically called for establishment of an Arab state in Palestine (i.e., not a Palestinian state) within ten years. Jewish immigration was to be restricted to no more than 75,000 over the following five years and none thereafter, without the consent of the Arab population . 18

Arab Response: Rejection!

Diplomacy: Even though the 1939 White Paper offered the Arabs independence as well as a veto over further Jewish immigration, the AHC expressed its total rejection of the policy of partition immediately upon publication of the report. Again they demanded a total stop to Jewish immigration forthwith, saying that the Jews would be among the "safeguarded minorities" under Arab rule. Meeting again in Bludan , Syria in September 1939, delegates from all the Arab states resolved that Palestine was "an integral part of the Arabian homeland and no part would be alienated with Arab consent." 19

At the end of World War II, in 1945, the newly formed Arab League reconstituted the Arab Higher Committee (AHC) as the representative body of Palestinian Arabs, renewing its policy of rejectionism on all fronts.

Diplomacy: Two more proposals were tendered in 1946, both of which championed a bi-national state-a solution that both Arabs and Jews deemed unworkable and undesirable. One proposal, by the Anglo-American Committee of Inquiry in April 1946, was based on a single state with equal powers for Jews and Arabs. The other, the Morrison-Grady plan in July 1946, recommended a federal state with two provinces-one Jewish, one Arab. Both called for a level of increased Jewish immigration, which would alleviate the plight of 100,000 Holocaust survivors in Displaced Persons (DP) camps in Europe . From the outset, the first proposal was unfeasible. While the Jewish delegation sought major changes in the second Morrison-Grady plan, the Palestinian Arab delegation rejected any compromise that did not recognize all of Palestine as a purely Arab country. When a second round of talks in London in September 1946 failed, the British referred the issue of Palestine to the United Nations.

In December 1945, members of the Arab League adopted economic warfare, calling for a boycott of the Jewish community in Mandate Palestine. In 1948, the Arab boycott became a clean break from all economic ties with Israel and the imposition of a secondary boycott against foreign firms that traded with Israel.


November 1947: UN Partition Plan:

The 1947 Partition Plan recommended establishment of a Jewish state and an Arab state in Palestine . The map drawn up by the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was a geopolitical anomaly, based on demographics on the ground that delineated two states, both of which lacked territorial continuity. The map resembled three Jewish and three Arab `intertwined link sausages'. 20

Arab Response: Rejection!

Diplomacy: Although 75 percent of the area partitioned for the Jews was desert, and the allocation lacked any territorial integrity for either side, the Jews accepted the UN recommendation for the Partition Plan, adopted by the General Assembly on November 29, 1947 at Lake Success, New York. The AHC - representing Palestinian Arabs - rejected the plan, asserting that it would prevent its implementation by force. The proposed Jewish state was given a mere 17 percent of the original Mandate territory for a Jewish Home as set forth in 1917.

Violence: The very next day, as the British began to dismantle the Mandate and leave western Palestine , Israel 's War of Independence began. In the first stage of the War of Independence (November 30, 1947‑May 14, 1948), local Palestinian irregulars and Arab volunteers from abroad engaged in a five-and-a- half months massive guerrilla war against Jewish society in Palestine to prevent implementation of the Jewish state's establishment. The second stage of the war began with the final British withdrawal and a declaration of independence by Israel on May 14, 1948. The war between Palestinians and Jews expanded into a general war, as regular armies from all of Israel 's Arab neighbors invaded the newly established Jewish state. Six thousand Jews-1 percent of Israel 's Jewish population-lost their lives during the War of Independence.

PART II: From Independence to Oslo (1948-1993)

Diplomacy: In the midst of the War of Independence - during a cease-fire - the Arab states categorically rejected a plan formulated by the Swedish UN envoy Count Folke Bernadotte that suggested revision of the 1947 Partition Plan giving the Arabs almost 60 percent of the area mandated to the newly established Jewish state (i.e., the entire Negev in exchange for a small part of the Galilee). The proposal also called for internationalization of Jerusalem , the return of all Palestinian refugees to the attenuated Jewish state that Bernadotte envisioned, annexation of the West Bank to Transjordan and Arab control of Jewish immigration.

Violence: The 1948 War and the establishment of the State of Israel triggered hostile reactions in Arab countries. Demonstrations to `Save Palestine ' and destroy Israel flourished, and anti-Jewish riots erupted throughout the Arab world, with Arabs attacking their Jewish neighbors. The attacks escalated into pogroms throughout the Arab world, with bombings of Jewish institutions, official acts of discrimination and harassment and the passage of Nuremberg-like laws that disenfranchised and marginalized Jews. That in turn led to a mass exodus of entire Jewish communities from the Middle East and North Africa . More than 850,000 innocent Jews were forced to leave their homes as stateless and penniless refugees - including 95 percent of Iraq 's Jewish community, whose history dated back to the Babylonian Exile 2,500 years ago. Most Middle Eastern and North African Jews found refuge in Israel , where they eventually rebuilt their lives.

Diplomacy: Israel 's Arab neighbors refused to sign a peace treaty with the Jewish state that would end the perpetual state of war. The Arabs agreed only to an armistice, or cease-fire, negotiated by UN Mediator Ralph Bunche, since the Arabs rejected face-to-face negotiations 21 that might be construed as de facto recognition of Israel.


1949 Armistice Agreements:

Armistice agreements, concluded on the Mediterranean island of Rhodes , brought about a cease-fire that marked an end to the War of Independence, but not an end to the conflict. Based largely on the outcome of the battles and some exchange of turf to disengage Arab and Israeli forces, armistice lines (which became known as the `Green Line') were drawn. Those lines left Jordan - whose international border was the Jordan River - in control of the West Bank and the Old City of Jerusalem, with Egypt in control of the Gaza Strip.

Arab Response: Rejection!

Despite the establishment of the State of Israel and its victory in the War of Independence in 1948, Palestinian Arabs and their Arab brethren continued to demonstrate an unwavering commitment to their pre-state rejectionist tradition. For the next 29 years, from 1948 to 1977, they refused to recognize Israel - De facto or De jure - and they continued to try to destroy the Jewish state in the diplomatic arena and through the use of violence. Arab violence included infiltration and border clashes, terrorism against civilians and culpability for additionally four wars: the Sinai Campaign in 1956, the Six-Day War in 1967, the War of Attrition between 1968-1970, and the Yom Kippur War in 1973.

After a decade of Arab unwillingness to accept Israel 's Jewish-Zionist character and put the past to rest, Abba Eban noted dryly: "The Arabs never miss an opportunity to miss an opportunity."

Diplomacy: After Egypt , Lebanon and Jordan signed armistice agreements in 1948, the UN established the Palestine Conciliation Commission to bring about a final settlement. The United States , France and Turkey were appointed to sit on the commission, which met in Lausanne , Switzerland , in April 1949. But the meeting was a non-starter, as the Arabs refused to sit at the same table with Israeli delegates, and agreed only to talk to the commissioners. They demanded that Israel withdraw into a narrow enclave for Jews along the coastline without any of the Galilee or the Negev , an immediate return of all Arab refugees, and a Right of Return to the narrow enclave they agreed to give the Jews.

Except for Transjordan, the Arabs also insisted on internationalizing all of Jerusalem , but refused in return to recognize Israel and develop normal relations with it. They claimed that the issue of territory, refugees, and Jerusalem were international resolutions that must be obeyed, while recognition and future relations with Israel were matters the Arabs should decide for themselves-a distortion of UN powers and the spirit of UN resolutions.

Violence: In the 1950s, Israel's neighbors sent fedayeen 22 (terrorists) across the border to sabotage property and murder Jewish civilians led Israel to retaliate with military raids, and ultimately forced Israel to embark on the 1956 Sinai Campaign to put an end to the incursions. The wave of violence reached a peak in 1953, when there were 3,000 cross-border acts of violence inside Israel . Between 1951 and 1955, 503 Israelis were killed by Arab terrorists infiltrating from Jordan , 358 in attacks from Egypt , and 61 in attacks from Syria and Lebanon . The attacks targeted civilians in private homes, motorists and bus passengers, synagogue worshippers, hikers and archeologists, farmers and shepherds in their fields. 23

For Israeli society, the magnitude of 922 deaths between 1951 and 1955, when its population was 1.8 million, would be the per capita equivalent of 3,473 casualties in 2004, when Israel's population was 6.78 million.

Diplomacy and violence: Throughout the 1960s - before the Six-Day War - Israel consistently expressed its desire to negotiate with its neighbors. In an address before the UN General Assembly in October 1960, Israel 's Foreign Minister, Golda Meir challenged Arab leaders to meet with Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to negotiate a peace settlement. Egyptian President Abdul Nasser responded by saying that Israel was trying to deceive world opinion. Nasser reiterated that his country would never recognize the Jewish state. Arab attacks continued through the 1960s, with Israel 's northern civilian settlements constantly shelled by Syrian troops stationed on the Golan Heights-an escarpment that towers 3,000 feet above the Israeli towns and farming communities in the Galilee .

Diplomacy: In 1964 - three years prior to the Six-Day War, when Jordan controlled the West Bank , Palestinian Arabs established the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) under the aegis of the Egyptians. The Palestinian National Covenant set forth the ideological heart of the Palestinian cause: armed struggle to liberate all of Palestine (i.e., the State of Israel). The only Jews allowed to remain would be those who had lived there before 1917 (i.e., prior to the Balfour Declaration). The PLO resolved to establish a Palestine Liberation Army as well, long before the Israeli "Occupation" of the West Bank and Gaza . Israel proper was, and still is, considered " Occupied Territory " by the PLO and the Palestinian Authority.

Violence: Seeking to drag Israel 's Arab neighbors into another war, the PLO adopted an "entanglement strategy" that used sabotage as the priming cap to force Israel to retaliate. That would prompt the armed forces of Israel 's neighbors to increase their military profiles a cycle of action-retaliation-reaction the PLO hoped would escalate to war. In 1965, 35 terrorist raids were launched against Israel ; in 1966, 41....
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