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A Century of War: : Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order Paperback – February 21, 2011
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This book is the only accurate account I have seen of what really happened with the price of oil in 1973. I strongly recommend reading it. -- Sheikh Zaki Yamani "Former Oil Minister of Saudi Arabia"
I recommend this book to all who wish to know how the world is really run, what are the systems behind the sub-systems we perceive in the daily media and what are the antecedents of the present global political dilemmas. -- Dr. Frederick Wills "Former Foreign Minister, British Guyana"
This book is definitely not for the fearful or inattentive reader. It goes to the fundamentals... an extraordinary work that sheds lights on the problems of our society. -- Col. Fletcher Prouty, USAF (ret.) "author of The Secret Team"
From the Inside Flap
This Book is a Gripping Account of the Murky World of the Anglo-American Oil Industry and its Hidden Role in World Politics.
William Engdahl takes the reader through the history of how seven giant oil companies - five American and two British - developed a controlling grip on the world's economy unprecedented in history. This is no ordinary history of oil. It is a history of global politics, more precisely of global geopolitics - how control of strategic geographical pivot regions first British and later American interests to control in large part the world economy.
The book sheds light for the first time on such events as the 1973 oil shock - a sudden 400% rise in the price of the world's most essential commodity in a matter of weeks. What William Engdahl reveals, with flawless documentation, will shock most people. The implications are even more devastating. He also documents how oil played an essential role in the ultimate collapse of the Soviet Union, in the rise and fall of the Taliban in Afghanistan, in the US occupation of Iraq and countless other events not normally understood in such a light.
Contents: Ch. 1. The Three Pillars of the British Empire. Ch. 2. The Lines are Drawn: Germany and the Geopolitics of the Great War. Ch. 3. A Global Fight for Control of Petroleum Begins. Ch. 4. Oil Becomes the Weapon, the Near East the Battleground. Ch. 5.Combined & Conflicting Goals: U.S. Rivals Britain. Ch. 6. The Anglo-Americans Close Ranks. Ch. 7. Oil and a New World Order of Bretton Woods. Ch, 8. A Sterling Crisis and the Adenauer-de Gaulle Threat. Ch. 9. Running the World Economy in Reverse: Who Made the 1970's Oil Shocks? Ch. 10. Europe, Japan and a Response to the Oil Shock. Ch. 11. Imposing the New World Order. Ch. 12. From Evil Empire to the Axis of Evil. Ch. 13. A New Millennium for Oil Geopolitics.
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These two periods are, in the timeframe of this century, completely seperated from each other, both in their general conception and in the light of fundamental changes in world events.
The first period describes the beginning of the Anglo-American oil politics until the year 1939.
The second period is a description of the new World Society under a strong Anglo-American umbrella: "the New World Order": the years after 1945.
Missing are the years between 1939 and 1945.
I wonder why the history is not described of the Anglo-American Oil Politics during these years. Particularly in the Far East with the participation of the U.S.A , events led to the second World War.
In my opinion an additional chapter about the role of oil in relation to Anglo-Amercan War Politics in the Far East, might be added by Mr. Engdahl.
Some historical facts:
War in Western Europe and the Japanese expansion in the Far East, during the years of the second World War.
The Oil Policy of the Dutch Government, in line with the Anglo-American Oil Policy, especially in the Far East have also lead to consequences.
During Adolf Hitler's "blitz" through the (neutral) Low Countries, May 1940, the Dutch Government and the Head of State in the Netherlands, at that time Queen Regnant Wilhelmina, left for England with the other members of the Royal family. A few days later, the Nazi occupation of The Netherlands took place.
The Dutch Government continued its activities as a " Government in Exile" in an office in London and from then on as an ally of Great Britain.
This Government was also responsable for the Dutch overseas colonies,for example the Dutch East Indies, the island group of a vast Archipelago, now known as Indonesia.
This Archipelago is rich in valuable resources, the most important being the rubber plantations and the oil fields.
The Dutch East Indies were the fourth largest exporter of oil in the world.
In September 1940 the Japanese minister of trade visited the Dutch East Indies with a special trade mission. He made it clear to the Dutch, that since the capitulation of the Netherlands, it would be wise of them to stay friends with the mighty Japanese empire. Moreover, to show understanding for the Japanese need for the primary necessities of life. The most urgent demand was the delivery of enormous quantities of oil.
Oil was the key by which Japan would become "the ruler and protector" of all of East Asia. First of all they were interested in the exploitation of the oil fields.
Besides oil, the Japanese also wanted rubber, tin, nickel and quinine. They commanded the immediate stop of the fishery restrictions for the Japanese.
Since in 1932 the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) had broken the Japanese diplomatic code, the Dutch could react well informed and well prepared, by lingering the negotiations and finally by putting off all Japanese demands. The Japanese delegation left without any result.
Access to oil was vital for the Japanese war effort in China and for their Armed Forces in French Indochina.
(The French in Indochina had to give a free access to the Japanese Armed Forces, as Japan was a member of the Axis, with Germany and with Italy. Therefore it reacted conform the orders of Berlin and of the Vichy Government, in France).
Japan itself has no oilfields and it was not able to produce enough to meet even 10% of the demand.
(There was an emerging synthetic fuel industry for the conversion of coal to oil).
On 26 July 1941 the President of the USA, F.D. Roosevelt, warned Japan that it should leave French Indochina, followed by an executive order which blocked all of Japan's U.S.A. assets and embargoed all oil exports to Japan.
The (still neutral) Americans recieved support in their action from the Dutch Government in Exile. This Government, together with Queen Wilhelmina, broke their former economic treaty with Japan and joined the Americans with a complete embargo in August.
Japan lost thereafter 93 percent of its oil supply.
Japan's military, economic and oil reserves were reduced to one and a half year.
The Japanese realised that, if they attacked the Dutch East Indies, a reciprocal U.S. military action was likely to follow. So they planned to eliminate the U.S. Pacific Fleet, wich would allow them to occupy this vast Archipelago, without American interference.
This was one factor that influenced the decision to attack Pearl Harbor by a surprise military strike on December 7th, 1941. All eight Navy battle ships were damaged,with four being sunk, together with other Navy ships and 188 U.S aircraft and some 2,400 Americans were killed in the attack, another 1,250 were injured.
Immediately after Pearl Harbor, Japan officially declared war against the United States.
At the same time the Dutch Government in London declared war against Japan.
The next day President Roosevelt gave his famous speech, ( "a day which will live in infamy") and signed a formal "state of war" against the Empire of Japan.
Within days, Nazi Germany and the Kingdom of Italy, as members of the Axis, also declared war against the United States, and the U.S. retaliated soon after.
The Dutch joined the Allied Forces , the American, British, Dutch, Australian command (ABDA), to halt Japan's Military agression in East Asia. After the surrender of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army they continued as a "fourth ally", both in the Pacific and in the Burmese Area with their merchant fleet, large ocean steamers, aeroplanes, Navy and the remaining of their landforces.
Read Engdahl's books, starting with this one, as soon as possible.