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The Global Spread of Fertility Decline: Population, Fear, and Uncertainty Hardcover – June 18, 2013
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This incisive study explores population movements and declining fertility in China, India, Japan, and North America in the 21st century, suggesting that politics, in addition to cultural and economic concerns, must be included as a prime determining factor in these powerful global trends.
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Further, it was possible to see that demographics has never been a back-burner issue anywhere. Up-front, and authoritarian forces all over the world have attempted to control, or mitigate, country problems with the production of new humans. Finally, the visceral reactions of ethnicities to the loss of their populations requires new thinking on where we get and why we have our prejudices and racist attitudes.
Countries that try to use immigration, including illegal immigration, for child and elderly care rather than acknowledging paternal/male personal responsibility for children and the elderly and reforming policies (such as the huge taxpayer and debt-financed subsidies in the US to men to neglect their children and any unpaid work, which have increased during each of the Bush and Obama Administrations) suffer steep declines in fertility in the citizen population (such as below 1.5), but those that acknowledge paternal responsibility raise theirs back up (to about 2 or so in the countries that have done this, through a variety of methods; some methods of acknowledgment of this work better than others).
It's interesting that Germany, Japan and Italy, the three Axis countries of WWII in 2014 all have fertility rates below 1.4 - much lower than many of the countries that have adjusted to/reformed policies to acknowledge paternal personal responsibility for children and the elderly.
The authors give some misinformation about "jus sanguinis" citizenship (i.e. the requirement that a child is not a citizen unless one or both his/her parents are and that it is not enough just to be born on the soil of the country, which is called "jus soli" citizenship). Jus soli is a Roman Empire concept and not as common in countries outside that scope. It is not just a German thing (while Germany did use to be a base of the Holy Roman Empire, it was also, of course, a base of the Reformation). All the Scandinavian countries have long had a jus sanguinis (or parental link) requirement, and in recent years, a number of countries that didn't have it, have added a parental link requirement. Australia, Ireland, India, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malta, and the Dominican Republic have all repealed "jus soli" citizenship.
The right wing efforts to control women - as well as some of the global religion-based violence and conflict - are likely a reaction to this decline in fertility and to paternity becoming provable (the ideologies of the religions are based in not being able to prove this and so they go into crisis). Among some populations of US citizens, such as white, Asian and black citizens, the fertility rate was in 2012 below 1.8 (below 1.7 for whites); it has dropped markedly (by about 0.15) in even just the last few years. Latino fertility rates in the US are still 50% higher than in Mexico (where they went from 6.8 in 1970 to about 2.3 today), although they have also dropped a little bit in the last few years. Stay-at-home motherhood has also increased, from 20% to 29% since 2000 (including an increase of 3% since Obama took office); stay-at-home mothers are significantly more (as much as 50% more) likely to have a high school education or less, be Latino, and be in poverty than other mothers.