- Series: Dover Thrift Editions
- Paperback: 112 pages
- Publisher: Dover Publications; Reprint edition (January 1, 1991)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 0486266893
- ISBN-13: 978-0486266893
- Product Dimensions: 5.5 x 0.3 x 8.5 inches
- Shipping Weight: 3.2 ounces (View shipping rates and policies)
- Average Customer Review: 642 customer reviews
- Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #6,299 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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Candide (Dover Thrift Editions) Paperback – January 1, 1991
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Satirical novel published in 1759 that is the best-known work by Voltaire. It is a savage denunciation of metaphysical optimism--as espoused by the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz--that reveals a world of horrors and folly. In this philosophical fantasy, naive Candide sees and suffers such misfortune that he ultimately rejects the philosophy of his tutor Doctor Pangloss, who claims that "all is for the best in this best of all possible worlds." Candide and his companions--Pangloss, his beloved Cunegonde, and his servant Cacambo--display an instinct for survival that provides them hope in an otherwise somber setting. When they all retire together to a simple life on a small farm, they discover that the secret of happiness is "to cultivate one's garden," a practical philosophy that excludes excessive idealism and nebulous metaphysics. -- The Merriam-Webster Encylopedia of Literature
Text: English (translation)
Original Language: French
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Candide is the protagonist and is a seemingly good-hearted but rather simple fellow whose mentor, Pangloss, teaches him that no matter what happens it is always for the best. As a note, pay attention to each of the main characters names as they seem to me to have a descriptive quality to them, e.g. Pan, meaning "all" and gloss from the Greek glossa, meaning tongue, to get a name that roughly means "all talk".
The story begins with Candide and his love interest being suddenly separated and the events of his life from there. What follows in the story is a series of horrible events mixed with some virtuous ones that Pangloss continuously explains to Candide that whatever happens is for the best.
Even if you have no philosophical interest, the book is both funny and sad, entertaining yet thought provoking with a couple of memorable passages. I consider it a pretty good read and, as a bonus, a quick one.
This review will address the newly issued Kindle edition of Candide that has been released by Open Road Media as well as give an overview of editions of Candide available for the Kindle and available on Amazon.
Many Kindle versions of well-known classic books are available. For books available in the public domain, as is the case for Candide, oftentimes these Kindle versions are available for free or for very low price.
Some of these Kindle editions are of low quality and have various issues that make them less desirable for those who like to read classics on their Kindles. When I am looking for a classic book to purchase for my Kindle, it is usually a minor research project to determine which one I think will be the 'best' for my reading, and sometimes I end up purchasing more than one version in order to get one that is well presented and formatted for the Kindle.
This is a relatively short book, normally about 100 pages in printed form, and not a difficult read. This Kindle edition is well produced, the publishers website claims that it has been professionally proofread, and I have detected no errors myself (such as often appear in Kindle books which have been scanned and published without careful check).
This Open Road Media version of Candide appears to be the most common version offered on Kindle and uses the translation by Philip Little (see note below) which was originally published by Modern Library in 1918 and is public domain and readily available online (see for example Project Gutenberg link below). It includes the following:
- short introduction written by the translator Philip Littell
- complete text of Candide (presumably also translated by Philip Littell)
- table of contents is included and functions properly, with book 'locations' indicated but not page numbers
It does not include footnotes, which the Gutenberg Library (online) version of Candide does include (see comments section below for link to the Gutenberg Library website). The two versions are otherwise identical as far as I can tell, and the Gutenberg Library version indicates where edits have been made in order to correct typos, and those corrections have all also been included in this Open Road Media version.
(I note that this Kindle edition does not indicate which translation is used, nor does the Open Road media website provide that information, however it does show Philip Littell as the author of the introduction and several references I've found also indicate Littell is the translator. However, the NY Public Library article on Candide (see link in comments below) refers to this as an anonymous translation, saying "NYPL is using the most widely available e-text of the book, from the anonymous translation published by the Modern Library in 1918, available on Project Gutenberg").
Candide has been well reviewed on Amazon and is available in many different editions, both for the Kindle and in print. The listings on Amazon with the greatest number of reviews are listed below. I would refer to these listings and the accompanying reviews for discussion of the book itself, which is generally regarded as a major classic and which has been included on many lists of 'best' or 'most influential classic novels:
- Candide with 166 reviews at the present time (1918 Modern Library translation)
- Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition) (Listed on Amazon as ASIN B00B7NP1HQ - Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition) with 72 reviews and this page on Amazon also provides links to the greatest number of formats available, including 8 different versions for the Kindle
Candide was written by the French philosopher Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet) and first published in 1789, in France. It has been translated into English numerous times. I am not going to attempt to judge which of the various translations might be preferable for one reason or another. I do list some of the translations currently available below, for those interested. Generally they can be sampled using Amazon's 'Look Inside" feature to get an idea of the quality of the translation, and in some cases the customer reviews here on Amazon will also address the quality of the translation. I do not know that there are huge differences in the various translations but I'll include in the notes below any comments I do run across that might indicate a preference for any of the translations (some works, War and Peace for example, have strong points of view from different scholars regarding which translation is more true to the original writing). Not all translations are available in Kindle editions.
Other editions and more recent translations available include (this is not intended to be a complete listing of all translations currently available, only a selected few):
- this 1947 translation by John Butt available in Penguin edition (I do not find this translation available for Kindle): ( Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics) Listed on Amazon as ASIN 0140440046 - Candide) The Annenberg Learner website considers this to be the recommended version, saying "This is our recommended edition. This 1947 translation by John Everett Butt provides a clear and stylish English equivalent for the mordant original. This edition has an introduction by the translator, a noted scholar and literary editor, who was Regius Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature at Edinburgh University." See [...]
- This 1961 translation by Daniel M. Frame (I do not find this translation available for Kindle): (Listed on Amazon as ASIN 0451531159 - Candide, Zadig and Selected Stories) which includes 15 additional stories by Voltaire.
- a newer 2005 translation by Theo Cuffe also released by Penguin and available on Kindle: (Listed on Amazon as ASIN B00EK28X1C - Candide, or Optimism (Penguin Classics) or (Listed on Amazon as ASIN B00B7NP1HQ - Candide: Or Optimism (Penguin Classics Deluxe Edition). These Penguin editions for Kindle do include a number of supplementary notes (translators note, note on the text, note on names, map, appendices, chronology, further reading) but do not include any additional works by Voltaire in addition to Candide.
- translation by Peter Constantine available in Everyman's Library edition (I do not find this translation available for Kindle): (Listed on Amazon as ASIN 067941746X - Candide and Other Stories (Everyman's Library Classics & Contemporary Classics), includes other stories by Voltaire (according to one of the Amazon reviews the included stories are: Micromegas, Zadig, What Pleases the Ladies, The Ingenu, The White Bull).
- 1990 translation by Roger Pearson available in Oxford World Classics edition (the first link is an earlier edition published by Oxford and the second link is a Kindle edition that is a newer version of the same thing): (Listed on Amazon as ASIN 0192807269 - Candide and Other Stories (Oxford World's Classics), or the more recent printing (Listed on Amazon as ASIN B005JJ9RME - Candide and Other Stories (Oxford World's Classics) includes several other stories by Voltaire (Micromegas, Zadig, What Pleases the Ladies, The Ingenue, and The White Bull).
- Norton Critical Edition, translated by Robert M. Adams and including extensive accompanying essays giving background and criticism, and first published in 1966 (I do not find this translation available for Kindle): (Listed on Amazon as ASIN 0393960587 - Candide (A Norton Critical Edition). This edition does not include other works by Voltaire but does, as mentioned, include a great deal of supplementary material on Candide.
My opinion is that this is a fully satisfactory version of Candide for those readers interested in this book and wanting an inexpensive copy for their Kindle. It is being offered for free at the present time on Amazon but will probably be sold at a slightly higher price once this 'introductory' period has been completed. It is essentially equivalent to the several other 99 cent Kindle versions presently available for the Kindle, from Dover Publications, and a couple from unidentified publishers and simply showing "Amazon Digital Services".