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Four Fish: The Future of the Last Wild Food Hardcover – July 15, 2010
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When the New York Times reported in June of 2010 that the US Food and Drug Administration was “seriously considering” approving a genetically modified Atlantic salmon for American consumption the cries from environmentalists and food reformers were, predictably, almost audible on the streets. The AquAdvantage® Salmon uses a “genetic on-switch” from a fish called an ocean pout (a very different animal) in combination with a growth gene from a Chinook salmon to achieve double the growth rate of the unmodified creature. The animal’s creator, AquaBounty Technologies of Waltham, MA asserts that the fish will be sterile and grown in out-of-ocean bio-secure containment structures. Nevertheless the emotional worry of genetic contamination of wild fish, the public preoccupation with health risks a modified salmon could pose, and just the overall ick-factor consumers seem to have about GMO food were all on display across the foodie and environmental blogosphere a few days after the Times article ran.
But, curiously, perhaps the loudest groan that I heard in response to the AquaBounty successes came from salmon farmers. “What I have been noticing over the years,” Thierry Chopin, an aquaculture researcher based in New Brunswick, Canada wrote me, “is that the aquaculture industry is not jumping to embrace what AquaBounty has been proposing.” For years salmon farmers have been waging a public relations war, trying to gain legitimacy as an industry that could be both profitable and produce more food for a hungry world. When a paper published in the journal Nature in 2000 revealed that it took more than three pounds of wild forage fish to grow a single pound of farmed salmon, the salmon industry responded through selective breeding, increased use of soy and other agricultural products and more efficient feeding practices to lower the wild fish use of farmed salmon to the point where some farms claim to have achieved a fish in-fish out ratio of close to 1 pound of wild fish for 1 pound of farmed salmon. When diseases like infectious Salmon Anemia and parasites like sea lice began to run rampant on salmon farms around the world, some regions, like the Bay of Fundy in Canada, instituted better fallowing and crop rotation practices and appear to have had some success in breaking disease and parasite cycles. But in spite of these improvements, a single mention of transgenic salmon in a major media outlet is enough to spoil whatever gains the industry has made in public perception. Indeed, many lay-people I talk with have the impression that transgenic salmon are already a regular part of the farmed salmon market, this despite the fact that there are still no transgenic salmon sold in the United States or anywhere else that I’ve encountered.
Don’t get me wrong. I sincerely do not believe that the salmon industry has solved its environmental problems. But I do think that it suffers an unfair association with the AquaBounty project and that genetic modification distracts from what investment and research really needs to address. The two biggest problems with farming salmon are:
1) Salmon are grown in sea cages, often anchored amidst wild salmon migration routes. This can cause the fouling of waters with wastes and the transmission of diseases and parasites to already seriously threatened and endangered stocks of wild salmon. Selectively bred fish regularly escape and some suggest they may interfere with the lifecycles of wild fish. Even worse, entirely different species of salmon are often raised in non-native environments. Atlantic salmon are regularly farmed in the Pacific and often escape.
2) Farmed salmon consume a huge amount of wild forage fish. Even though feed efficiency on a per fish basis has improved dramatically, salmon farming overall has grown so much that the per-fish efficiency has been all but erased by a much larger overall presence of salmon farming in the world. Atlantic salmon, once limited to the northern latitudes of the northern hemisphere, are now farmed on every single continent save Antarctica. It’s possible farmed salmon escapees may have even reached that most southerly redoubt. Salmon farms exist as far south as Patagonia, South Africa and Tasmania.
So what is the way forward and how do we deal with this transgenic issue? If I were tsar of all salmon farming and could redirect investment money at will, I might take all of those dollars that go into transgenic research and put that money into really confronting the problems that plague the industry. I might look to developing efficient, above ground, re-circulating aquaculture systems. These facilities allow fish to be grown in temperature-controlled environments without any interaction with the wild. Disease transfer and genetic pollution are greatly reduced if not eliminated altogether. Yonathan Zohar a professor and Chair of the Department of Marine Biotechnology at the University of Maryland Baltimore County's has created a test facility right in downtown Baltimore that grows an array of species and even manages to recycle the fish wastes into fuel-grade methane gas that can be used to run pumps or heat water. Though these systems are energy intensive the ability to build them in proximity to markets lessens food miles. Furthermore recirculating systems offer precisely controlled growing conditions and can bring fish to market in half the time as open sea cages.
I might also try to expand on the work of Thierry Chopin who is piloting a program of Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture or IMTA where mussels, edible seaweeds, and sea cucumbers are grown in conjunction with salmon in a complex polyculture. Rather than just trying to make an artificially efficient modified salmon, Chopin is trying to make a more efficient system where multiple crops radiate out from a single feed source. Because mussels, sea cucumbers and sea weed can all metabolize the wastes from salmon, they have a potential to neutralize and reuse the effluent that has plagued salmon farms in the past.
Another place I might put my salmon dollars would be the development of alternative feeds that are synthesized from soy and algae and might eventually obviate the need for using wild forage fish in salmon feed.
Finally, I might consider investing in a different fish altogether. Some critics of the aquaculture industry believe we should do away with the farming of salmonids altogether. But to my eye, there is a very entrenched market for salmon flesh and we might be better served finding a different salmon-like fish that has a smaller footprint. The most hopeful alternative I’ve come across is a fish called the arctic char. The arctic char is from the same taxonomic family as salmon, has pretty good feed conversion ratios, rich flesh, and most interestingly of all, because it frequently finds itself crammed into close quarters when its natural arctic lakes freeze, it has high disease resistance and takes extremely well to high stocking densities—densities that are necessary to make out-of-ocean aquaculture operations profitable. And this is exactly what’s happening with char. Most are grown in re-circulating, above ground tanks in Iceland and Canada.
Of course some people will never embrace a farmed solution for fish. There is a camp that feels very strongly that farmed fish are uniformly bad for the world and inferior on the plate. I have to confess that I don’t always share this opinion. Arctic char strike me as a good environmental compromise and to my palate, they’re pretty tasty.
From Publishers Weekly
Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Publisher : The Penguin Press; 1st edition (July 15, 2010)
- Language : English
- Hardcover : 284 pages
- ISBN-10 : 1594202567
- ISBN-13 : 978-1594202568
- Reading age : 18 years and up
- Item Weight : 1.15 pounds
- Dimensions : 6.7 x 1.07 x 9.4 inches
- Best Sellers Rank: #704,148 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
- Customer Reviews:
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The underlying premise is that globally we are overfishing. We are harvesting more fish every year than are produced. In some cases we have less than 10% of the fish that were there when commercial fishing started. This is obviously not sustainable.
For each of the four fish, the book discusses what attempts are being made to solve the problem, and the pros and cons of each method. Some advanced genetic techniques are working to a degree (implants that release hormones so that fish will spawn yearlong and not just all at the same time once a year, and breeding fish that can gain weight at quadruple the rate of the original versions, etc). A lot of people have tried farming the fish, some species are more successful than others.
Some of the fish are more sustainable than others, and Greenberg makes the case that we need to choose our “everyday” fish from the fish that are plentiful and easy to raise and which can turn a high percentage of their feed into pounds of meat, and to consider the other fish to be “special occasion” fish. For example, it can take over TWENTY pounds of feed for a bluefin tuna to produce one pound of meat. This is not a good trait for farmed fish, and it also makes tuna inappropriate as a main source of wild caught meals for us. Regular salmon takes up to six pounds of feed to produce a pound of flesh, while breeders have improved farmed salmon to the point where it takes as few as three pounds. This is obviously much better for the environment and the world of “fish as food”--and more sustainable. Yet, the amount of salmon consumed has doubled over the last 20 years, and we are not able to keep up with the demand. Sea bass also requires almost three pounds of feed for every pound of flesh.
Another way to solve this problem would be to select the fish we eat based on how easy they are to farm, and how efficiently they turn feed into flesh—to enable us to have the 2.2 billion pounds of fish that is consumed annually without depleting the resources.
Greenberg's book is compelling and concerning. Destined to become a classic like the iconic Cod!!
The goal of the book is to educate the reader on the pros and cons of wild versus domesticated fish. The author explores every conceivable viewpoint: farmed fish, the intermingling of farmed and domesticated fish, overfishing, genetic modification, fishing subsidies, catch limitations, no catch zones, regulations, etc.
I'm not a sushi lover, but I did try a spicy tuna roll after reading the section on tuna. I also found myself watching the show Wicked Tuna. My takeaway after reading the book is that if we don't make some radical changes soon, we could find ourselves in a situation where the demand outstrips the supply.
The author doesn't just spell out the many problems associated with demand and supply, he offers a number of well thought out solutions. One solution that made a lot of sense to me was switching to a fish more suitable to domestication called a Kona Kampache.
My concern is that many of the solutions the author suggests require government oversight. The problem I see is when you have governments and legislators who believe that regulations are bad or when the people who are responsible for the regulations don't rely on science and fact when making their decisions.
After finishing the book, I headed to a fancy seafood restaurant. I had the Ahi Tuna. My guest had the sea bass. Both were good. Both were expensive. No one has to worry about me consuming too much fish.
Top reviews from other countries
The subject matter is the overfishing of Salmon, Cod, Seabass and Tuna and the history of how these four fish became the frontline of humanity's marine dietry requirements. But make no mistake - this isn't purely an academic look at declining stocks. Nor is it a hysterical propaganda advocating the complete stop on all commercial fishing. Paul Greenberg's book is accessible to everyone and is a very measured, facsinating and important read. He is obviously a lover of the sea and all that is in it but - having spend a number of years fishing himself - he has a balanced and realistic view on the problem of the increase in the human population and it's effect on fish stocks. He looks at the fish farming industries and their effect not just from a stock point of view but also an ecological one. He debates differing ideas on prolonging the stock of these fish (and others) and has his own very valid thoughts on our future role as herders of fish stocks rather than blindly plundering what is there.
The chapter on bluefin Tuna is chilling - but then it should be. But even here Greenberg looks at what we can do to assist stocks and alternative sustainable solutions rather than suggesting an unrealistic ban on all tuna fishing.
Lively, witty, entertaining, sometimes sad but with an infective positive outlook from the planet's last wild food source - this is a great book and definitely worth reading.
Of course, fishing at even the current rate is unsustainable, and the result has been the crashing of stocks around the world. For the four species of Greenberg's book the response to demand outstripping supply has been ever more intense exploitation and the development of aquaculture - fish farming. Greenberg unpicks the problems with both approaches. The problem of overfishing is obvious, but fish farming doesn't fare much better. None of the four species under consideration is by nature a good candidate for domestication, and each of them present serious environmental and welfare problems. We are also left with the crazy situation where even salmon, highly selectively bred to be efficient growers, need to be fed three pounds of wild fish in order to produce one pound of salmon flesh for the table.
Greenberg's conclusion urges that fishing for wild fish should be done only by small-scale, highly environmentally aware local fisherman, and that fish farming needs to take a radically different approach to the one that has so far been popular. Rather than taking species with which we are already familiar, and trying to domesticate them, we should instead select species that are better candidates for domestication, and learn to eat them. This is already beginning to happen with barramundi, tilapia, tra and kahala - all of which are highly efficient producers of protein. Now what is needed is radical action, similar to that which ended whaling, to safeguard the future of many of our wild fish.
Books like this tend to be pessimistic, but Greenberg strikes some positive notes. The vastness of the ocean and the inherent ability of marine life to regenerate means it may not be too late, if only bold moves are made soon. In the meanwhile, this is the sort of book that all consumers of fish should read (and even if the only fish product you ever eat is a fish finger you are most definitely a fish consumer). It will probably put you off buying farmed salmon or sea bass, or a tuna steak or cod & chips, but that in itself is no bad thing. And if it encourages you to pick up a rod and go catch your own mackerel, then that would be no bad thing either, for as Greenberg demonstrates, there is no one who loves a fish so much as someone who has had the pleasure of catching one.
We are indeed spending our capital and not just living on the interest when it comes to sea life. Nature stock and diversity is being destroyed.
On the other hand, We need to eat, and it is inconceivable that we might have to ration, or, even more, go hungry in order to reduce the pace of destruction we are all responsible for.
The author gives us some solutions that are practical, realistic to solve the need to feed homo sapiens, and yet preserve sea life. Read it.
Paul Greenberg is a gifted writer who's enormous passion for his subject is matched by his understanding of the science, politics and economics of the issues.
Consumer choice is a powerful force that drives the economics of fishing practices and aquaculture. This book will inform the choices you make when you buy fish and, in doing that, will make a difference.