- Hardcover: 208 pages
- Publisher: Oxford University Press; 1 edition (January 3, 2013)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 0199928355
- ISBN-13: 978-0199928354
- Product Dimensions: 8.4 x 0.9 x 5.7 inches
- Shipping Weight: 12.8 ounces (View shipping rates and policies)
- Average Customer Review: 41 customer reviews
- Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #714,146 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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Forged: Why Fakes are the Great Art of Our Age 1st Edition
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A Field Guide To 20th Century Art Forgers: by Jonathon Keats
Riccardo Riccardi and Alfredo Fioravanti
For nearly half a century, the Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibited several counterfeit statues of Etruscan warriors incompetently crafted by Riccardo Riccardi and Alfredo Fioravanti, two boys from a small town near Rome who had no idea what authentic Etruscan artifacts looked like. Despite the skepticism of outside experts, the oddly proportioned figures were kept on view in order to avoid institutional embarrassment, enshrining for several generations an arrestingly strange Etruscan aesthetic that never existed in ancient days.
Jean Charles Millet
The grandson of the Barbizon painter Jean-François Millet, Jean Charles Millet exploited the family name – and a stencil Jean-François had made for signing his paintings – by employing a deaf housepainter named Paul Cazot to copy his grandfather's canvases by the hundred. Charged with forgery, Millet defended himself in French court by saying he sold his fakes only to Americans and Englishmen, arguing that he couldn't be blamed for their ignorance. Eventually he was convicted, but only for passing bad checks.
Following the theft of the Mona Lisa in 1911, Leonardo's masterpiece was illicitly offered for private sale to six different collectors, each of whom received a copy painted by Yves Chaudron. The con worked because the collectors had all heard about the missing original, but each had to keep his illegal purchase secret. It would have been the perfect crime, if only it were real. Later research has shown that Chaudron himself was a fake, fabricated by the Saturday Evening Post journalist Karl Decker, a forger's forger.
Han van Meegeren
The eminent art historian Abraham Bredius believed that Vermeer once went through a religious phase, and that paintings from that period would eventually be discovered. Han van Meegeren helped Bredius to prove his theory by fabricating a Vermeer on a Biblical theme and having it submitted to Bredius for authentication. Though van Meegeren's painting bore no resemblance to authentic Vermeers in terms of content or quality, Bredius declared it a masterpiece. On the strength of that endorsement, van Meegeren made more 'Vermeers'. And the more of them he made, the more convincing all of them became as the growing body of work changed how people viewed Vermeer's actual paintings.
Hired to restore a Gothic church in the West German town of Lübeck in the 1950s, the art conservator Lothar Malskat exceeded expectations by discovering a whole cycle of medieval frescos. Only after two million postage stamps had been printed to celebrate the find did Malskat reveal that he'd made the murals himself, modeling his Biblical figures on school friends and movie stars. Even after the trial, the Lübeck government debated keeping the paintings, loathe to give up the town's newfound popularity with art enthusiasts. Some of the murals remain in place today, six decades after the scandal. Guidebooks don't mention they're fakes.
Elmyr de Hory
The storied life of Elmyr de Hory, master forger of paintings by Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso, is known primarily through a biography written by Clifford Irving in the late 1960s, a source that is questionable not only on account of de Hory's characteristic self-mythologizing – including a make-believe aristocratic upbringing – but also because of his biographer's next project: Irving's attempted forgery of Howard Hughes's memoirs. The combination of myth and mystery has made de Hory's known forgeries so highly collectable in their own right that de Hory copies are often now forged.
Frustrated as an artist, Tom Keating set out to prove the art world's stupidity by forging drawings and paintings by past greats ranging from John Constable to Amedeo Modigliani, in many cases including what he called "time bombs" – such as underpainting messages in lead white that would be revealed by x-rays – to flaunt the paintings' fraudulence years after they'd been bought. The British public embraced his anti-elitist cause following his eventual confession, garnering a large audience for his TV series teaching everybody how to paint like the masters: his ultimate revenge.
After he was convicted of counterfeiting modern masters including Pablo Picasso and Marc Chagall in the late 1960s, the French art forger David Stein began signing his own name to his fakes, and even having some of them featured as movie props in The Moderns. It was ideal cover for his ongoing illicit production of forgeries essentially identical to the paintings for which he was taking public credit.
Konrad Kujau made his living defrauding neo-Nazis and nostalgically fascist Germans by supplying them with memorabilia falsely attributed to Hitler, including nude paintings of Eva Braun, pages from an opera, and ultimately the Fuhrer's personal diaries, which were duly published in Stern. Many who were duped seem to have known it, deeming the money they gave Kujau a small price to pay for 'evidence' of Hitler's culture and humanity.
Counterfeiting drawings and paintings by old masters from Rubens to Brueghel, Eric Hebborn delighted in boasting about his achievements, publishing a handbook sharing his techniques for faking pigments, and claiming that numerous works in public collections were his creations. While some were, others he identified as fakes were genuine, though no amount of scholarship has fully overcome the taint of doubt.
"[A] succinct, intelligent, and very readably summary." --New York Review of Books
"For some time and in a wide variety of media, Jonathon Keats has been revealing himself to be one of the most witty, penetrating and deeply contemplative minds of this young century. In careful and skeptical depth, his work searches and researches the unrevealed truths that lie behind many things we take for granted. In this bold, typically irreverent work, Keats asks a basic and impertinent question: Can any legitimate artwork match the public impact and significance of a scandalous forgery? Whatever we decide, in the end we are aware that we've been in the midst of that rarest of presences these days: a wholly original mind capable of expressing itself with clarity, precision and humor."--Stanley Bing, columnist, Fortune Magazine
"Jonathon Keats's playfully learned volume is not only a history of modern art-faking but also a philosophical investigation of creativity and repetition in our era. It won't tell you how to forge, but it may convince you that you should." --John Dorfman, editor-in-chief, Art & Antiques
"According to Jonathon Keats, 'Forgers are the foremost artists of our age.' To which I might add, 'Keats's new book is about to become the foremost text on the compelling world of fakes and forgeries." - Richard Polsky, author of The Art Prophets and I Bought Andy Warhol
quote "it's a thoroughly engaging read, and there's plenty of trivia here for even the most well-read history buffs as Keats charts the march of art forgery throughout history. I feel like this is the book that'll kick off a thousand art history class discussions. As it should." San Francisco Book Review
"A compelling look at six forgers, their cunning techniques, and how the art world was fooled by them." Sunday Times (UK)
"this engaging polemic will edify and entertain many art enthusiasts." iLibrary Journal
"There are many books on art appreciation. Jonathon Keats has written the first one on art forgery appreciation. Keats not only presents a rogues's gallery of history's greatest forgers. He also poses--in lively and engaging prose--provocative questions about the nature of creativity and originality as well as providing many uncomfortable insights about the art market."--Dana Gioia, Judge Widney Professor of Poetry and Public Culture at the University of Southern California and former chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts
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The forgers portrayed in the book share particular traits. They tend to be people from modest educational and social circumstances who mastered difficult artistic techniques just in time to see them rendered obsolete by modernism and the nihilism that followed. They found demand for these services largely, if not exclusively, in the field of restoration, which in all cases led to falsification. Citing revenge as both motive and justification, they each established careers as gifted forgers, thieves in strictly legal terms. Justification typically is expressed as resentment or envy of an elite characterized by knowledge, money, or both. "Yes, I have cheated them, and they deserved to be cheated. That is my art."
But the crimes of these forgers pale in comparison to the post-modern artists we meet in the book. Relieved of the need for mastery of technique, they are free to concentrate solely on justification. And as Keats demonstrates in the third section of the book, it is all so easy to accomplish. All that is required is to assume the pose of the interlocutor. You simply explain whatever it is you are doing as "raising questions" about whatever subject matter comes to hand.
For example, Keats describes a project by Sherrie Levine in which she photographed pages of a book containing photographs by Walker Evans. According to Levine, this is not what it seems to the uninitiated, the laziness of someone with nothing original to say, but, rather, "A picture of a picture is a strange thing and it brings up lots of contradictions." In such vague and sophomoric fashion, elite artists are said to be questioning society about such things as the "boundaries of art," the nature of attribution," the relationship between past and present," or "the boundaries between subject and object" -- practically anything except, of course, the ability to compose an original photograph. Thus, they shift the burden of meaning from themselves to viewer. It is up to you to prove your worthiness by finding or assigning meaning to the naked act of photographing a photograph. The artist's job is to ask some vague question. If you cannot answer it, and thereby make a case that the act means something, you have proven once again why art is for the elite. Its a perverse form the the emperor's clothes with the emperor in on the ruse this time.
But the fraud of post-modernism really shines when Keats introduces us to a cadre of shallow thinkers posing as artists. J.S.G. Boggs draws facsimile bank notes that, we are told, "leverag[e] the absurdity or art to question the sanity of finance." Really? Define finance? Explain how its "sanity" is in question? What does "the absurdity or art" mean and what does that have to do with finance? It's all just gibberish, lazy and shallow pleas to those who equate finance with evil and don't want to think more about it than that. If bankers and governments are upset about the practice, that is enough.
And then we come to street art. Someone defaces a billboard and it "provokes pertinent questions: Who owns a city's visual space, the corporations who can buy it or the public who lives in it.?' By this anarchist logic, someone might feel justified in spray painting one's automobile, on the ground that it is part of a publicly-owned visual space. Or one's house. Or one's face.
Hacking is also art, again, because somehow it questions things. Someone highjacks a public WiFi spot and alters newspapers to reflect the political views of the hackers. Or hackers create a fake website purporting to represent the views of the Vatican, again, altered to reflect the political views of the hackers. The fact that the viewers were not asked to participate is apparently of no importance. What matters is the transmission of a political message characterized as questioning something or other. I suspect the Chinese Communist government may be way ahead of the hackers on this one.
Finally, we are invited to view genetic research as related to art -- someone generates frog steaks from a living frog and then serves them with the frog in attendance. I confess that I am simply not up to the task of seeing what is being questioned here except good taste, much less why this is art. I embrace my exclusion from this particular elite.
In sum, the stories of the six forgers are interesting and worth reading. Ultimately, I am not persuaded that their frauds constitute heroic acts of vengeance. They set out to deceive, they studied the most effective way of doing so, and they accomplished much in that regard, often muddying the waters of art history in the process. I do not agree with Keats that these acts have raised important questions about such things as attribution, culture, and the rest of it. Rather, they have raised questions about the security of markets and the reliability of certain indicia of authenticity. Producing a convincing painting in the style of an established master does not, to my mind, question the value or originality of that master. Rather, it plays to greed, arrogance, and the qualities that made that master respected in the first place. The question raised, it seems to me, is what the elites who have replaced those technique-driven forms with what has come after have to show for the effort. The book's answer to this question is, perhaps,well-summarized by the following passages:
"This avant guard tendency to ponder and parse what it means to be free, rather than acting on that freedom in any new way, is ubiquitous."
"The readymade liberated artists to incarcerate themselves in their own hall of mirrors."
Since I've read both Eric Hebborn's "Drawn to Trouble" and "The Art Forger's Handbook," I turned to the chapter devoted to him to see how Keats handled his career. I found his recital curiously slanted. To take just one example, Graham Smith, a vindictive ex-lover is cited to support a dubious claim, and then an ambiguous recollection by Geraldine Norman is cited as further support. Now, there is no doubt that Hebborn was both narcissistic and dishonest, but that has little to do with Keats' handling of the source material, and it makes me wonder about his handling of the other chapters.
I would give this two or three stars if it weren't for Part Three, but I don't think that it deserves more.
folks with a lot of money and the urge to pretend to have taste are waiting for a taking, a lot of remarkable counterfeiting is to be expected. Keats does a great job of using the crafts of forgery to help us understand how originality works and how imitations
can carry a lot of information and be very, very useful.