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Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (Harper Perennial Modern Classics) Paperback – July 1, 2008
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“Csikszentmihalyi arrives at an insight that many of us can intuitively grasp, despite our insistent (and culturally supported) denial of this truth. That is, it is not what happens to us that determines our happiness, but the manner in which we make sense of that reality. . . . The manner in which Csikszentmihalyi integrates research on consciousness, personal psychology and spirituality is illuminating.” —Los Angeles Times Book Review
The bestselling classic that holds the key to unlocking meaning, creativity, peak performance, and true happiness.
Legendary psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's famous investigations of "optimal experience" have revealed that what makes an experience genuinely satisfying is a state of consciousness called flow. During flow, people typically experience deep enjoyment, creativity, and a total involvement with life. In this new edition of his groundbreaking classic work, Csikszentmihalyi ("the leading researcher into ‘flow states’" —Newsweek) demonstrates the ways this positive state can be controlled, not just left to chance. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience teaches how, by ordering the information that enters our consciousness, we can discover true happiness, unlock our potential, and greatly improve the quality of our lives.
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"Documents a set of scientific discoveries about human nature that actually illuminates the life experiences of all persons." — Howard Gardner, author of Frames of Mind
“Flow is important....The way to happiness lies not in mindless hedonism, but in mindful challenge.” — New York Times Book Review
“Rethinks what motivates people.” — Newsweek
"An intriguing look at the age-old problem of human happiness." — Library Journal
“[A] passionate and eloquent defense...[of] intellectual as well as emotional commitment to pleasure, for society’s sake as well as our own.” — Booklist
“Csikszentmihalyi arrives at an insight that many of us can intuitively grasp, despite our insistent (and culturally supported) denial of this truth. That is, it is not what happens to us that determines our happiness, but the manner in which we make sense of that reality. . . . a deep cultural critique . . . the manner in which Csikszentmihalyi integrates research on consciousness, personal psychology and spirituality is illuminating.” — Los Angeles Times Book Review
“Explore[s] a happy state of mind called flow, the feeling of complete engagement in a creative or playful activity” — Time magazine
“The insightful analyst Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi argues that the key to gratification is completely absorbing work—he calls it ‘flow.’” — Salon.com
From the Back Cover
Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's famous investigations of "optimal experience" have revealed that what makes an experience genuinely satisfying is a state of consciousness called flow. During flow, people typically experience deep enjoyment, creativity, and a total involvement with life. In this new edition of his groundbreaking classic work, Csikszentmihalyi demonstrates the ways this positive state can be controlled, not just left to chance. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience teaches how, by ordering the information that enters our consciousness, we can discover true happiness and greatly improve the quality of our lives.
- Publisher : Harper Perennial Modern Classics; 1st edition (July 1, 2008)
- Language : English
- Paperback : 336 pages
- ISBN-10 : 0061339202
- ISBN-13 : 978-0061339202
- Item Weight : 8 ounces
- Dimensions : 0.9 x 5.3 x 7.9 inches
- Best Sellers Rank: #4,032 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
- Customer Reviews:
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Reviewed in the United States on February 14, 2022
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1- "This book summarizes, for a general audience, decades of research on the positive aspects of human experience—joy, creativity, the process of total involvement with life I call flow...This book tries instead to present general principles. along with concrete examples of how some people have used these principles, to transform boring and meaningless lives into ones fill of enjoyment."
2- "What I "discovered" was that happiness is not something that happens. It is not the result of good fortune or random chance. It is not something that money can buy or power command. It does not depend on outside events, but, rather, on how we interpret them. Happiness, in fact, is a condition that must be prepared for, cultivated, and defended privately by each person. People who learn to control inner experience will be able to determine the quality of their lives, which is as close as any of us can come to being happy."
3- "From their accounts of what it felt like to do what they were doing, I developed a theory of optimal experience based on the concept of flow—the state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it."
4- "The most important step in emancipating oneself from social controls is the ability to find rewards in the events of each moment. If a person learns to enjoy and find meaning in the ongoing stream of experience, in the process of living itself, the burden of social controls automatically falls from one's shoulders. Power returns to the person when rewards are no longer relegated to outside forces. It is no longer necessary to struggle for goals that always seem to recede into the future, to end each boring day with the hope that tomorrow, perhaps, something good will happen. Instead of forever straining for the tantalizing prize dangled just out of reach, one begins to harvest the genuine rewards of living. But it is not by abandoning ourselves to instinctual desires that we become free of social controls. We must also become independent from the dictates of the body, and learn to take charge of what happens in the mind. Pain and pleasure occur in consciousness and exist only there. As long as we obey the socially conditioned stimulus-response patterns that exploit our biological inclinations, we are controlled from the outside. To the extent that a glamorous ad makes us salivate for the product sold or that a frown from the boss spoils the day, we are not free to determine the content of experience. Since what we experience is reality, as far as we are concerned, we can transform reality to the extent that we influence what happens in consciousness and thus free ourselves from the threats and blandishments of the outside world."
5- "Control over consciousness cannot be institutionalized. As soon as it becomes part of a set of social rules and norms, it ceases to be effective in the way it was originally intended to be. Routinization, unfortunately, tends to take place very rapidly. Freud was still alive when his quest for liberating the ego from its oppressors was turned into a Staid ideology and a rigidly regulated profession. Marx was even less fortunate: his attempts to free consciousness from the tyranny of economic exploitation were soon turned into a system of repression that would have boggled the poor founder's mind."
6- "Over the endless dark centuries of its evolution, the human nervous stem has become so complex that it is now able to affect its own states, making it to a certain extent functionally independent of its genetic blueprint and of the objective environment. A person can make himself happy, or miserable, regardless of what is actually happy "outside," just by changing the contents of consciousness. We all kn»now individuals who can transform hopeless situations into challenges to be overcome, just through the force of their personalities. This ability to persevere despite obstacles and setbacks is the quality people most admire in others, and justly so; it is probably the most important trait not only for succeeding in life, but for enjoying it as well."
7- "Whenever information disrupts consciousness by threatening its goals we have a condition of inner disorder, or psychic entropy, a disorganization of the self that impairs its effectiveness. Prolonged experiences of this kind can weaken the self to the point that it is no longer able to invest attention and pursue its goals."
8- "Following a flow experience, the organization of the self is more complex than it had been before. It is by becoming increasing complex that the self might be said to grow. Complexity is the result of two broad psychological processes: differentiation and integration. Differentiation implies a movement toward uniqueness, toward separating oneself from others. Integration refers to its opposite: a union with other people. with ideas and entities beyond the self. A complex self is one that succeeds in combining these opposite tendencies. The self becomes more differentiated as a result of flow because overcoming a challenge inevitably leaves a person feeling more capable, more skilled. As the rock climber said, "You look back in awe at the self, at what you've done, it just blows your mind." After each episode of flow a person becomes more of a unique individual, less predictable, possessed of rarer skills. Complexity is often thought to have a negative meaning, synonymous with difficulty and confusion. That may be true, but only if we equate it with differentiation alone. Yet complexity also involves a second dimension—the integration of autonomous parts. A complex engine, for instance, not only has many separate components, each performing a different function, but also demonstrates a high sensitivity because each of the components is in touch with all the others. Without integration, a differentiated system would be a confusing mess. "low helps to integrate the self because in that state of deep concentration consciousness is unusually well ordered. Thoughts, intentions, feelings, and all the senses are focused on the same goal. Experience is in harmony."
9- "There are two main strategies we can adopt to improve the quality of life. The first is to try making external conditions match our goals. The second is to change how we experience external conditions to make them fit our goals better. For instance, feeling secure is an important component of happiness. The sense of security can be improved by buying a gun, installing strong locks on the front door, moving to a safer neighborhood, exerting political pressure on city hall for more police protection, or helping the community to become more conscious of the importance of civil order. All these different responses are aimed at bringing conditions in the environment more in line with our goals. The other method by which we can feel more secure involves modifying what we mean by security. If one does not expect perfect safety, recognizes hat risks are inevitable, and succeeds in enjoying a less than ideally predictable world, the threat of insecurity will not have as great a chance of marring happiness. Neither of these strategies is effective when used alone. Changing external conditions might seem to work at first, but if a person is not in control of his consciousness, the old fears or desires will soon return, reviving previous anxieties. One cannot create a complete sense of inner security even by buying one's own Caribbean island and surrounding it with armed bodyguards and attack dogs."
10- "As our studies have suggested, the phenomenology of enjoyment has eight major components. When people reflect on how it feels when their experience is most positive, they mention at least one, and often all, of the following. First, the experience usually occurs when we confront tasks we have a chance of completing. Second, we must be able to concentrate on what we are doing. Third and fourth, the concentration is usually possible because the task undertaken has clear goals and provides immediate feedback. Fifth, one acts with a deep but effortless involvement that removes from awareness the worries and frustrations of everyday life. Sixth, enjoyable experiences allow people to exercise a sense of control over their actions. Seventh, concern for the self disappears, yet paradoxically the sense of self emerges stronger after the flow experience is over. Finally, the sense of the duration of time is altered; hours pass by in minutes, and minutes can stretch out to seem like hours. The combination of all these elements causes a sense of deep enjoyment that is so rewarding people feel that expending a great deal of energy is worthwhile simply to be able to feel it."
11- "The same situation holds true for the artist painting a picture, and for all activities that are creative or open-ended in nature. But these are all activities that are creative or open-ended in nature. But these are all recognize and gauge feedback in such activities, she will not enjoy them. In some creative activities, where goals are not clearly set in advance, a person must develop a strong personal sense of what she intends to do. The artist might not have a visual image of what the finished painting should look like, but when the picture has progressed to a certain point, she should know whether this is what she wanted to achieve or not."
12- "As this example illustrates, what people enjoy is not the sense of being in control, but the sense of exercising? control in difficult situations. It is not possible to experience a feeling of control unless one is willing to give up the safety of protective routines. Only when a doubtful outcome is at stake, and one is able to influence that outcome, can a person really know whether she is in control."
13- "In our studies, we found that every flow activity, whether it involved competition, chance, or dimension of experience, had this in common: It provided a sense of discovery, a creative feeling of transporting the person into a new reality. It pushed the person to higher levels of performance, and led to previously undreamed-of states of consciousness. In short, it transformed the self by making it more complex. In this growth of the self lies the key to flow activities."
14- "There is ample evidence to suggest that how parents interact with a child will have a lasting effect on the kind of person that child grow up to be. In one of our studies conducted at the University of Chicago, for example, Kevin Rathunde observed that teenagers who had certain types of relationship with their parents were significantly more happy, satisfied, and strong in most life situations than their peers who did not have such a relationship. The family context promoting optimal d experience could be described as having five characteristics. The first one is clarity: the teenagers feel that they know what their parents expect from them—goals and feedback in the family interaction are unambiguous. he second is centering, or the children's perception that their of parents are interested in what they are doing in the present, concrete feelings and experiences, rather than being preoccupied with whether they will be getting into a good college or obtaining a well-paying job. Next is the issue of choice: children feel that the variety of possibilities from which to choose, including that of breaking parental rules—as long as they are prepared to face the consequences. The fourth differentiating characteristic is commitment, or the trust that allows the child to feel comfortable enough to set aside the shield of his defenses. and become unselfconsciously involved in whatever he is interested in. And finally there is challenge, or the parents' dedication to provide increasingly complex opportunities for action to their children."
15- "Without interest in the world, a desire to be actively related to it. a person becomes isolated into himself. Bertrand Russell, one of the greatest philosophers of our century, described how he achieved personal happiness: "Gradually 1 learned to be indifferent to myself and my deficiencies; I came to center my attention increasingly upon external objects: the state of the world, various branches of knowledge, individuals for whom I felt affection." There could be no better short description of how to build for oneself an autotelic personality. In part such a personality is a gift of biological inheritance and early upbringing. Some people are born with a more focused and flexible neurological endowment, or are fortunate to have had parents who promoted unselfconscious individuality. But it is an ability open to cultivation, a skill one can perfect through training and discipline. It is now time to explore further the ways this can be done."
16- "Even the simplest physical act becomes enjoyable when it is transformed so as to produce flow. The essential steps in this process are: (a) to set an overall goal, and as many subgoals as are realistically feasible; (b) to find ways of measuring progress in terms of the goals chosen; (c) to keep concentrating on what one is doing, and to keep making finer and finer distinctions in the challenges involved in the activity; (d) to develop the skills necessary to interact with the opportunities available; and (e) to keep raising the stakes if the activity becomes boring."
17- "To realize the body's potential for flow is relatively easy. It does not require special talents or great expenditures of money. Everyone can greatly improve the quality of life by exploring one or more previously ignored dimensions of physical abilities. Of course, it is difficult for any one person to reach high levels of complexity in more than one physical domain. The skills necessary to become good athletes, dancers, or connoisseurs of sights, sounds, or tastes are so demanding that one individual not have enough psychic energy in his waking lifetime to master more than a few. But it is certainly possible to become a dilettante—in finest sense of that word—in all these areas, in other words, to develop sufficient skills so as to find delight in what the body can do."
18- "But for a person who has nothing to remember, life can become severely impoverished. This possibility was completely overlooked by educational reformers early in this century, who, armed with research results, proved that "rote learning" was not an efficient way to store and acquire information. As a result of their efforts, rote learning was phased out of the schools. The reformers would have had justification, if the point of remembering was simply to solve practical problems. But if control of consciousness is judged to be at least as important as the ability to get things done, then learning complex patterns of information by heart is by no means a waste of effort. A mind with some stable content to it is much richer than one without. It is a mistake to assume that creativity and rote learning are incompatible. Some of the most original scientists, for instance, have been known to have memorized music, poetry, or historical information extensively."
19- "External forces are very important in determining which new ideas will be selected from among the many available; but they cannot explain their production. It is perfectly true, for instance, that the development and application of the knowledge of atomic energy were expedited enormously by the life-and-death struggle over the bomb between dited enormously by the life-and-death struggle over the bomb between Germany on the one hand, and England and the United States on the little to the war; it was made possible through knowledge laid down in more peaceful circumstances—for example, in the friendly exchange of more peaceful circumstances—tor example, in the friendly exchange of over to Niels Bohr and his scientific colleagues by a brewery in Copenhagen."
20- "The bad connotations that the terms amateur and dilettante have earned for themselves over the years are due largely to the blurring of the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic goals. An amateur who pretends to know as much as a professional is probably wrong, and up to some mischief. The point of becoming an amateur scientist is not to compete with professionals on their own turf, but to use a symbolic discipline to extend mental skills, and to create order in consciousness."
21- "At the same time, it would be erroneous to expect that if all ill jobs were constructed like games, everyone would enjoy them. Even the mos favorable external conditions do not guarantee that a person will 1 be in flow. Because optimal experience depends on a subjective evaluation of what the possibilities for action are, and of one's own capacities, it happens quite often that an individual will be discontented even with a potentially great job."
22- "A community should be judged good not because it is technologically advanced, or swimming in material riches; it is good if it offers people a chance to enjoy as many aspects of their lives as possible, while allowing them to develop their potential in the pursuit of ever greater challenges. Similarly the value of a school does not depend on its prestige, or its ability to train students to face up to the necessities of life, but rather on the degree of the enjoyment of lifelong learning it can transmit. A good factory is not necessarily the one that makes the most money, but the one that is most responsible for improving the quality of life for its workers and its customers. And the true function of politics is not to make people more affluent, safe, or powerful, but to let as many as possible enjoy an increasingly complex existence."
23- "Why are some people weakened by stress, while others gain strength from it? Basically the answer is simple: those who know how to transform a hopeless situation into a new flow activity that can be controlled will be able to enjoy themselves, and emerge stronger from the ordeal. There are three main steps that seem to be involved in such transformations: 1. Unselfconscious self-assurance...2. Focusing attention on the world...3. The discovery of new solutions."
24- "THE AUTOTELIC SELF: A SUMMARY - 1. Setting goals...2. Becoming immersed in the activity...3.Paying attention to what is happening...4. Learning to enjoy immediate experience."
25- "But complexity consists of integration as well as differentiation. The task of the next decades and centuries is to realize this underdeveloped component of the mind. Just as we have learned to separate ourselves from each other and from the environment, we now need to learn how to reunite ourselves with other entities around us without losing our hard-won individuality. The most promising faith for the future might be based on the realization that the entire universe is a system related by common laws and that it makes no sense to impose our dreams and desires on nature without taking them into account. Recognizing the limitations of human will, accepting a cooperative rather than a ruling role in the universe, we should feel the relief of the exile who is finally returning home. The problem of meaning will then be resolved as the individual's purpose merges with the universal flow."
It sounds simple but it is rather complex. The book is written by an intellectual and at times its seem for intellectuals. You have to pay attention otherwise you'd be like me when I had to re-read the paragraph for it to make it sense.
The premise is that for you to be happy-you have to overcome challenges and use your skills to do it. Flow and happiness are by-product of the task. But there is a delicate balance between the complexity of the challenge and the complexity of your skill. It have to be aligned. If one is greater then the other, then you will need to increase and improve your skills or lower the challenge. Only then, will flow exist. The author gives a few examples of this: a tribe in New Zealand moves every seven years as to give the tribe new trails, new enemies, new challenge for the happiness of the group. And he give examples of a culture that every year destroys a monument and re-builds it trying to make it better and more beautiful.
To achieve flow , there are clear rules that must be followed: The task must have clear goals and actions needed to overcome the obstacles. Immediate feedback is needed to see what you doing is working or not working. The challenge and the skills must be aligned but it has to stretch the person, it has be hard enough to do but not too hard where he will give up. Once the goal is met, a new goal needs to be set. Once, flow is established a few things happens, one time is distorted, you derived enjoyment in you life, the reward of life is established, and regardless if you have stress in your life or not, you bounce back and establish flow.
One question I had once, How can I apply this in my life? I have goals I have not reached. It begs the question, are the goals too unrealistic and complex or do I lack the skills to achieve and overcome the challenge. I think my conclusion is the latter so I have to find a way to increase and improve my skills.
My other takeaway is that the author states many times, that life is inherently hard , filled with stress and for him the admirable trait is one of perseverance, resiliency and of confidence. That becomes the challenge and few individuals are able to do this, he gives examples of veterans wounded in combat who attitude and resiliency are amazing and are able to achieve flow with positive and outstanding results. He says the trick is that one has to believe in themselves. The attitude is of a pilot who knows if he runs into problems , he can safely land the plane.
My last takeaway from the book, is that he repeats himself and in one of the reviews, it said it was a bad thing. When, actually for me is a good thing, he talks a lot of psychic energy and how is used. Psychic energy is what you pay attention to every day. It is limited and it has to be used wisely. He talks a lot of external and internal forces and how you cannot control external but you can control internal, the consciousness, the psychic energy, the attention and the positive attitude knowing you can do it regardless what hte external pressures are. He has a few favorite workers describing flow, the surgeon who challenge is obvious and so is his feedback, the operation was either a success or failure, the dancer who is totally absorbed in her performance, where time doesn't exit, the mountain climber who sees every little details in his quest to climb the mountain. The concentration is like breathing, they are not aware of it, an explosion could occur near by and they wouldn't be aware of it. He talks a lot about paradoxes, how you must change consciousness to achieve flow but by doing you lose your self, you become part of what you are doing- by being in control, you lose control and perfection and clarity occurs.
I really enjoyed the book, overall my recommendation is positive, However, there a one thing I wish I would have seen. I am a big fan of summaries and the last chapter didn't make sense to me, he talked about the meaning of life and different models of it. For me , it would have make more sense, to tie it up and give practical example how an average person could use flow, I understand he wrote, a seguel to Flow, maybe he explains in practical manner how to use flow in your life not how dancers, chess players, musicians and surgeons uses flow.
I do recommend Flow and you will see how you can use it in your own life.
Top reviews from other countries
Resolvi ler depois de ver que o livro era muito bem avaliado, mas me decepcionou em alguns aspectos:
1) O objetivo do livro NÃO é te ensinar a entrar em estado de fluxo. O autor fez diversos estudos sobre pessoas que alcançavam fluxo, ou seja, é mais descritivo. É interessante que ele traz a importância de como a forma como interpretamos os fatos da vida muda nossa relação com o mundo, mas, nesse aspecto, livros sobre Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental valem mais a leitura.
2) O livro é prolixo, muito longo em relação à quantidade de conteúdo que apresenta, o que torna a leitura pesada e nada fluida. De fato, não consegui entrar em estado de fluxo na leitura. Poderia em menos de 100 páginas ter apresentado todo o conteúdo.
3) Sinto que o livro falha ao não buscar ensinar caminhos para alcançar o estado de fluxo. Entendo que entrar em fluxo fazendo coisas que gostamos, como ouvir uma boa música, ler um livro interessante ou jogar um jogo envolvente é simples e natural.
4) O desafio para mim é conseguir ter prazer e entrar em fluxo naqueles livros árduos e de tema chato que tenho que ler para uma prova. Fazer atividades que não são prazerosas, mas necessárias, como cuidar da saúde, ter persistência para malhar diariamente. Se o livro buscasse ensinar como fazer essas coisas com mais naturalidade e prazer, seria para mim muito mais interessante.
Potreste trovare veramente la strada della felicità.
Uno dei libri più interessanti che abbia letto. Spiega perché ci sono momenti in cui stiamo benissimo e momenti proprio neri. Fa vedere quanto dipenda da noi la felicità e quanto poco dal mondo che ci circonda.
Non ci sono ricette preconfezionate su come vincere nello sport o guadagnare di più, ma un’acuta riflessione su come migliorare la nostra vita. Uno stimolo a rivedere i nostri valori e le nostre scelte.
Testo piacevole e scorrevole, limitato solo da un carattere di stampa molto piccolo. Se la vista non è più perfetta, meglio orientarsi sulla versione digitale.
Non è tradotto in italiano: richiede una conoscenza almeno scolastica della lingua inglese (e l’aiuto di WordReference).
Se avete superato il giovanile periodo delle grandi certezze e la saggezza del dubbio affiora nelle vostre menti, è il libro per voi.
Ovviamente 5 stelle.
P.S. Libro difficilmente utilizzabile per citazioni in pubblico: il nome dell’autore è impronunciabile.
I studies psychology in my undergrad, graduating with high Bs and As. So I was surprised that I had a hard time following this book. One much thinner than my textbooks.
Why I did not like the book:
- Have you hear about point-first writing style? It's basically a method to keep the reader engaged by revealing the point/conclusion of a written piece in the early sentences (of the chapter/paragraph) so that the reader would not have to go on a SCAVENGER HUNT for what the writer is trying to say! Seems like Mihaly is not very interested in this method... Why? Because every chapter is overfilled with examples, quotations, and scientific experiments. The over-explanation takes away what the author was trying to get to. There is just so much clutter that it it makes it hard for the reader to understand what the conclusion of the chapter or even the paragraph is!
- Be aware that this book does not give a specific, step-by-step plan for achieving a state of flow
- I don't agree that happiness = flow. There is more life to that to be honest. I don't mind being in "flow" when studying or working on tasks that I find boring, to have the time past faster per se. But the reality is, the concept does not work like that! So if you are purchasing the book to make your boring chores or student/work life easier, you may want to re-think your purchase.
I hope this was helpful! ¯\(ツ)/¯
Reviewed in the United Kingdom 🇬🇧 on July 4, 2022