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Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed Hardcover – December 29, 2004
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Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed is the glass-half-empty follow-up to his Pulitzer Prize-winning Guns, Germs, and Steel. While Guns, Germs, and Steel explained the geographic and environmental reasons why some human populations have flourished, Collapse uses the same factors to examine why ancient societies, including the Anasazi of the American Southwest and the Viking colonies of Greenland, as well as modern ones such as Rwanda, have fallen apart. Not every collapse has an environmental origin, but an eco-meltdown is often the main catalyst, he argues, particularly when combined with society's response to (or disregard for) the coming disaster. Still, right from the outset of Collapse, the author makes clear that this is not a mere environmentalist's diatribe. He begins by setting the book's main question in the small communities of present-day Montana as they face a decline in living standards and a depletion of natural resources. Once-vital mines now leak toxins into the soil, while prion diseases infect some deer and elk and older hydroelectric dams have become decrepit. On all these issues, and particularly with the hot-button topic of logging and wildfires, Diamond writes with equanimity.
Because he's addressing such significant issues within a vast span of time, Diamond can occasionally speak too briefly and assume too much, and at times his shorthand remarks may cause careful readers to raise an eyebrow. But in general, Diamond provides fine and well-reasoned historical examples, making the case that many times, economic and environmental concerns are one and the same. With Collapse, Diamond hopes to jog our collective memory to keep us from falling for false analogies or forgetting prior experiences, and thereby save us from potential devastations to come. While it might seem a stretch to use medieval Greenland and the Maya to convince a skeptic about the seriousness of global warming, it's exactly this type of cross-referencing that makes Collapse so compelling. --Jennifer Buckendorff
From Publishers Weekly
Starred Review. In his Pulitzer Prize–winning bestseller Guns, Germs, and Steel, geographer Diamond laid out a grand view of the organic roots of human civilizations in flora, fauna, climate and geology. That vision takes on apocalyptic overtones in this fascinating comparative study of societies that have, sometimes fatally, undermined their own ecological foundations. Diamond examines storied examples of human economic and social collapse, and even extinction, including Easter Island, classical Mayan civilization and the Greenland Norse. He explores patterns of population growth, overfarming, overgrazing and overhunting, often abetted by drought, cold, rigid social mores and warfare, that lead inexorably to vicious circles of deforestation, erosion and starvation prompted by the disappearance of plant and animal food sources. Extending his treatment to contemporary environmental trouble spots, from Montana to China to Australia, he finds today's global, technologically advanced civilization very far from solving the problems that plagued primitive, isolated communities in the remote past. At times Diamond comes close to a counsel of despair when contemplating the environmental havoc engulfing our rapidly industrializing planet, but he holds out hope at examples of sustainability from highland New Guinea's age-old but highly diverse and efficient agriculture to Japan's rigorous program of forest protection and, less convincingly, in recent green consumerism initiatives. Diamond is a brilliant expositor of everything from anthropology to zoology, providing a lucid background of scientific lore to support a stimulating, incisive historical account of these many declines and falls. Readers will find his book an enthralling, and disturbing, reminder of the indissoluble links that bind humans to nature. Photos.
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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In addition to looking at the early 2000's environmental and political situations in Rwanda, Haiti, Australia, China, and the state of Montana, he drives home his point by examining several ancient societies that literally collapsed due to environmental failure, namely, the Eastern Islands, the Anasazi of the Southwestern US, the Mayans of the Yucatan, and the Norse of Greenland, among others.
The relevance of the demise of those societies hundreds of years ago may be questioned. They were highly isolated, if not totally, and obviously had no scientific understanding of their environments. All lived in difficult climatic conditions that could not support their populations. Deforestation, soil erosion, and the elimination of edible species presaged their end. Clearly, the elites of those societies mismanaged resources to enhance their standing, but did they really have the capacity and information to choose to take their societies in different directions and not succumb to their harsh environments?
Inhospitable environments are no stranger to the 21st century, and if the vast amount of scientific and ecological information does not filter into a society, they can find themselves facing the same sort of starvation and man-versus-man confrontations of those older societies. Several areas of Africa are prime examples, and Haiti is not far behind. The author repeatedly makes the point that we live in a globalized, integrated world. The effects of population growth, environmental degradation, resource depletion, and climatic changes cannot be confined to isolated areas such as the Easter Islands.
In the 21st century, it is global corporations that have worldwide impacts. While not all of the earth's problems can be laid at the feet of global corporations, the author shows that the oil, mining, timber, and fishing industries have had deleterious impacts on the environment. The author is cautiously optimistic that the public will be able to sufficiently pressure corporations and governments to be far more pro-environment. Some initiatives are underway in some industries with modest successes.
While COLLAPSE is an important book and at times interesting, it is long, slow-going, and repetitious. Regarding his optimism, the author really does not demonstrate that there are effective environmental political movements that have substantial influence in the political process. Is choice more a chimera than not? Furthermore, he assumes that the world's main problems are environmental. Where would he put the huge worldwide divides concerning religion and haves vs. have-nots and the possibilities of nuclear war?
The author tells of his students wondering how it is that someone could cut down the last tree on Easter Island, but one might equally wonder in our democratic era how it is that we have allowed huge private entities to have so much power over our lives and permitted such a mal-distribution of resources and earnings. So who are the stupid and irresponsible: the ignorant people of the Eastern Islands or modern societies with the benefits of science, information, and the study of the past?
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Jared Diamond gives so many thoughtful ideas about the planet and we humans.Read more