In the year 800, Pope Leon III crowned Charlemagne as (Holy Roman) Emperor. For the next 1,000 years, Europe was ruled by families – institutions came later. This edifice started to crumble in 1806, when Napoleon “mediatised” most of the smaller territories. By 1918, the three great empires of Germany, Austria and Russia had been swept away and, with them, most of those monarchies which had survived. We believe this is the most complete register of most of these families, complete with their histories, coats-of arms (in colour) and family trees to indicate their present situation. Volume I: Historical Notes, Ruling Families, ex-Ruling Families, Original Grandees of Spain, Holy Roman Emperors and Bibliography. Volume II: Princes and Dukes, A-F. Volume III: Princes and Dukes, G-O. Volume IV: Princes and Dukes, P-Z. Some of the titles of Prince and Duke have become extinct. Where we believe the family still exits, we have made an entry, sometimes without any details at all. This applies especially to those of Italian origin, which were accorded by Emperors, Kings or Popes and which account for around half of the 800 listed in this section. We have also listed family names and secondary titles, where possible.