its some sort of scientific project located in Alaska. They're studying the atmosphere up there and how it can be used for military purposes. Many conspiracy theorists believe that it's being used for shadier purposes.
Matt Bellamy, I believe, Is a conspiracy theorist so he named this set haarp. This is not the only time he as done so, as the song "Mk Ultra" in Resistance is named after a cold war-era CIA mind control research program called "Project MKULTRA"
Link to wiki article on the actual haarp: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Frequency_Active_Auroral_Research_Program