This volume contains the papers of the 19th International Congress of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery (CARS 2005) held in Berlin, Germany between 22 and 25 June 2005. For 20 years, CARS has developed a culture of innovation with its focus on interdisciplinary and international cooperation. In approximately 20,000 pages of proceedings written by several thousand authors from more than 50 countries, many innovative developments have been reported which now assist the daily practice of physicians in their care of patients. Examples are PACS, a concept on which CARS was founded, and computer assisted surgical tools and systems, which were initially reported in CAR 85 and have now become mainstream developments. Some of these innovations are incremental, making noticeable improvements in daily practice, but others like PACS or minimally invasive surgery are transformational innovations in a sense that they have fundamentally changed the way "things" are done. CARS has established itself as the major event for the presentation of R & D work of high actuality. In addition to the traditional scientific/medical sessions, some of the outstanding topics presented and which are included in the CARS 2005 conference proceedings include:
Interventional Radiology; Colon and Liver CAD; Intra-Operative Imaging; Minimal Invasive Spine Surgery; PACS Beyond Radiology (in conjunction with EuroPACS); Surgical PACS and the Digital Operating Room (in conjunction with SPIE Integrating the Health Care Enterprise (in conjunction with EuroPACS). The process of innovation in these fields is a continuum with many examples of other new developments being presented at CARS 2005, which marks the 20th anniversary of the congress.