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Conceptions of Modern Psychiatry Paperback – October 17, 1966
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The first chapter explains the mechanism of how to suffer from the psychopathic. H.S.Sullivan criticizes the hypothesis of Freud that misunderstands the most serious motivations of the human beings. The 'id' ('es' in German, also) is not influenced directly by the sexual desire, but depends on the social evaluation against it. It means that if the society is generous with this wish, it won't cause the psychiatric diseases. The reason that Freud determined 'id' as the sexual was the strict ethics of the time, which regarded it as a vice. This evaluation as immoral has made people, who has such a desire unconsciously, anxious and fearful. It is these emotions that cause the psychopathic. Since this redefinition of 'id' free from the physical, we have been able to recognize that the most important motives of the human beings are whatever brings anxiety and fear. It was the pivotal turning point where the transition from the physical to the social, that is, from the biochemistry to the sociology has begun at the psychiatry and psychoanalysis.
The importance of H.S.Sullivan will be re-estimated strongly in the near future, and should be so.