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What Should We Be Worried About?: Real Scenarios That Keep Scientists Up at Night (Edge Question Series)
What Should We Be Worried About?: Real Scenarios That Keep Scientists Up at Night (Edge Question Series)
by John Brockman
Edition: Paperback
Price: $14.16
206 used & new from $0.01

63 of 67 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A crepehanger's dream, but a brilliant one, February 11, 2014
The latest iteration of the Edge Question comes is something of a loaded question. You can't answer "What should we worry about?" until you've first answered the question, "Should we be worried at all?" In this book, the framework lends to speculation on what worry is in the first place, and how it can be used toward our intended aims. As cognitive Scientist Dan Sperber rightly points out, worry isn't the problem, it's how we use it.

One recalls the point made in Morse's Psychonomics: How Modern Science Aims to Conquer the Mind and How the Mind Prevails: People fear plane crashes more than car crashes even though the former are less frequent and less deadly. But it's not irrational as it seems because fear (worry) can be useful in directing energy and effecting change, and that can lead to greater safety.

This collection is something of a crepehanger's dream come true. People who are easily discouraged by big problems will not have a fun time with this book. But, though there is plenty of doom and gloom to take away from this collection of essays, there is plenty of fascinating thought to go with it, and so is well worth the read. And where else can one read arguments from the brightest minds in the world on the same subject? After reading this (and other Edge titles), the reader feels as though he has just mingled with Steven Pinker, Daniel Dennett, Gary Klein, and 150 other brilliant people at a cocktail party.

A word on the publisher: The Edge, the internet salon from which this book springs, is a real jewel in the neo-modernist age. Every year, editor John Brockman assembles some of the brightest minds in the sciences to answer a highly speculative, even philosophical question. The result is a brilliant assortment of ideas that challenge beliefs and encourage a free flow of thought necessary for a prosperous society.
Comment Comments (2) | Permalink | Most recent comment: Mar 27, 2015 1:28 PM PDT

Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think
Abundance: The Future Is Better Than You Think
by Steven Kotler
Edition: Hardcover
165 used & new from $1.85

11 of 17 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars A nonzero future comes with advanced technology, February 21, 2012
This book makes a point that is absolutely crucial in the great debate going on these days: That the world is absolutely brimming with possibilities. It seems like there is a limit, a dead end to the amount of production we can get from it. But this is short sighted, like an orange farmer picking the low-hanging fruit. By making use of a ladder, the farmer can access manifold pieces of fruit. Adjusting the methods of production (i.e., advancing technology as with the introduction of the ladder) makes what was there and was always there suddenly more accessible and thus useful. Scarcity is replaced by abundance.

The survey is based on a pyramid of well-being derived from Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. From the base to the peak, the authors present ways in which the developing technologies can produce abundance in all of the fundamental categories of human well-being, from survival needs such as food and water to the peaks of freedom and self-actualization.

All of this is made possible by technological advances, recent and soon-to-come. In part 2, the authors launch us into light-speed realizations that might have seemed sci-fi to the lay reader of the 1980s or even ten years ago, but are in reality just around the corner. The fact is that technology is accelerating so quickly that Ray Kurzweil's vision of the singularity is received with total credence in this very practical book.

If I were to point out a potential weakness in this book, it would be perhaps understating the effect that state governments have in hindering progress. It would be helpful to view this thesis in light of a fuller economic understanding. The world is abundant, and technology can extend that abundance to practically infinite scope, but if world governments control the means of production as they do to some extent now, then that abundance will be checked and hindered. With that in mind, you can see more clearly why the zero-sum mentality is so compelling, and, consequently, why technology and self-sufficiency are so important in the effort to overcome the zero-sum conundrum.

Overall, this is a fascinating and very necessary argument on the future of civilization. It is refreshing to anyone concerned with the state of the world, and that is probably everyone who thinks critically. Read and discuss, and hopefully we can accomplish at least some of what is outlined in this book.
Comment Comment (1) | Permalink | Most recent comment: Jul 16, 2012 10:28 AM PDT

How the Mind Works
How the Mind Works
by Steven Pinker
Edition: Paperback
Price: $11.77
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars The mind as a byproduct of Natural Selection, February 17, 2012
This review is from: How the Mind Works (Paperback)
This is a wide-ranging treatment of the mind and all that goes with it. While the structure may seem undisciplined, the overall work is as stimulating and entertaining as any book out there on this fascinating topic. The thesis, if there is one, is that the mind is a byproduct of Natural Selection, and, like any other byproduct of Natural Selection, is refined to assist genes in replicating. All that comes from the mind--whether it is consciousness, visualization, emotions, or love--is wonderfully equipped to accomplish this subliminal goal.

To an unsuspecting reader, this theme might not seem too controversial. Pinker's proofs are logical and, even those who disagree with some of his premises can still appreciate the argument. As it turns out, Pinker uses his argument to establish some very contentious claims and to refute detractors in the process. These claims have to do with innateness, sentience, free will, and the source of human consciousness, issues that are at the center of some fierce intellectual (and political) battles.

What is interesting is that Pinker does not straddle the party line on any of these issues. He offends some by making one claim, then offends others by making a another claim. He offends the politically correct by defending the notion that there is some innateness in the human mind (all the while using politically correct gender references), and then he offends the strict materialists by suggesting that there is a central command system in the driver's seat of the mind. What one deduces is that Pinker is not swayed by the political influences that some of his colleagues are. The uniting factors in Pinker's arguments are sound scientific inference and dedication to the principles of Darwinian Natural Selection.

Beyond all of that, the reader will be treated to some of the best writing on the topic of cognition and brain function. Pinker is a great writer and puts this to use in some rather daunting material. He occasionally gets bogged down with in-depth explanations of experiments and theories, but when he does, he is sure to reinforce the concept with one-liners that capture the meaning whole. This book provides perhaps the best collection of quips and aphorisms about the mind I have come across.

Altogether, `How the Mind Works' is a great addition to the popular neuroscience library. This is one of those politically-charged books that all intellectually-inclined readers should be able to enjoy, regardless of their political or religious persuasion. Analyze and question it, but the end result cannot be condemned.

Who's in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain
Who's in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain
by Michael S. Gazzaniga
Edition: Hardcover
109 used & new from $0.50

10 of 12 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Responsibility despite determinism, January 11, 2012
In this book, Mr. Gazzaniga has put together an admirable effort to summarize the major arguments revolving around free will and the scientific bases for them. The reader is treated to insights that only someone so integral to neuro science could provide. And yet, at the same time, one sees holes in logic throughout and is forced to look elsewhere for the definitive treatment.

To begin, Gazzaniga is talking about consciousness and how it arises from brain function, but he admits that there really isn't a clear definition for the concept and that he is content to not even define it here. We are therefore fumbling in the dark for most of the book. The claim is that there really can't be a clear definition because consciousness as we know it doesn't exist. But proving that something doesn't exist shouldn't be reason to leave it undefined--indeed, one should take more care to define it since it is such a crucial concept.

Instead, the author goes on to explain the way the brain is thought to work and what exists in the place of consciousness. By means of examining the history of neuro science advancements--his own included--Gazzaniga puts together his theory of consciousness. It goes roughly as follows:

- Brain activity occurs in a "gazillion" decision centers, not one.
- Brain activity and action occur before conscious awareness.
- One of the many processes in the brain is in charge of interpreting what is going on.
- This "Interpreter" compiles the data and concocts a story that serves as one's reality.
- There is no such thing as consciousness, but rather an interpretation of automatic action.

Though this argument is rather plausible, one is not satisfied by the proof. First, the author says that there are a "gazillion" decision centers, but does not properly define decisions and therefore does not distinguish between reflex action and cognitive reasoning. Indeed, throughout the book, the only evidence given to support the distributed decision-makers is based in reflex action, not deliberate reason. It is one thing to say that pulling your finger away from a hammer before you feel pain occurs without a conscious decision, but another thing to say that deciding what car or house to buy or what career to pursue is also unconscious.

The Interpreter may well attempt to make up stories for things that the brain does automatically. But that doesn't mean that some other portion or function of the brain is incapable of actually making decisions and sending commands to other parts of the brain and body.

And this is essentially the argument that Gazzaniga makes when he turns his attention to free will and responsibility. He understands that a mind without consciousness is to a large degree incapable of free will, and that without free will there is no personal responsibility. Acknowledging the difficulties this would produce in society, Gazzaniga then molds an argument that says that despite the fact that there is no consciousness, individuals can and should be held responsible for their actions. The idea is that the mind is emergent--it is greater than the sum of its parts--and can thus control the stuff from which it emerged. The analogy he gives is that cars make up a highway full of traffic, but the traffic controls the cars. Thus, the mind, even though it arises from the brain, can control the brain.

This argument too is plausible and, too, one is not completely satisfied. For one, Gazzinga does not explain the "big problem" of how mind emerges from the physical brain. Scientist might not know the answers here, but it is still crucial in such an argument. Nor does the author spend enough time considering the implications of an emergent mind with respect to the individual--he skips immediately to the social realm, where he finds the necessary rationale for responsibility. Now, he might find the social realm more compelling, but at least one reader is not quite sure. Around the mid-point, Gazzinga asks the rhetorical question whether a person can be responsible if he is the only one in the society, and answers no. To him, responsibility is a social thing. At least one reader thinks it is an individual and social thing.

If nothing else, the ability to stir such thoughts and questions makes this book well worth the read. Now, on to find the answers....

On Intelligence
On Intelligence
by Sandra Blakeslee
Edition: Paperback
Price: $13.93
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars On (Artificial) Intelligence, December 12, 2011
This review is from: On Intelligence (Paperback)
On Intelligence presents a straightforward theory of how the neocortex works and its implications on artificial intelligence. Given this, the title is a little misleading, and the book in not about intelligence as a whole. Still, the authors admit their narrow focus and go on to argue that a narrow approach like this is still constructive in the rapidly expanding field of neurology, and especially in artificial intelligence.

The theory is this: Humans learn by taking in sensory information and developing patterns in the form of memories. Intelligence can be described, more or less, as the ability to project these memories into the future in the form of predictions. Learning occurs when one experiences new sensory information that doesn't match the pattern, and new patterns must be fashioned.

The science is as thorough as it needs to be to make this case, which means that parts may be rather boring for those used to pop-science texts. Ultimately, that dullness gives this book credibility where other books fall short, even if they are written by neurologists.

In the end, however, there is no real tangible way to put this theory to use. The science needed is still decades off, and guides for action are rather detached from the lay reader. It is fun to speculate, but that is all this amounts to.

Worth a read, it still won't take your breath away unless perhaps you're involved in artificial intelligence.

How We Decide
How We Decide
by Jonah Lehrer
Edition: Hardcover
178 used & new from $0.01

9 of 10 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars One of the best on the subject, December 12, 2011
This review is from: How We Decide (Hardcover)
Having read nearly all of the behavioral economics books out there, I would venture to rank this among the top, if not as the best of them. Not only is the content as engaging as it is in other behavioral economics texts, but Lehrer strings it all together in a very cohesive package that is as practical as any other book in the field. With that being said, this book shares a number of flaws with the best behavioral economics books and so cannot be considered the last word in this fascinating branch of study.

The things that make this book stand out over the others have mostly to do with the author's approach. First, he includes a sizable segment on brain physiology that gives a little more backbone to the argument. While all behavioral economics books talk about the psychological aspects, Lehrer dives right into neurons and dopamine transactions. Of course, his treatment is light, so the reader cannot expect real scientific breakthroughs here, but it is an admirable effort.

Second, it is a testament to the author's education that he references many past scholars that go unrecognized in similar books. Nods to Plato, the Founding Fathers, Kant, Dostoevsky, William James, and others betray Lehrer's standing as a Rhodes scholar. Unfortunately for this reader, the pop-sci nature of this book prevents Lehrer from examining these references in any depth, but, again, the allusions are admirable.

Finally, Lehrer's writing is perhaps the best of the behavioral economics writers. Using the typical New Journalism style, Lehrer is able to convey his stories and weave in his thesis with much more precision and clarity than scientist-first writers with competing books.

Despite its pluses, this book is not devoid of the same mistakes that all behavioral economics books make. The typical flaws found in these books have to do with the concept of rationality. The premise is that human beings are irrational. The studies go on to show all kinds of strange behavior that humans engage in--anchoring effect, loss aversion, and so on. The problem, of course, is that no one ever thinks to define rationality, and so claims of human irrationality are unfounded. This is true even when the claims are backed by loads of scientific evidence.

`How We Decide' is guilty of the same stretches in logic. To take one example, in the chapter on the Uses of Reason, Lehrer claims that "Teens make bad decisions because they are literally less rational" with regard to long-term social norms such as staying in school. But then he goes on to explain how West Virginia instituted a program that encouraged teens to stay in school by threatening to take away their driver's licenses. To Lehrer, this is a way to get around the irrationality of teens. But, if you look closely, it's obvious that the teens are making decisions that are just as rational as any other decision--they're just based on different incentives. Teens have different goals and information than adults. That doesn't make them less rational, just different.

Lehrer attempts to add these typical behavioral economics themes up into a general theory of human thought. It is similar to the recently released Thinking, Fast and Slow by Daniel Kahneman--humans have two modes of thought, one that is slow and rational and one that is fast and emotional. Unlike Kahneman, Lehrer makes the argument that the fast, emotional thinking is not only beneficial, but also necessary for healthy human beings. While the concept is compelling, it does seem to be a little too ambitious for a pop-sci book, and so the case doesn't seem to be developed enough here. It seems especially lacking because the term "emotional" is almost as loaded as "rational," and Lehrer does not take the time to define it either.

Ultimately, this book deserves to be read, even by those who have already consumed the rest of the behavioral economics library. Just don't anticipate a grand unified theory of human decision-making, and you'll be thoroughly rewarded.

The Accidental Mind: How Brain Evolution Has Given Us Love, Memory, Dreams, and God
The Accidental Mind: How Brain Evolution Has Given Us Love, Memory, Dreams, and God
by David J. Linden
Edition: Paperback
Price: $21.50
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
4.0 out of 5 stars Brash commentary, thick science, October 27, 2011
This book provides an excellent intro into neuro-biology and offers some great insight into how the brain's workings impact our daily lives, society, and human culture as a whole. The opening premise is that the brain is made up of layers of tissue that were added one-by-one upon eons of evolution. The product, then, is not some elegantly designed masterpiece of an organ, but rather an inefficient kludge, a haphazard agglomeration of pieces that somehow--miraculously--produces consciousness.

I did not find the opening argument very offensive as I have never regarded the actual design of the brain to be superb in any way. The fact that it does what it does at all is what anyone should care about, and so it seemed a worthless argument to make at first. Once I got to the end chapter it made more sense, where the author tries to dispute the prominent Intelligent Design arguments.

But this book should not be seen merely as an argument against Intelligent Design. I wouldn't even say that it is aimed at disproving the existence of God either. The theme is that the brain does some pretty amazing things (the author focuses on sex, memory, dreams, and religion), and all of this in spite of the disorganized layout of the brain.

The diligent reader will be rewarded with a good mix of hard science and titillating commentary. The commentary is brash and often funny, and the author still manages to stay fair in his treatment of serious issues such as the nature/nurture debate and of course religion. One might contest the author's fairness with regard to a few issues, for instance, such as sexuality. Early on, he claims that there aren't enough genes to determine specific behaviors, but then implies that non-traditional gender affiliation is genetically based. He goes on to imply that human sexuality has evolved to instill long-term pair bonding between man and woman as if it were a subliminal goal. The chapter on sex is the weakest.

Throughout the book, the commentary is reinforced by waves of scientific explanation. It is solid, as far as I can tell, but may be too thick for the lay reader. At least this lay reader assumes the science could have been presented in a more accessible way.

It's nothing that should turn away the potential reader. The explanation of how the brain receives and processes information, for example, is worth the added effort to understand. And, altogether, this is a great intro to neurology.

Thinking, Fast and Slow
Thinking, Fast and Slow
by Daniel Kahneman
Edition: Hardcover
Price: $19.95
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131 of 155 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Definitive Behavioral Economics, October 25, 2011
Behavioral Economics is perhaps the most popular genre of non-fiction in the last decade. With bestsellers by the likes of Malcolm Gladwell, Steven D. Levitt, Dan Ariely, Richard Thaler, Tim Harford, and a number of other qualified journalists and academics, it seems as though the field contains an infinite wealth of fascinating material. And, it could be said, that all of this is due in large part to the work of Daniel Kahneman.

As a part of the pioneering team with Amos Tversky, Kahneman has practically shaped Behavioral Economics since the 1960s, when they began conducting experiments. This book brings together all of Kahneman's findings in one coherent study.

Since Kahneman's work has been so influential, a lot of the ideas presented here might not be new. Cognitive biases such as loss aversion, priming, and framing have all been presented and analyzed in nearly every Behavioral Economics book out there. But, while the ideas are not novel, it is rewarding to hear analysis from the original source of the studies. Kahneman provides insights into the rationale of the studies that other writers could not offer, and so this book seems more penetrative than the others. Where his successors string together pieces of interesting yet seemingly incoherent tid bits about cognition and behavior, Kahneman proposes a much more developed thesis on human cognition.

That thesis is summarized by the title--that there are two ways humans think and make decisions, "fast" and "slow," and that we cannot disregard either when considering people's thoughts and actions. The two ways can be described by a number of dichotomies: The first method of thinking is automatic, the second is controlled; the first is effortless, the second effortful; and so on. An easier way to describe the two systems would be to identify them as subconscious and conscious, though Kahneman does not explicitly make this description, perhaps because these concepts are so loaded with meaning.

Kahneman examines this concept by delving into the latest studies in the field and thus provides the avid Behavioral Economics reader a source of great new instances of it. The survey of cognitive errors includes research on the strange tendencies of golfers under stressful situations, parole officers after lunch, and shoppers under the influence of marketing ploys. As it has been in nearly all Behavioral Economics books, this material is absolutely fascinating and doesn't ever seem to lose its mystery.

Of course, despite being so fascinating, Behavioral Economics as a discipline has its flaws, and this book is no exception. In general, the flaws have to do with the fact that the studies assumed to prove various cognitive errors are rather abstract by nature and so rely on a number of qualifications to even be useful. In order to analyze behavior, for instance, there need to be objective standards for "right" and "wrong" actions, which I'm not sure has been investigated as thoroughly as it should. It is for this reason that far reaching claims about human behavior being irrational and the subsequent calls for changes in social structure (by whatever means) are typically unfounded and lead down a dangerous road of regulation and control (Thaler's Nudge and Ariely's Predictably Irrational come to mind). Kahneman does not jump to these conclusions, and certainly does not propose policy action a la Thaler or Ariely, but he does lay the groundwork for such ventures--after all, he is the pioneer.

Altogether, this book does not suffer from this inherent flaw, and rather simply encourages more study and debate. And that might make it a classic in the field.
Comment Comments (3) | Permalink | Most recent comment: Mar 18, 2014 12:54 AM PDT

The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World
The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World
by Tim Harford
Edition: Paperback
Price: $14.75
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1 of 1 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Flies in the face of other Behavioral Economics theses, October 12, 2011
This book is a refreshing addition to a growing library of excellent books on Behavioral Economics. It is refreshing because it combats the main theme of the discipline--that people are irrational and need some sort of hierarchy to keep us in check. In contrast, Harford argues that people are mainly rational and that all the things that seem to be illogical have reasonable foundations.

Like other notable Behavioral Economics books, Harford surveys a number of interesting stories and scientific studies to underscore this theme. While he isn't quite as good of a storyteller as Malcolm Gladwell and certainly isn't as provocative as Dan Ariely (though he tries to be), Harford is much sounder in his economics and looks at his examples with much more objectivity. Though this book won't generate the buzz that the others will, it is filled with fascinating insight.

The most powerful examination the author gives is in the chapter `Is Divorce Underrated?' The premise is a survey of modern relationships and the roles of the birth control pill and divorce. Harford uses the concept of a `Marriage Supermarket' to show how a small discrepancy in numbers can result in extremely divergent incentives and ultimately advantages in relationships.

It is unfortunate that Harford places so much stress on the sensational aspects of `life,' as with the opening example of oral sex, so-called rational racism, and the like. It is clear that the success of books like Freakonomics were influential in this regard. Logic of Life offers much more in the way of real socio-economic insight, and so didn't need all of that. In the end, it is only a minor obstacle to overcome for a great perspective on the rationality of everyday choices.

Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain
Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain
by David Eagleman
Edition: Hardcover
Price: $18.66
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8 of 15 people found the following review helpful
3.0 out of 5 stars A neuroscientist out of his league, September 27, 2011
The first half of this book is a wonderful examination of perception and the way the brain works. In the second half, the author ventures into legal theory, philosophy, and ethics, and severely damages his theme with unsubstantiated claims and crushing moral relativism.

The latter shouldn't dissuade the potential reader from enjoying the former.

The brilliant first four chapters delve into the workings of the mind with the kind of passion that only a neuroscientist could provide. Here, the author sketches out a theory of brain function similar to that in Hawkins' On Intelligence--that the brain develops by learning patterns and looking out for deviations from the norm. From this basis, Eagleman touches on fascinating consequences of this nature, rivalling the best behavioral economics books in doing so.

Throughout this first part, however, it becomes clear that Eagleman has an agenda. It can be summed up by the notion that our conscious selves have little (basically no) role in who we are or what we do. This alarming claim and would be welcomed if supported by a logical argument. Unfortunately, it is not supported at all. The parts that are aimed at support might be intriguing, but are nonetheless vague and inconclusive.

The most glaring instance has to do with Eagleman's concept of evolution. He states that we are largely controlled by our instincts, which come to us thanks to our genes. But then, as I understand it, he tries to prove this by showing how conscious acts such as learning how to ride a bike become instinctual and thus fall out of the realm of consciousness. This is intuitive enough, but he does no explain exactly what is going on physiologically here, and so we are left to speculate how this happens. What is worse is that he does not explain how this instinct gets `burned into' our genetic make up, thus leaving a huge gap in his argument.

Indeed, despite the fact that Eagleman places so much emphasis on our genes and evolution, he is not at all clear about what he means by evolution in the first place. Does he mean Natural Selection, Use and Disuse, Survival of the Fittest, or Random Mutations? How exactly does this `burning into the genes' fit in with these better known concepts?

Eagleman goes on to describe some of the worst atrocities in recent history to examine other elements of his theme. Unfortunately, he is a good writer and offers very vivid descriptions. This is unfortunate because he's talking about some really disturbing things. And they are even more disturbing when you realize why he is bringing these things up--basically arguing that the perpetrators should not be blamed for these despicable acts--that they were just wired incorrectly or had some other defect in their brains (brain tumors lead people to do the most heinous crimes).

The author is clear that he doesn't want to let these acts go unpunished, and rather seeks to ensure that everyone's brain is working properly, first by removing the criminals from society, then fixing them through therapy. Eagleman has great faith in science's ability to fix these people, pointing out that drugs can change who a person is. He neglects the recent research that links antidepressants with school shootings and other terrible behavior.

This is an ambitious effort by someone who is clearly bright and passionate about what he does. But he goes too far when he departs from the mechanics of brain function. Read it for the impressive first chapters, and be warned of the latter ones.
Comment Comments (3) | Permalink | Most recent comment: Feb 17, 2012 11:11 AM PST

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