- Hardcover: 272 pages
- Publisher: Rutgers University Press; 1 edition (February 1, 2001)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 081352847X
- ISBN-13: 978-0813528472
- Product Dimensions: 6.2 x 1 x 9.5 inches
- Shipping Weight: 1.4 pounds (View shipping rates and policies)
- Average Customer Review: 24 customer reviews
- Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #1,863,142 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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The Emperor's New Clothes: Biological Theories of Race at the Millennium 1st Edition
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From the Back Cover
In this groundbreaking book, Joseph Graves traces the development of thought about human genetic diversity. He argues that racism has persisted in our society because adequate scientific reasoning has not entered into the equation. Graves champions the scientific method, and explains how we may properly ask questions about the nature of population differentiation and how (if at all) we may correlate that diversity to differences in human capacity and behavior. He also cautions us to think critically about scientific findings that have historically been misused in controversies over racial differences in intelligence heritability, criminal behavior, disease predisposition, and other traits. Greek philosophy, social Darwinism, New World colonialism, the eugenics movement, intelligence testing biases, and racial health fallacies are just a few of the topics he addresses.
According to Graves, this country cannot truly address its racial problems until people understand that separate human races do not exist empirically. With the biological basis for race removed, racism becomes an ideology, one that can and must be expunged.
About the Author
Joseph L. Graves Jr. is a professor of evolutionary biology with appointments in the departments of Life Sciences and African American Studies at Arizona State University's West and Main Campuses.
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All Graves books and articles are breathtakingly bad. And probably disingenuous. Though because of the very issue discussed in them, one can't be sure.
He's big on Lewontin's Fallacy, (most diversity within races means there isn't enough difference between them foe Race)
and "99.98%" which is false.
99.9% was the figurefrom the original Human Genome project.
Vnbeter remeasure three years laater and found the difference was "7x as great", as low as 99% similar.
the figure now used is "99.5% Average".
SO, we are 1/3-2/3 of the way to the difference between us and Chimps. Plenty of room for Race/subspecies.
Then there is his Misrepresentation of Sewall Wright on Fst, in the Same disingenuous cause.
""Joseph Graves and Sewall Wright
"Joseph Graves is a biologist who has written several books and countless articles arguing against the biological existence of races. In his writings he often says something such as this about Sewall Wright, the inventor of Fst values:
“Wright felt the latter, measured by Fst was equivalent to the subspecies used by taxonomists (also called biological or geographical race.) Population subdivision can be calculated at individual genetic loci or for numerous genetic loci simultaneously. Wright’s statistic can range between 0 and 1.00. He arbitrarily suggested that the minimal threshold for the existence of great variation was Fst = 0.250 and moderate variation Fst = 0.15 to 0.250. He examined individual loci derived from protein electrophoresis from a variety of species, finding a range of differentiation from 0.023 to 0.501 (average Fst= 0.168).
Subsequent studies of multiple loci, including whole genome analyses, have generally shown human Fst at much less than Wright’s critical value.” –Graves 2006
As we have already seen, Sewall Wright did not think that Fst values should be a criteria for sub-species. He literally dedicates an entire chapter two the fourth volume of his X to race and never mentions Fst values, not does he anywhere else state that they should be used as a criteria for subspecies. In fact, on page 85 Wright cautions readers against using Fst values as a straight forward measure of genetic differentiation:
We will take F = 0.25 as an arbitrary value above which there is very great differentiation, the range of 0.15 to 0.25 as indicating moderately great differentiation. Differentiation is, however, by no means negligible if F is as small as 0.05 or even less” – Wright 1984
Thus, Graves is misleading readers by separating these two sentences, only showing his readers the first, and thus stripping it of its proper context. Wright’s views do not, in fact, lend credence to the idea that human races do no exist.""
And of course Races do exist, as physical and Forensic anthropologists Use them every day, and in actual legal cases.
And why you can send your Blood into genetic services for what Percent of Each you are.
I find it funny how so many racist, Jensen-influenced reviewers accuse Graves of being a fraud and dismissing his work as a ploy of "political correctness." The racist, Bell Curve thinking regarding intelligence, for example, is so contradictory that even those who subscribe to its premise are too blind to see it. For example, Jensen and his followers maintain that Asians are the smartest "race," followed by Jews, then whites, and then blacks. Additionally, Bell Curve advocates will lump Latinos into the same category as blacks regarding intelligence. Now here is the real contradiction. Mexicans, for example, have a geographic ancestry that is by and large a blend of European (Spanish) and East Asian (those who crossed the Bering Straight and settled into Mesoamerica). By the Bell Curve's own logic, Mexicans (as a blend of European and Asian) would fall between these two groups in the hierarchy of intelligence. Mexicans would be slightly less intelligent than Asians, but of a greater intelligence than Europeans/whites/Caucasians. When Bell Curve advocates and Jensen supporters acknowlege the superior intelligence of Central Americans (induced from their very own arguments), I will start to take them a bit more serious...but I'm not going to hold my breath on this one.
Back to "The Emperor's New Clothes." My favorite part of this book is actually the chapter where Graves discusses the notions of inequality and prejudice in the ancient world. The author discusses the way in which people have abused and taken the Holy Bible out of context to promote racist ideologies, which actually have no basis in actual Biblical scripture. The author goes on to discuss how the ancient Romans admired Egyptians and Ethiopians, once the locations of great civilizations, but regarded the people of modern-day Ireland, Britain, and Germany as "primitives," "savages," "brutes," "barbarians," and inferior peoples for having never achieved any worthwhile accomplishments. Later, this same essential logic was used by the Spanish, French, English, and Dutch to brand Africans, Australians, and indigenous Americans as inferior. As we can see, ideas about racism grow out of extreme ethnocentric viewpoints.
If you lack a background in biological sciences or genetics, Graves's chapters on intelligence and disease may be a little difficult to comprehend. Other than that, the book is a fairly easy and enjoyable read, even for those without extensive backgrounds in science. My biggest critique with this book is that Graves chooses to focus on notions of race strictly within the North American world. It would have been nice to see some data and analysis on concepts of race and racial categories around the world, such as Asia and Latin America. The concept of race in Latin America is vastly different from that of North America, yet few Americans (white or black) are aware of this.
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