- Hardcover: 236 pages
- Publisher: Praeger (February 22, 1982)
- Language: English
- ISBN-10: 0313232474
- ISBN-13: 978-0313232473
- Product Dimensions: 6.1 x 0.6 x 9.2 inches
- Shipping Weight: 1.2 pounds (View shipping rates and policies)
- Average Customer Review: 1 customer review
- Amazon Best Sellers Rank: #18,829,824 in Books (See Top 100 in Books)
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However, psychoanalysis has previously influenced many variegated fields. Nevertheless, it has become customary for it to be relegated to the field of psychiatry and sparsely mentioned--let alone designated the esteem it has earned--in the university community. This is because of the preponderance of experimental psychology and its affinity for rats and labs, looking askance at psychoanalysis, and misinterpreting its more metaphorical aspects, because it doesn't believe the latter's findings can be replicated in a laboratory setting.
Australian psychologist Aubrey James Yates, Ph.D., wrote a book in 1962 entitled "Frustration and Conflict." Yates' text is not totally behavioral in scope, and so I'll let psychoanalytic definitions/references drop in wherever apropos throughout my review of his volume and allow one to ponder if there can be some common ground with psychoanalysis and brain science or the more experimental mode of psychology. His book has six chapters, of which I shall adumbrate some of the conclusions drawn from each, respectively:
Yates apprises the reader that he will be delving mainly the experimental, in lieu of the facets of frustration and conflict involving the clinical (which, asserts English born American psychoanalyst/psychiatrist Judd Marmor, M.D., in 'Dynamic Psychotherapy and Behavior Therapy Are They Irreconcilable?' from "Arch Gen Psychiatry" [January, 1971] that behavior therapists, through their expansive strategizing, have impacted dynamic psychotherapies by causing their practitioners to reevaluate their techniques and efficacy).
The author concedes that the topics from the chapters below were selected somewhat arbitrarily, and, because he wanted to exact broad conclusions gleaned from ample experimental evidence, he excluded that which he thought could not be objectively scrutinized, for instance, the issue of frustration and repression (defined as "...keeping something out of consciousness." ["Repression," Collected Papers, Vol. IV, Freud] from "Freud Dictionary of Psychoanalysis" , ed., by Hungarian born British/American psychologist-psychoanalyst/parapsychologist/journalist and lawyer Nandor Fodor, LL.D., Ph.D. & American writer Frank Gaynor).
FRUSTRATION AND FIXATION
Frustration is defined as "The blocking of an organism's path towards a GOAL whether this goal-seeking is conscious or unconscious."--"A Dictionary of Psychology" (revised), 1968, by British born psychologist James Drever, F.R.S.E. Fixation means, according to "A Critical Dictionary of Psychoanalysis" (1972) by English psychiatrist/psychoanalyst Charles Rycroft, M.B., "The process by which a person becomes...ambivalently attached...to an OBJECT...appropriate to an earlier stage of DEVELOPMENT." Further, "...FRUSTRATION...causes...fixation."
The work of American psychologist Norman Raymond Frederick Maier, Ph.D., is gone into. Maier finds fixations, which can be compulsive, permanent, specific, etc., are somewhat different from regular learned behavior. Yates says Maier describes two phases in psychotherapy: 'guidance'--wherein frustration should be 'relieved' by expression of frustration instigated behavior in a situation that is permissive and, albeit through punishment, relieves tension (kind of like Freudian catharsis, described below, but is differentiated from drive-reducing behavior).
FRUSTRATION AND AGGRESSION
Austrian born (dying in England) neuropathologist and psychoanalytic founder, Sigismund Schlomo Freud, M.D., LL.D., in his "A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis" (1920), called frustration "privation," saying that people "...fall ill in consequence of a 'frustration,' as...their symptoms are...substitutes for the missing satisfaction." Further, regarding, for example sexual impulses, he maintains they "...show a great capacity to change their object, to exchange it for another...more...attainable; this...displacement...must produce a...counter-effect to...frustration." Later he proclaims that "Conflict is produced by frustration...."
As for aggression, Austrian animal psychologist/zoologist/ethologist Konrad Zacharias Lorenz, M.D., Ph.D., in his work, "On Aggression" (1963), defined it as "...the fighting instinct in beast and man...directed AGAINST members of the same species." Later, and curiously, he admits one of the reasons for writing his book was that he finally found psychoanalysts utilizing Freudian theories as "...scientific...working hypotheses." And that, "...Freud's theories....of motivation revealed...correspondences between the findings of psycho-analysis and behavioral physiology...." Then, later, he remarks aggression was "...primarily species-preserving...." and, moreover, that "...Freud...first pointed out the essential spontaneity of instincts....also...lack of social contact, and...deprivation of it...were among the factors...predisposing...aggression. However, the conclusions which many American psychologists drew from this correct surmise were erroneous."
It was American psychologist/professor/psychotherapist Orval Hobart Mowrer, Ph.D.--psychoanalyzed during three periods, the last in 1944-5 by Austrian born American lawyer and analyst (and member of Freud's Inner Circle) Hans Sachs--who, at the Yale (University) Institute of Human Relations, New Haven, Connecticut, which was designed to blend psychology, psychoanalysis (eventually believing only depression and neurotic symptoms were suited to analysis) and the social sciences, undertook an extensive study of aggression with fellow Americans, who also spent time at Yale, namely:
Social psychologist Leonard William Doob, Ph.D.;
Clinical/child psychologist Robert Richardson Sears, Ph.D., who investigated operational definitions and did experimental, empirical tests on psychoanalytic concepts, and who wrote 'Survey of Objective Studies of Psychoanalytic Concepts' in "Social Science Research Council Bulletin 51" (1943) to bring concepts of analysis to the psychology mainstream (believed analysis too idiographic; but thought that many of its clinical concepts could be affirmed through experimentation; but, it's been said, he confounded clinical with metapsychological classification);
Psychologist John Dollard, Ph.D. (sociology), who trained at the Berlin Institute of Psychoanalysis in the early 1930s; and was analyzed by Sachs, as well;
And psychologist Neil Elgar Miller, Ph.D., who was a student of Hull (below) and once a social science research fellow at the Viennese Institute of Psychoanalysis, 1935-6.
Yates claims that the observations of Freud (1920) and Dollard and Miller (1939), et al, contributed to what is known as "the frustration-aggression hypothesis," wherein one can basically assume that aggression always occurs because of frustration and, further, that the former behavior always presumes the prevalence of frustration. The latter researchers endeavored to explain/translate psychoanalytic concepts of the former, like unconscious secondary drives, such as fear and anxiety--which they believed was learned and therefore modifiable through instrumental conditioning--into behavioral/scientific terms a la American behavioral/experimental psychologist Clark Leonard Hull, Ph.D., with his analysis of behavior stemming from psychoanalysis. In fact, in 1933, Hull had planned a book on higher mental processes, a topic proposed for it entitled "Psychopathology and Freudian psychology, the emotional and instinctive life"!
And, keep in mind that Hull--the intellectual stimulus galvanizing the aforementioned in the Yale Institute--originally believed that the major factor of learning was drive reduction, but later revised his position to explain that the principle behind learning was drive stimulus reduction and secondary reinforcement; the stimulus-response learning approach, then.
One of the the quintessential aspects of the frustration-aggression hypothesis is the object of acts of aggression, embracing several facets; one of them, "response generalization." Essentially, it can be a direct generalization, that is, whenever the person aggresses against the frustrating obstacle, the same stimulus causing the action can be spread or generalized to other acts, i.e., from physical to verbal. Then there is no concern of inhibition via the anticipation of a punishment. If the latter does happen, when the direct act of aggression could be undertaken, a generalized response can possibly occur--much like the inhibited one and is now termed "displacement" (defined in "Psychiatric Dictionary"  by American psychiatrists Leland Earl Hinsie, M.D. and Robert Jean Campbell, M.D. as, "...Transference of the emotions...from the original ideas to which they are attached--to other ideas." Moreover, "...in psychoanalysis that psychic energy may exist as an entity...that...possesses a certain autonomy"). Yates states that Hull and the Yale school had an affinity for the concept of displacement.
Another aspect of the frustration-aggression hypothesis is catharsis, which, according to Rycroft (from same source for FIXATION definition) is, "...the therapeutic effect of ABREACTION"; and, abreaction meaning, to the aforementioned, "The DISCHARGE of EMOTION attaching to a previously repressed experience...." Once aggression is enacted, there is a reduction in the instigation to aggression. Yates says Dollard and others involved, probably imply that the act of aggression will succeed in delivering injury to its object.
FRUSTRATION AND REGRESSION
Regression is defined, in a psychoanalytical context, as: "Reversal of psychosexual development....back to the protective shell of...babyhood and...beyond...society's demands, constructs his own...satisfying world of fantasy...he can rule...."--"The Layman's Dictionary of Psychiatry" (1967) by Americans, psychiatrist/neurologist James Arnold Brussel, M.D. and writer George La Fond Cantzlaar.
Yates talks about Sears (above), who describes four forms of aggression: one of them being "drive regression" - switching of the object fixation and erogenous zone originally the source of pleasure, i.e., sexually frustrated husband going from wife to mother and to an earlier stage of Freudian (as above) psychosexual development.
Means "the simultaneous occurrence of two or more mutually antagonistic impulses or motives...."--"Dictionary of Psychology" (revised), 1975, by American psychologist James P. Chaplin, Ph.D. Discussed here is Alexander Romanovich Luria, with degrees in psychology, medicine and education, who was a neuropsychologist (developing the clinico-anatomical or "dynamic localization" method utilized by neuroscientists, referred to in the opening) and developmental psychologist from Russia (there creating the Kazan Psychoanalytic Association; his earliest research entailing efforts to ratify objective methods of assessing Freudian ideas of abnormal thought). He extended the technique of word-association by former pupil of Freud's and founder of analytical psychology, Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung, M.D., as that which indicates conflict by introducing a method that measures any motor disturbances that indeed accompany conflict.
FRUSTRATION, CONFLICT, LEARNING THEORY, AND PERSONALITY
In this, the last chapter, frustration and its relationship to conflict, learning theory, achievement, and its tolerance vis a vis personality are covered. Be reminded that Freud postulated the first theory of personality.
"Frustration and Conflict" by Aubrey J. Yates takes one back back to the Yale School of psychology explaining, what else, frustration and its relation to conflict, and, if we let it into class, possibly a connection with introspectionism and experimentalism. Consider this book, where psychoanalysis visits "the brotherhood that walked and weaved wonderlust from their being."