415 of 484 people found the following review helpful
Umm... yeah, about those 400 years of oppression....,
This review is from: A People's History of the United States (Paperback)
History is, in its way, a fiction.
While it is made up of facts, things that are verifiable or at least reliably accepted as being what really happened, our understanding of history rests on a certain assumption that doesn't always hold up - that what we are reading or hearing is The Truth. It's how we learn about history when we're kids - that this happened and that happened, and that's all we really need to know.
The problem, however, is that what we got in our history books wasn't the entire story. Oh, it was true, for a given value of "true," but the historian who wrote the book did so with a specific narrative in mind, one that fit his or her perception of the past and which - more importantly - would sell textbooks to hundreds of schools across the country. The history that we get from those books is designed to appeal to the sensibilities of a populace that is already inclined to think well of its nation, and rarely deviates from the theme. While they do try to note the excesses, injustices and impropriety of the past, they tend to bury it in the glorious achievements of governments and industry.
Unfortunately, doing so means that there's a lot of history that gets left on the cutting room floor. Incidents, people, whole populations get brushed aside because either there's not enough room for them or because telling their story in detail ruins the mood that the historian is trying to set - usually one of bright optimism for a good and just nation.
There is nothing inherently wrong with this approach, either. An historian cannot practically include all of the historical viewpoints, good and bad, into a book meant to be used for only 180 days out of the year. So out of expedience, if not a conscious desire to tell an uplifting tale, they write books that look upon our past as favorably as possible, while including just enough criticism of our failures to fend off any serious accusations of bias.
As Zinn tells us, though, there's no such thing as an historian without bias. Every historian has a story to tell, and Zinn has decided that he doesn't want to tell the one we're all used to hearing.
He starts in much the same place as most American history books - with the coming of Christopher Columbus to the New World. Immediately he reminds us that Columbus' mission was not one of exploration but of commerce, and that the first question he asked the natives of what he would label Hispanola was, "Where is your gold?"
It all went downhill from there.
Reading this book, it would be very easy to get depressed. I can see how those who were brought up with a healthy dose of American Exceptionalism (the idea that the United States obeys different rules from the rest of the world and, more importantly, cannot do wrong) would really dislike this book. It is page after page of lies, misdeeds, cruelty, greed and deception. It is the story a nation built not on the principle that all men are created equal, but that all men must be leashed to the yoke of the capitalist overclass. It's a tale of genocide and oppression, of revolts both peaceful and violent, and it never lets up for a moment.
To his credit, Zinn tells us right up front that he's going to take the side of the oppressed, the dispossessed and the put-down, and there's no way you can tell that story without it being really depressing. It's pretty clear pretty quickly, though, where his sympathies lie:
"My viewpoint, in telling the history of the United States, is different: that we must not accept the memory of states as our own. Nations are not communities and never have been. The history of any country, presented as the history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and conquered, masters and slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and sex. And in such a world of conflict, a world of victims and executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to be on the side of the executioners."
His portrayal of the underclass, rebellious or not, is one of suffering nobility, and the System as a deliberately malevolent entity. Any good that it does is simply whatever was necessary to maintain its power, and the above quote speaks to that. The parallel structure that he uses effectively groups all of the upper class into the "persecutor" role, and the lower class into the "victims." And while there is some truth to that - human history, after all, is a long story of rich and powerful elites governing poor and powerless people - it is painting with too broad a brush, in my opinion. He seems to work from the premise that all those with power are bad, and so those without must therefore be good.
As much as I wish that admitting bias was an excuse for it, it isn't. It does a disservice to all involved to flatten your view of the American class system into a two-dimensional shadow play. Not all of the populist agitators were good and noble people, nor were all politicians cunning manipulators. Just keep that in mind as you read.
It's a sobering read, though, to say the least. The best simile I could come up with is that it's like watching your parents have sex. It's something that you always suspected went on, but you could have gone your whole life without being presented with the reality of it. So it is no surprise that, after reading this book, some people become absolutely insufferable, cynical and disillusioned.
If you've already gone through that stage of your political thinking, however, you find something else in this book - hope. It's something you have to dig for, but it is there, buried in the larger narrative that Zinn is telling us.
Given the amount of detail he goes into, it's very easy to lose sight of the larger picture at work. Zinn details slave rebellions, gives stories of workers pushed to the extremes of human existence, soldiers thrown away for nothing, and entire segments of the population ignored or actively persecuted. But alongside these horror stories come tales of resistance. Whether it's the quiet contemplation by a poor white farmer over whether he might have more in common with his black neighbors than his white landlords, riots of prisoners and guards against a corrupt prison system, or the militant, city-wide shutdowns organized by the Wobblies, the people can only be pushed so far. And while the Powers That Be are very good at figuring out how to distract, scare or defy the people, they eventually do make changes for the better, and everyone benefits a little bit.
Inasmuch as this book is a chronicle of America's misdeeds over the last few centuries, it is also a tale of Americans' triumphs. It is a tribute to the will of the people who, no matter how difficult it may have been, decided to stand up and demand respect from the men who held the reins of power. It is a testament to the women who wanted equality, the socialists who wanted a better world, the workers who wanted safe jobs at living wages, the blacks who wanted to be full citizens, and the Indians who wanted the wrongs of the past redressed.
Not everybody has gotten what they wanted - America is still very much a work in progress, and there is bound to be some backsliding as we go. What Zinn shows in this book is that no matter how bad the American government can be how greedy American business might become, the American people want what's best for themselves and, when the time comes, will stand up and shout for it. Given enough time, and enough courage, The United States will continue to be a better and better nation, and perhaps someday - someday - it will finally fulfill our expectations for it.
"Power concedes nothing without a demand. It never did and it never will...."
- Frederick Douglass, 1857
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Showing 1-10 of 22 posts in this discussion
Initial post: Feb 7, 2011 1:15:00 AM PST
This has to be the most poetic review I've ever read.
Posted on Sep 12, 2012 8:57:06 AM PDT
John W. Blalock says:
Very, very good review. I have not read this book, but have learned the `real` history of this country over the years. I am 60 yrs. old, survived 2 years in Vietnam & I believe this is the worst shape our Country has ever been in & that`s a sad thing to have to say.
Posted on Nov 3, 2012 10:54:58 PM PDT
It is much better than a review; it is elevating critical analysis. Thanks much.
Posted on Jan 8, 2013 8:43:37 PM PST
Last edited by the author on Jan 8, 2013 8:44:17 PM PST
Dan S. Tong says:
What an excellent, balanced review, that reflects the reviewer's ability to clearly explain the strengths and weaknesses of the book.
We certainly could use more reviews from truly intelligent people like you.
Posted on Jan 18, 2013 1:31:33 PM PST
Eric Gudorf says:
Good review, generally, although a book this flawed certainly shouldn't get 4 stars. Two, max, and that's being generous.
I get the sense that this is an extremely cynical book by a self-serving author who, while claiming to speak for "The Oppressed", is himself, as a white male tenured professor, firmly ensconsed in The Establishment. Of course, we are to suppose that HE (and he alone!) of The Establishment has motives that are noble and pure while everyone else of importance in all of our history was motivated by greed, corruption, and cruelty.
This isn't history by fact, but rather history by slander and character assassination.
Posted on Jan 27, 2013 11:30:49 AM PST
Thomas S. Holman says:
This is a very thoughtful and intelligent analysis of a polarizing history that is too often ignored. Thank you so much for the commentary.
Posted on Mar 24, 2013 7:28:22 AM PDT
Robert P. Earl says:
One of the most intelligent reviews I've found on Amazon. Well written and quite thorough it presents a balanced look at a book that has had an outsized influence in popularizing radical history and helping to mainstream it, bringing it to a wider audience.
Well done, Chris.
Posted on May 8, 2013 4:42:27 PM PDT
James Black says:
Posted on May 25, 2013 7:20:41 PM PDT
David H. Weiss says:
This an excellent review for which I thank the reviewer. I could not be so sympathetic. The book (I could not call it a history) is so atheistic and socialistic that I had to put it down after reading only about one-third.