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God's Jury: The Inquisition and the Making of the Modern World Hardcover – January 17, 2012
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Amazon Exclusive: A Q&A with Author Cullen Murphy
Q: Why the Inquisition—and why now?
A: This question gets to the very heart of the book. We’ve all heard of the Inquisition—and we all remember the Monty Python line, "No one expects the Spanish Inquisition"—but we tend to think of it as something safely confined to the past, something "medieval" that in an enlightened age we’ve moved far beyond. But that’s exactly the wrong way to think about the Inquisition. Rather than some throwback, it’s really one of the first “modern” institutions. This attempt by the Catholic Church to deal with its enemies, inside and outside, made use of tools that hadn’t really existed before, tools that have only improved and that are part of our lives today.
Q: Like what?
A: Well, let’s start with what an inquisition is: it’s a disciplinary effort designed to enforce a particular point of view, and it’s built in such a way that it can last for a long time—in this case, for centuries. To last for a long time you need to have some sort of functioning bureaucracy. You need to have trained people—"technocrats," we might call them today—who can run the machinery, and you need to be able to keep training new people. You need to be able to watch and keep track of individuals, know what they think, collect and store information, and then be able to put your hands on the information when you need it—you need what today we’d call search engines. And you need to be able to exert control over ideas you don’t like—in a word, censorship. It’s quite a feat of organization. We take these kinds of capabilities for granted today. With the Inquisition, you can watch them being invented.
Q: Go back to the beginning and fill us in—when did the Inquisition start, and why?
A: Over a period of about seven hundred years, there were many Inquisitions mounted under Church auspices, and they varied in intensity from era to era and place to place. That said, you can divide the Inquisition into three basic phases. The first of them, called the Medieval Inquisition, is usually given a starting date of 1231, when the pope issued certain founding decrees. It was mainly concerned with Christian heretics, especially in southern France, whom the Church saw as a growing threat. Then, in the late fifteenth century, came the Spanish Inquisition. It was run by clerics but effectively controlled by the Spanish crown, not by the pope, and its main targets were Jews and to a lesser extent Muslims. After that, in the mid-sixteenth century, came the Roman Inquisition, which was run from the Vatican, and was mainly concerned with Protestants. This is a very simplified outline. And all kinds of people were caught up in the Inquisition’s machinery—Jews and heretics, yes, but also witches, homosexuals, rationalists, and intellectuals.
Q: How did the Inquisition work?
A: In the early days inquisitors would arrive in a particular locale and ask people to come forward to confess their misdeeds or to point the finger at others. Because there was a "sell by" date—anyone who came forward by a certain time would be treated with lenience—a dynamic of denunciation was set into motion. Interrogation was at the center of the inquisitorial process—hence the Inquisition’s name. The accused was not told the charges against him or the names of the witnesses. The questioning often made use of torture. Detailed records were kept. Most of those who came before tribunals received sentences short of death—for instance, they had to wear a special penitential gown for a year or two. But tens of thousands were burned at the stake for their beliefs. In all, hundreds of thousands of people passed through the tribunal process. The psychological imprint on society would have been profound. And as time went on, the Inquisition in some places became a fixture, with its own buildings and with officials in permanent residence. In some places, the networks of informers were complex and dense.
Q: Burning at the stake frankly doesn’t seem all that contemporary. Why do you say that the Inquisition is essentially "modern"?
A: I’ll start by asking a different question: why was there suddenly an Inquisition when there hadn’t been one before? After all, intolerance, hatred, and suspicion of the "other," often based on religious and ethnic differences, had always been with us. Throughout history, these realities had led to persecution and violence. But the ability to sustain a persecution—to give it staying power by giving it an institutional life—did not appear until the Middle Ages. Until then, the tools to stoke and manage those omnipresent embers of hatred did not exist. Once these capabilities do exist, inquisitions become a fact of life. They are not confined to religion; they are political as well—just look at the totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Or, on a far lesser scale, the anti-communist witch hunts. The targets can be large or small. An inquisition impulse can quietly take root in the very systems of government and civil society that order our lives.
Let’s think about those tools—the ability to put people under surveillance; to compile records and databases, to conduct systematic interrogations, to bend the law to your needs, to lodge your activities in the hands of a self- perpetuating bureaucracy, and to underpin all this with an ideology of moral certainty. The modern world has advanced far beyond the medieval one on all these fronts. Look at what governments can do when it comes to listening in on private conversations, or what corporations can do to distill personal information from the Internet, or what law enforcement can do on a hint of a suspicion.
Q: In the wake of 9/11, torture has certainly made a comeback.
A: Yes, it has, and it has done so for the same reason it always does: when the stakes seem very high, and when the people who want to do the torturing believe fervently that their larger cause has the full weight of morality on its side, then all other considerations are irrelevant. If you’re absolutely certain that your cause is blessed by God or history, and that it’s under mortal threat, then in some minds torture becomes easy to justify. The Inquisition tried to put limits on torture, but the limits were always pushed. Thus, if the rules said you could torture only once, you could get around that obstacle by defining a second session of torture as a "continuance" of the first session.
That’s how it is with torture—once it’s deemed permissible in some special situation, the bounds of permissibility keep being stretched. There’s always some desired piece of information just beyond reach, and there’s always the hope that one more little turn of the screw will secure it. The Bush administration pushed the limits not only in practice but also in theory. In its view, an act wasn’t torture unless it caused organ failure, permanent impairment, or death. Ironically, that’s a far narrower definition than what the Inquisition would have accepted. The Inquisition understood that torture began well short of that threshold—and if it was reached, it had to stop.
"Cullen Murphy's account of the Inquisition is a dark but riveting tale, told with luminous grace. The Inquisition, he shows us, represents more than a historical episode of religious persecution. The drive to root out heresy and sin, once and for all, is emblematic of the modern age and a persisting danger in our time."
--Michael J. Sandel, author of Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do?
"From Torquemada to Guantanamo and beyond, Cullen Murphy finds the 'inquisorial Impulse' alive, and only too well, in our world. His engaging romp through the secret Vatican archives shows that the distance between the Dark Ages and Modernity is shockingly short. Who knew that reading about torture could be so entertaining?"
--Jane Mayer, author of The Dark Side.
"God's Jury is a reminder, and we need to be constantly reminded, that the most dangerous people in the world are the righteous, and when they wield real power, look out. At once global and chillingly intimate in its reach, the Inquisition turns out to have been both more and less awful than we thought. Murphy wears his erudition lightly, writes with quiet wit, and has a delightful way of seeing the past in the present."
--Mark Bowden, author of Guest of the Ayatollah
"When virtue arms itself - beware! Lucid, scholarly, elegantly told, God’s Jury is as gripping as it is important."
--James Carroll, author of Jerusalem, Jerusalem
"There will never be a finer example of erudition, worn lightly and wittily, than this book. As he did in Are We Rome?, Cullen Murphy manages to instruct, surprise, charm, and amuse in his history of ancient matters deftly connected to the present."
--James Fallows, National Correspondent for The Atlantic
"The Inquisition is a dark mark in the history of the Catholic Church. But it was not the first inquisition nor the last as Cullen Murphy shows in this far-ranging, informed, and (dare one say?) witty account of its reach down to our own time in worldly affairs more than ecclesiastical ones."
-- Margaret O'Brien Steinfels, former editor, Commonweal
Top customer reviews
Most people think of the Inquisition in terms of the Spanish Inquisition that started under Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to rid their nation of Jews and Muslims (and enrich the monarchy with confiscated property). But Murphy elightens readers with information on the Inquisitions that came before and after the Spanish Inquisition. In the Midieval Inquisition, the Church sought to stamp out heretics in the form of Cathars in France and in the Roman Inquisition the Church went after heretics not only in Roman, but around the world (including Mexico and other other New World locations).
God's Jury: The Inquisition and the Making of the Modern World makes for a fascinating overview of such a pivotal era of history and Murphy has a gift for presenting the information in a clear and very readable style. The only problem I have with the book is the second half of its subtitle, "and the Making of the Modern World." I have a hard time forcing myself to go where Murphy goes in drawing connections between the Inquisitions and Guantanamo and the war on terror. While I can see his point and even sympathize with it, I just can't bring myself to make the leap of faith required to connect a religious inquisition with a secular one. Perhaps Murphy comes across a bit too heavy-handed for my taste.
Granted, our move toward a surveillance state as a result of the war on terror makes for a dramatic modern background, but it's always seemed to me that America came must closer to its own Inquisition during the McCarthy era with its hearings and public denunciations. But the references for McCarthy in God's Jury - all made in passing - can be counted on one hand.
Despite my personal opinions on the dangers of America's own "inquisitional instincts," I still find myself wanting to recommend God's Jury to readers interested in the Inquisition and its impact on today's world.
Along the way are fascinating discussions of the roles the printing press and vernacular bibles played in spreading free thought and heretical ideas; the creation of the Index of Forbidden Books; the bureaucratic structures and record-keeping of the office of the Inquisition; the interrogation and torture methods used by inquisitors; the rationales for purging dissenters and supposed witches; differing views about the motivation for expulsion of the Jews from Spain; and the spread of the Inquisition to new world colonies and its role in power struggles between natives and colonial rulers, secular settlements and church authorities.
“God’s Jury” is learned but not academic, so the general reader should be able to comprehend it easily. Murphy interviews current Catholic clerics and historians who add perspective to the church’s motives and methods. Ultimately, he shows how the legacy of the Inquisition is alive today, even in the United States. Like the Inquisition, our government allows detention without trial. It publishes detailed interrogation and torture guides and tortures individuals to procure information and confessions. It rationalizes the use of extra-legal methods for security purposes and keeps meticulous written, audio and video recordings of interrogations and torture. It exhibits the certitude and bureaucratic inertia that kept the Inquisition active for centuries. Murphy doesn’t come off as a radical trying to indict the US; his tone is scholarly and dispassionate. That made his book quite an eye-opener for this reader.
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