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The Forgotten People: Cane River's Creoles of Color Paperback – September 1, 1977
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I notice that cane river creoles are becoming increasingly popular... and some believe they are an accurate representation of all creoles of color across the board, the standards set in that family are not the same set in all families. In proclaiming their own identity... they would discredit anothers. They describe themselves as such an exclusive group... I am not disputing that for them. In many other places too there were similar communitites - but it wasn't always the case... so please take care when you make comments about "creoles" in general... or at least specify that you are talking about a specific group of people... i.e. the creoles of cane river vs the creoles of lafayette, new orleans, lac charles, new iberia... there are differences.
The Cane River families maintained their wealth and social standing through endogamous marriages with others within the mixed-race "free colored" caste as well as some placages between their women and men in the "white" caste. I found it very interesting that the first generation mulatto children of Pierre Thomas Metoyer and his African concubine were generally treated as free even before they were legally emancipated. Some of the Cane River son-in-laws were of mixed white/Indian ancestry and also labeled "free people of color." However, their sister was free to marry a man of the "white" caste and became socially "white" thereafter. Since the Cane River Creoles were planters with wealth based in slavery, the Civil War, emancipation, and end of Reconstruction caused them to lose not only wealth but social status within the racial caste system.