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Customer Review

138 of 144 people found the following review helpful
5.0 out of 5 stars Extraordinarily satisfying, November 6, 2003
This review is from: Franklin and Winston: An Intimate Portrait of an Epic Friendship (Hardcover)
This is a expert blend of biography and history, striking an admirable balance between the two genres. You really do get much of the best of both worlds here: the intimate views of carefully researched biography, and fresh perspectives on well-known world events (especially the decisions on the timing of D-Day and the meetings of the Big Three.)
It is particularly remarkable in that the personalities and accomplishments of either man, and the overwhelming events they faced, could have swamped the tale in any direction. Indeed, one has to admit that Churchill tends to dominate. But his written and oral volubility naturally had that effect, and since Roosevelt ultimately carried the military trumps, and was the more elusive and interesting character, he more than holds his own.
I especially appreciate Meacham's light-handed, even deployment of his research material. One never feels that he is relying exclusively on one or two sources, or just transcribing his whole notebook. Instead, the depth and shading in the portrayal of each man extends to their primary family and professional relationships as well: Harry Hopkins, Eleanor Roosevelt, Joseph Stalin, and both Randolph Churchills, are people I now want to know better.
Meacham is going for something deeper and more tender than portraiture, however - a study of friendship, perhaps the least understood human relationship. I had no idea how much time they spent together, and each of their meetings is chronicled day by day for details of their actual interactions, and their real feelings about each other. I think he gets pretty close to truth - a relationship full of humanity, respect, affection, and genuine love, consummated in truly extraordinary circumstances.
All this, and it's a sensible length. Definitive, deeply satisfying, and highly recommended.
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Showing 1-10 of 13 posts in this discussion
Initial post: Nov 24, 2008 12:20:29 PM PST
L. Moe says:
This review sold me on the book. Thank you.

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:26:26 PM PDT
Last edited by the author on Sep 27, 2014 6:39:12 PM PDT
Publicus says:
WW2 resulted in a permanent realignment of world power with the Soviets near the apex.

The Marxists wanted to carry the torch of the Communist Revolution into the heart of Europe. Hitler recognized world Communism, with its base in the Soviet Union, as an existential threat to Western Civilization, and he dedicated himself and Germany to a death struggle against it.

Germany's & Japan's alliance was called the Anti-Comintern Pact. ("Comintern" was short for the Communist International, run by Stalin with aid & assistance from the NKVD, GRU, & members of Communist parties located in the targeted countries.) Hitler hoped Britain & Poland would likewise pledge to help stop the rapidly advancing Soviet bear. The Comintern was the tool the Soviets used to subvert governments & spark Communist revolutions in other countries (like the Spanish Civil War).

On November 8, 1917, Vladimir Lenin addressed the Smolny Institute in Petrograd & encouraged his comrades to incite revolutions in all Western democracies. Lenin's initial focus was on Germany, Hungary, and Italy. But early on, Lenin declared that Britain was the Soviets' principal enemy. So, when you consider that Germany & Japan (the Soviets' principal military threats at the time) were crushed in WW2 & Britain lost her Empire, you have to conclude that the War proved to be a stroke of genius & an enormous strategic victory for the Soviets.

The Soviets fought WW2 in order to protect and expand Soviet interests & spread Communism into other nations. Stalin felt WW2 would exhaust Europe & facilitate the Communists' revolution there. And to a large extent, Stalin was right as the Communists took over nearly 1/2 the world, as the Soviets aided Mao's takeover of China, sparked wars in Korea & Vietnam, & spred its revolution to Latin America & other parts of the world, nearly depleting the U.S.'s will to resist.

What Buchanan neglects in his acclaimed book ("The Unnnecessary War") is the fact that America's government was infused with Soviet/Russian agents, and they had FDR doing Stalin's & Beria's bidding. See "The New Dealers' War: FDR and the War Within World War II," by Thomas J. Fleming and "The Venona Secrets, Exposing Soviet Espionage and America's Traitors," by Herbert Romerstein and Eric Breindel. No modern government was more thoroughly penetrated than America was.

The Soviet/Russians had also penetrated the British government and were likely manipulating its domestic & foreign policies, as well.

Had Stalin not manipulated England into war with Germany & the U.S. into war with Japan, Soviet/Russia may have had to fight a two front war (that it may not have been able to win) against Germany & Japan.

Japan and Germany (WWI) were bitter enemies of the Soviet/Russians (and in alliance), yet Stalin saw to it that neither was in a position to challenge Soviet/Russian dominance in their respective regions for 65 years or more.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Lake_Khasan

www.rense.com/general19/flame.htm

www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/COMM.10.5.03.HTM

www.commondreams.org/headlines02/0314-01.htm

Japan massed 800,000 soldiers on the northern Manchukuo border in July of 1941, notified the U.S. that it intended to attack Soviet/Russia, & asked that the U.S. remain neutral. (See Lauchlin Curry archive, Hoover Institution Library, Box 1.) In response, the U.S. imposed a complete economic embargo on Japan, forcing it to abandon its plans to attack Soviet/Russia & instead commence plans to obtain oil from Malaya & the Dutch East Indies, which Japan could not accomplish with a powerful U.S. Navy (based in Pearl Harbor) operating in the Pacific region. See "Harry Dexter White, A Study in Paradox," pp. 116-123 by David Rees; & "Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy, 1933-1941, by Charles Tansill.

After Britain & France declared war on Germany in 1939, nearly 80% of Americans were opposed to America's involvement in yet another European war. Even the dullest U.S. politician in 1941 understood that the U.S. would not be willing to engage in another major war in the absence of unilateral aggression by a another country. So, in public, FDR talked of peace; but behind the schemes, he schemed for war.

http://historyarticles.com/undeclared-war/

In the Congressional investigations looking into the attack on Pearl Harbor, General Marshall was forced to make a series of damaging admissions under sharp questioning by Senator Homer Ferguson, among them was that the U.S. prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor had secretly initiated military agreements with the British and Dutch, directed against the Japanese, aimed at getting them to cut off Japan's oil supplies in Indochina.

Who were the persons that recommended the economic blockade of Japan that lead to war? Those persons were Harry Dexter White & Lauchlin Currie, both of whom were Stalin's secret agents of influence working inside the U.S. government. Entangling Japan in a War with the U.S. brought America into the War in Europe & caused Japan to change plans regarding its intended attack on Soviet/Russia.

White's memo to Morgenthau paralleled the NKVD's instructions to him. See "The War in the Pacific could have been avoided in 1941. Stalin managed to prevent a Japanese attack on the USSR" by Vladimir Vasilevich Karpov, Nezavisimaya Gazetta, Independent Military Review, no. 2: 5 (January 21027, 2000). Karpov was a Colonel in the GRU. Karpov said that White (acting on orders from Soviet agents Vitali Pavlov & Iskhak Akhmerov) helped to provoke war with Japan in order to protect the Soviet's interests in the Far East & its plans for Europe. Karpov said that if Japan was engaged in war with the U.S., it would have neither the will nor the wherewithal to strike against the Soviets. See also, "Operation Snow" by John Koster.

http://www.worldcat.org/wcpa/servlet/DCARead?standardNo=1574883275&standardNoType=1&excerpt=true

KGB assassins likely ended White's life in August of 1948, & did the same to Laurence Duggan a few months later to prevent them from disclosing information about their networks & operations in America. (The KGB also assassinated Alexander Litvinenko when he began to talk about their operations. It was a time honored tradition with the KGB--take no chances & maintain your secrecy at any cost.)

After Japan became embroiled in war with the U.S., Stalin's fighting forces formerly stationed near the northern Manchukuo border (Stalin's most effective fighting force) joined in the fight against the Germans. Once that happened, the Soviet/Russian forces encircled the German 6th army near Stalingrad & cut it to ribbons. Eventually, the surrounded Germans surrendered, signaling the outcome of the War. From that point on, the remaining German military forces fought a desperate retreat to Berlin, where many of the weakened & demoralized German soldiers were butchered outside Berlin in in the Halbe Forest.

Zhukov's (the Soviets' most effective general) favorite tactic was to engage the Germans on a central front while powerful armored formations enveloped the German's flanks. After the armored divisions encircled them, cutting off their avenues of escape & means of resupply, they then proceeded to annihilate them. The only way the Germans could survive was to outrun the encirclement. A few (but not many) of the German's fastest runners made it back to Berlin.

http://www.dw.de/digging-up-the-past-in-halbe/a-16762689

As soon as the Nazis entered into the swamps of Russia, Britain and all the Western world were safe. (Recall that Britain declared war on Germany, not vice versa.) Hitler never wanted to fight Britain in the first place. And once Germany invaded Russia, all its resources were needed on the eastern front.

Stalin & Hitler were inevitably bound to fight. Left to their own devices, they would have exhausted themselves regardless of who won. We should have stayed on the sidelines & let them battle it out.

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:28:17 PM PDT
Publicus says:
The Soviets helped orchestrate Mao's takeover of China (with help from clandestine agents embedded in our government), the Korean War, & the Vietnam War.

www.udel.edu/PR/UDaily/2003/spies031303.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_measures

And please read "The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression" by Stéphane Courtois. Mr. Courtois conservatively estimated the number of deaths due to communism as follows:
 20 million in the Soviet Union
 65 million in the People's Republic of China
 1 million in Vietnam
 2 million in North Korea
 2 million in Cambodia
 1 million in the Communist states of Eastern Europe

The Soviets established the blueprint for winning the hearts and minds of Americans and manipulating our domestic & foreign policies. Their successes did not go unnoticed by others, many of whom are now using the same playbook.

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:29:21 PM PDT
Publicus says:
McCarthy was right. The Venona Project established that there were 349 clandestine agents in our government that were communicating with the Soviet intelligence services. However, each one of those 349 clandestine agents may've had a team of subordinates working for them in government that didn't need to communicate with the Soviet intelligence services. (See the Silvermaster spy ring & the Ware spy ring for insights as to how these cells were organized & operated.) Elizabeth Bentley testified that after an agent got into a position of prominence in our government, he or she would use their position and/or influence to open portals for others to gain entry into (and employment in) sensitive areas of our government.

All those involved in destroying McCarthy's reputation & ridiculing his warnings may've done incalculable damage to the United States & its allies.

Read "Blacklisted by History" by M. Stanton Evans

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Soviet_and_Russian_espionage_in_the_United_States

Britain made a foolish pledge to defend Poland (likely at the urging of FDR). Great Britain & France had both been bled white by WW1's immense financial costs, casualties, & losses of lives. Because of the great psychological pain their soldiers & civilians suffered, & because of the staggering number of their fighting men that were killed or maimed, neither Great Britain nor France was in a position to fight another war unless America agreed to fight alongside them.

Then, Stalin plotted with Hitler to jointly invade Poland. But instead of invading simultaneously according to their plan, Stalin delayed his invasion by 2-weeks. Britain then declared war on Germany. However, when Russia invaded Poland a mere 2-weeks later, Britain & France ignored the attack. Doesn't that strike you as strange?

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/10790144/Kim-Philby-had-no-regrets-about-betraying-Britain-to-the-Soviet-Union-recordings-reveal.html

Tiny little Japan had most of its fleet (its primary military force) destroyed 6 months into the War at the Battle of Midway. Its tiny army had its hands full fighting China & a seemingly apathetic & unconcerned U.S. The U.S. diverted most its attention to the war against the Germans in North Africa & then in Europe. But after the Germans were defeated, the U.S. turned its attention & military might towards Japan & in rather short order (and with very little help from Russia) squashed Japan like a bug.

http://www.thenewamerican.com/culture/history/item/4740-pearl-harbor-hawaii-was-surprised-fdr-was-not

http://www.udel.edu/PR/UDaily/2003/spies031303.html

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:30:23 PM PDT
Publicus says:
Russia & Germany attacked Poland at nearly the same time. Hitler merely wanted Danzig & a tiny corridor linking Germany to Danzig, one of the territories forcibly taken from Germany by the Treaty of Versailles. But to Russia, Poland was part of a worldwide plan for Communist domination.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUScomintern.htm

However, Poland refused to negotiate with Germany because Britain & France had pledged to defend Poland. Britain's & France's foolish audacity may have been the result of FDR's secret promise to back them. (See Freedom Betrayed by Herbert Hoover.)

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005438

http://ww2memories.wordpress.com/2011/07/25/danzig-gdansk-and-the-start-of-ww2/

But Britain & France turned a blind eye to the Russian attack on Poland and only declared war on Germany.

Later, Britain & France welcomed Russia as an ally in a supposed grand & just war to preserve freedom in Europe (see the Atlantic Charter). But Russia had forcibly taken over Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, & parts of Finland & Poland prior to the war and Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and all of Poland after the war. (That's how economically backward Russia became the powerful Soviet Union.)

"In politics, nothing happens by accident. If it happens, you can bet it was planned that way." ~ Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 32nd President of the U.S.

http://www.haciendapub.com/articles/roosevelt-and-stalin-%E2%80%94-subversion-fdrs-government-communist-traitors-and-fellow-travelers

"How can we maneuver them [the Japanese] into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves." Diary of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War under FDR.

http://www.hnn.us/articles/126978

http://www.thenewamerican.com/culture/history/item/4740-pearl-harbor-hawaii-was-surprised-fdr-was-not

http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=1930

http://www.conservapedia.com/Harry_Dexter_White

In the Congressional investigations looking into the attack on Pearl Harbor, General Marshall was forced to make a series of damaging admissions under sharp questioning by Senator Homer Ferguson, among them was that the U.S. prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor had secretly initiated military agreements with the British and Dutch, directed against the Japanese, aimed at getting them to cut off Japan's oil supplies in Indochina.

U.S. Ambassador to Japan, Joseph C. Grew, revealed that FDR spurned Premier Konoye's sincere peace proposals, leading to Konoye's replacement by General Tojo, who pledged to do whatever was necessary to break the economic stranglehold America had put Japan in & then continuously & painfully squeezed since the summer of 1941. Tojo & others in Japan believed America had imperialist designs on Asia (similar to its conquests of Hawaii & the Philippines).

The sinking by the Japanese of an American gunboat, the Panay, which had been patrolling the Yangtze, precipitated an early crisis between America & Japan. Why did we have gunboats patrolling Chinese rivers? The Panay had been convoying oil tankers owned by the Standard Oil Company.

Britain's most respected military analyst, Sir Liddell Hart pointed out that Hitler's logical route of expansion was to the east, against her natural enemy, Russia. Hart also believed Britain should let Germany and Russia fight it out to the point of exhaustion and bring about the downfall of both dictators.

"I urged in 1941 that we should allow those two dictators to exhaust each other. I stated that the result of our assistance would be to spread Communism over the whole world.... The consequences have proved that I was right." Herbert Hoover, 31st President of the United States

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1944-1956

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:31:22 PM PDT
Publicus says:
Britain & France turned a blind eye to the Russian attack on Poland, and only declared war on Germany. So, Britain & France weren't really concerned about Poland's freedom, were they?

Later, Britain & France welcomed Russia as an ally in a supposed grand & just war to preserve freedom in Europe (see the Atlantic Charter). But Russia had forcibly taken over Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, & parts of Finland & Poland prior to the war and Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, and all of Poland after the war. (That's how economically backward Russia became the powerful Soviet Union.)

So, it would appear that Britain & France weren't really concerned about protecting & preserving freedom in Europe either.

Thus, WWII was sold to the people as a grandiose endeavor to protect & preserve freedom, but it was never about freedom. Instead, it was all about achieving Stalin's goals. And from that standpoint (and that standpoint alone), it was an overwhelming success.

Hitler plans for expansion only included former German territories stripped from them as war booty by the Treaty of Versailles, Ukraine (subverted & annexed by the Soviets in 1922), & the Caucasus (forcibly seized by the Soviets 75 years earlier).

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:32:01 PM PDT
Publicus says:
FDR claimed America had to support Chiang Kai-Shek in China & used that claim for constantly escalating provocations against Japan, culminating in a demand that Japan get out of China, Indochina, & Manchuria, or else. And Japan knew what the "or else" meant. But Japan had invested nearly a half-century of her blood & treasure in Manchuria (including a massive investment in the South Manchuria Railway). And the demand to abandon Manchuria (that the Soviets so dearly coveted), coupled with the other aggressive American provocations & insults proved too great for Japan to endure.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Lake_Khasan

But as soon as Japan was defeated, FDR quickly turned away from support of Chiang Kai-Shek.

Stalin led the Japanese to believe he was negotiating a surrender on their behalves. But he was doing no such thing. Instead, his secret agents embedded in the U.S. government were urging America to pour it on (referring to napalm, Fat Man, & Little Boy, as well as, the island hopping massacres).

Two days after we bombed Hiroshima (and as the Japanese were about to surrender), Stalin revealed his duplicity by declaring war on Japan & joining in on the massacres (killing about 60,000 Japanese in a matter of days).

Stalin launched a massive invasion on Manchukuo (Manchuria), Mengjiang, Korea, the southern portion of Sakhalin, & the Kuril Islands. The massive Soviet invasion swept aside the completely taken by surprise Japanese resistance.

The massive number of Japanese that surrendered to the Soviets served years as slaves chained to hard labor. They were used for years in construction projects in Siberia and Central Asia considered to be too difficult & too dangerous for Soviet workers. [Solzhenitsyn, p. 84.] Only about half survived and ever returned to Japan. (Was that the meaning of FDR's unconditional surrender policy? It would seem so.)

Japan had sought to develop trade with Korea & invested millions in a railroad in order to realized that goal. But when the Soviets began to eye those same areas for the expansion of communism, the Japanese established Manchukuo to serve as a buffer. But Stalin wanted the rail and base rights in Manchuria that had been lost to Japan.

The Japanese beginning in 1938 fought a series of engagements with the Soviets along the Manchurian-Mongolian border. A minor border incident (Battle of Lake Khasan) occurred at Primorye (1938). Much more significant engagements occurred the following year. Large scale clashes occurred beginning May 1939 between Japanese and Soviet forces on the Mongolian plains along the border with Japanese-held Manchuria (Manchukuo).

The Soviets used the captured Japanese territories and arms in Manchuria, as well as their secret agents of influence in Washington D.C., to aid Mao in his takeover of China.

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:32:28 PM PDT
Publicus says:
Here are Wm Bullitt's messages to FDR. Bullitt was FDR's confidant & emissary to Europe. Did FDR not believe Bullitt? Or were Bullitt's messages intercepted by Stalin's secret agents of influence within our government?

The European powers, Bullitt told FDR, may end up "destroying themselves completely and handing Europe over to the Bolsheviks."42 In another letter to the president in December 1936, Bullitt predicted that, "war will mean such horrible suffering that it will end in general revolution, and...the only winners will be Stalin and Company."43 As late as May 20,1938, Bullitt was still warning FDR that a general European war would result in"the complete destruction of western Europe and the infusion of Bolshevism from one end of the Continent to the other."44
42. Bullitt, ForThe President, p. 188.
43. Ibid., p. 200.
44. Ibid., p. 262.

Plus, Ambassador to England, Joseph Kennedy, felt precisely the same way as Bullitt did about the Soviet Union.

Germany didn't want war with Britain. Hitler hoped Britain would be Germany's ally & help fortify Europe's defenses against the advancing Soviet bear. (See Mein Kampf.)

House Republican during the FDR era (and ranking member of the Foreign Relations Committee), Hamilton Fish met with German foreign minister von Ribbentrop in 1939. Von Ribbentrop told Fish that he had gone to London twenty or more times to assure the Brits that Germany wanted peace & to seek Britain's assurances it would help Germany to halt Soviet expansion into Europe.

Recall that the Soviet goal was to spread communism worldwide, either through open war, overt revolution, or covert subversion. WWII encompassed all aspects of the Soviets' strategy.

Hitler wanted to move East & reclaim lands take from Germany under the Treaty of Versailles. But Britain & France (at the urging & promised backing of FDR) declared war on Germany, not the other way around.

After Britain & France declared war on Germany, it was forced to take unplanned defensive moves in order to secure the resources with which to fight that war.

Today people characterize Rudolph Hess's flight to Britain to ask for peace as the actions of a deranged, lone-wolf, madman. But likely Hess was communicating the wishes of the German leadership.

http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v03/v03p291_Anon.html

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:32:52 PM PDT
Publicus says:
The Japanese envisioned the Co-Prosperity Sphere to be an Asian bloc of nations (reminiscent of the American colonies joining together to form the United States or the countries of Europe uniting to form the European Union), free from the dominance of Western powers.

The Western imperialist countries also subjected Japan to a series of coercive acts, insults, and provocations, which caused great anger to fester among the Japanese people. For example, the 1921-22 Washington Conference naval treaties forced on Japan an unfavorable battleship ratio of 5:5:3 for the US, Britain, and Japan respectively. In 1919 at the Paris Peace Conference, Western countries rejected the simple Japanese request to have a racial equality clause included in the League of Nations Covenant. In 1924, America passed the Japanese Exclusion Act to shut off Japanese immigration into the US. This series of international affronts to Japanese pride and status provided fuel to Japanese militaristic sentiments and eventually led to Japan attacking the Western powers to establish the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.

"Asia for Asians," was a movement to liberate Asian countries from Western imperialist powers, and create economic co-prosperity for member nations of the Asian bloc. As Japan occupied new Asian territories, they set up governments with local leaders who proclaimed independence from the Western powers, but tensions & struggles sometimes arose because the Japanese emphasized Japanese culture, customs, & traditions over local culture, customs, & traditions.

Japan believed it was benefitting the regions under its control, which were far less advanced in culture, technology & development. Japan thought it was bringing backwards people into the modern world (in the same way Commodore Perry brought Japan into the modern world) by bringing them new technologies & modern conveniences. In other words, Japan was trying to alleviate some of the white man's burden.

Western colonial powers experienced the same types of tensions & struggles in the territories that they sought to control, as well. And Western colonial powers employed many of the same or similar techniques as Japan may have used in trying to achieve its goals. For example, Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy were incredibly brutal in their colonial conquests of Africa

The sinking by the Japanese of an American gunboat, the Panay, which had been patrolling the Yangtze, precipitated an early crisis between America & Japan. Why did we have gunboats patrolling Chinese rivers? The Panay had been convoying oil tankers owned by the Standard Oil Company.

Please read, "Asia for Asians," by Paula Harrell.

In reply to an earlier post on Sep 27, 2014 6:33:20 PM PDT
Publicus says:
"As long as Japan kept Russia in check, did its part to pry open China to Washington's corporate clients, and didn't make a play for America's overseas colony in the Philippines, it could claim dominion over Korea and Manchuria under the terms of a 'Monroe Doctrine for Asia,'" Teddy Roosevelt privately told Harvard-educated Kentaro Kaneko, Tokyo's emissary to the United States.

"Japan is the only nation in Asia that understands the principles and methods of Western civilization," Teddy Roosevelt wrote to Kaneko on July 8, 1905. "She has proved that she can assimilate Western civilization, yet hold onto her own heritage. All the Asiatic nations are now faced with the urgent necessity of adjusting themselves to the present age. Japan should be their natural leader in that process, and their protector during the transition stage, much as the United States assumed the leadership of the American continent many years ago, and by means of the Monroe Doctrine preserved Latin American nations from European interference, while they were maturing their independence."

Under McKinley and Roosevelt, the U.S. government offered a detailed tutorial in the ruthless acquisition of territory through aggression, and the pitiless exercise of power to suppress uprisings against imperial rule. The Philippines provided the classroom, and the Japanese would prove to be eager and observant students. Americans water boarded Filipino dissidents, but hung Japanese following WWII for what they had learned from their American friends as part of their Western training (i.e., water boarding).

After the U.S. wrested the Philippines from Spain, Teddy Roosevelt -- an aficionado of imposing Anglo-American "authority" by force-imposed America's will on the Philippines, hoping to make it an outpost for the projection of military power into Asia.

"We do not want the Filipinos," declared the San Francisco Argonaut in 1898. "We want the Philippines. The islands are enormously rich, but unfortunately they are infested with Filipinos. There are many millions there and, it is to be feared, their extinction will be slow."

America lost as many men in WWII as the Filipinos did at the hands of their American civilizers.
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